1 to read and understand. List of

1ABSTRACTThe present paper is to analyze the literal translation in the short story “???????? ??????????”.

The paper aims to point out literal translation at word level, phrase level, clause level and sentence level by using Newmark’s (1988) framework of literal translation in both qualitative and quantitative methodology .The findings in this paper show the use of literal translation in the word, phrase, clause and sentence levels. Although the writer has used many literal translation, the story still seems smooth or easy to read and understand.List of TablesTable 4.1 Analysis of literal translation at word level in “Eyes” and “???????? ??????????”Table 4.2 Analysis of literal translation at phrase level in “Eyes” and “???????? ??????????”Table 4.3 Analysis of literal translation at clause level in “Eyes” and “???????? ??????????”Table 4.4 Analysis of literal translation at sentence level in “Eyes” and “???????? ??????????”Table 5.

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1 Table of Frequency and Percentage of Literal Translation at Each Level Used in “???????? ??????????”Figure 5.1 Pie Chart shown by Percentage at each level1. IntroductionIn this section, the introduction of the paper is discussed. According to Larson (1984) “A literal translation is a translation that follows closely the form of the source language”. Peter Newmark (1988), in his “A Textbook of Translation”, to him “Literal translation is the first step of the translation” (p.

76) or “the most important of the procedures” (p. 81). Since there are many languages spoken or written all over the world, translation became more important as it is the only way to fill the gap between two different languages. And people nowadays tend to favor of reading literature because it can make them know the cultural or tradition of the others, so literal translation have also plays in a vital role.

In this study, the literal translation of the short story “A Chit Mhar Myat Si Shi Ei” by Mya Than Tint is going to analyze.1.1 Background of the StudyThe word translation comes from a Latin meaning “to bring” or “to carry across”. Another term for literal translation is metaphase first used by Philo Judaeus (20 BC). Quintilian uncovered a significance between metaphase which changes a word and paraphrase which changes a phrase. The translation style has remained as a major theory in that early history. Recognition of literal translation can be seen in 1862 when Young’s Literal Translation (YLT), an extremely literal translation to English that tries to preserve the tense and word usage in original Greek and Hebrew language.

Literal translation ranges from one word to one word, group to group, collocation to collocation and sentence to sentence. This study focuses on the literal translation style (words, phrases, clauses, sentences) included in short story ,” The Eyes” written by KT Muhammed and translated by Sayar Mya Than Tint, one of the most famous translator in Myanmar.1.2 Aim and objectives of the studyThe aim of the paper is to study literal translation in the short story “???????? ??????????” translated by Mya Than Tint. With its aim, there are objectives as follow:-to identify literal translation in the short story at word level-to identify literal translation in the short story at phrase level-to identify literal translation in the short story at clause level -to identify literal translation in the short story at sentence level1.3 Research QuestionsTo achieve the aim and objectives, in this term paper, the following research questions will be answered. Are there any difficulties in reading translated text due to literal translation? Does the translator use literal translation at word level?Does the translator use literal translation at phrase level?Does the translator use literal translation at clause level?Does the translator use literal translation at sentence level?1.4 Scope of the studyThe scope of the study emphasizes the form-based translation (literal translation) used in “??????????????????” which is translated by Mya Than Tint concerning literal translation at word level, phrase level, clause level and sentence level.

1.5 Authors’ BiographiesK.T.Muhammed, famously known as KT, the eldest son of a policeman, was born in Manjeri, India on 29 September, 1927. He was one of the famous play-writers and had written 40 stage plays.

Among them, Idhu Bhumiyanu (This is the Earth) can be said one of his masterwork. In 1952, he won the first prize in an all India short story competition with his story Kannukal (The Eyes). The reason he named like that was in the story, people around the main character judged him only by his appearances. He was an energetic member of Brothers Music Club and worked as an editor of Chithrakarthika for a short period.

In 1974, he was appointed as a Chairman of Kerala State Film Development Corporation. Zeenath and his relation were ended in divorce but they had a son called Jithin. KT died on 25 March 2008 in Pavangad, Kozhikode, India at the age of 80.Sayar Mya Than Tint who is one of the best writers ever in Myanmar. He was born on 23 May 1929 in Myaing, Pakkokku Township, Magway Division, Myanmar. His parents were U Paw Tint and Daw Hlaing.

He was the first son for his parents and had six siblings. His first ever short novel was called “Refugee” and, Tara Magazine published it (No.21, Vol. 3, 1949). Sayargyi Mya Than Tint published many good short and great novels, vivid documentaries and proficient translated works during the 50 year of his writing career.

Among the books he had written, Dartaung Ko Kyaw Ywei, Mee Pin Le Ko Hpyat Myi (Across the Mountain of Swords and the Sea of Fire) was considered as the greatest masterpiece. Moreover, he wrote historical documentaries like “Breeze over Taungthaman Lake”. He was a greatest translator in translating the Western literature into Burmese.

He won the Myanmar National Literature Award five times for translation for the books “War and Peace” (1972), “Gone with the Wind” (1978), “Dream of the Red Chamber” (1988), “City of Joy” (1992) and “Beyond Love” (1995). He died at age 68 in Yangon of a brain hemorrhage on February 1998.662.

Literature ReviewIn this section, definition of translation, translation procedures, literal translation and previous researches are discussed. 2.1 Definition of translationTranslation is the art of translating the words from a source language to a target language. The target language may be one or sometimes more than one. In the work of translation, it has two categories which can be called as ‘process’ and ‘product’. The Dictionary of Translation Studies by Shuttleworth with Cowie publishing in 1997 draws out a distinction between process and product. The first one concentrates on the function of the translator taking the text from the original language and changing it into the target language.

The second one focuses on the particular translation product sent out by the translator. As the world becomes more globalized, the art of translation becomes not only more widespread but also more useful. Therefore, there is no doubt that translation give a great help to people.2.

2 Translation proceduresTranslation procedures are very useful for the translators to apply for sentences and the smaller units of language. Peter Newmark (1988) states nineteen translation procedures which cover all the features in translation.1.

Literal TranslationIn literal translation, the grammatical structure of a SL is converted to nearest that of TL except the lexical words which are translated singly. For example, the word “doctor” is translated as “??????”.2. TransferenceTransference is the process of transferring a SL word to a TL text which includes transliteration. Names of all living and dead things, that of people, that of geography and topography, that of periodicals and newspaper, title of work, street names etc., are translated normally. Therefore, this procedure is used when there is lack of vocabularies of TL.

3. NaturalizationNaturalization is the process that succeeds transference and can adapt to the normal pronunciation of the SL. For example, “dahlia” is translated as “??????????”.4.

Cultural EquivalentCultural equivalent is the process where a SL word is translated almost accurately to a TL text. Its main purpose is to support or add supplement to another translation procedures in a couplet. 5. Functional EquivalentIt is a mutual procedure which is used for cultural words. Actually, it is deculturalizing of a cultural word.

As not every language has exactly same technical terms or proverbs, financial equivalent is required to adjust meaning between SL language or TL language or culture as close as possible .For example, “United Nations” is translated in the TL as “??????????????????”.6. Descriptive Equivalent This procedure focuses mainly on descripting the cultural words rather than on its function.7. SynonymyThis is for reaching near TL equivalent from a SL word. It is useful when a precise equivalent may or may not exist, there is no clear one to one translation and literal translation is impossible.8.

Through-Translation This is the literal translation of the universally known like organizations’ names, components of compounds and phrases. For example,” World Trade Organization” is translated into TL as “???? ????????????????????? “.9. Shifts or TranspositionA shifts or transposition is a translation procedures which includes grammar changes from SL to TL. Transposition can be changing from singular to plural, in position of the adjective, neural adjectives as subject or complex sentence to simple sentence and most translators make it intuitively.10. Modulation According to Vinay and Darbelnet, modulation is a translation procedure which is a change of viewpoint, perspective and thought.

Moreover, it is also a change in part for a whole, active for passive or vice versa or change of symbols.11. Recognized Translation In recognized translation procedure, we must use the official or the generally accepted translation of any institutional term. We can use it, if relevant but it will show our disagreement to the original version indirectly.12. Translation Label This is a temporary translation, usually of a new institution term, which can later be used and must be made in inverted commas and can be used in literal translation.13. CompensationCompensation procedure is to make up for the loss of meaning of S.

T by creating similar effects in another part of sentences or by some other ways in T.T.14.

Componential analysisComponential analysis procedure is the way of breaking up the words into its related components, e.g. “ox” into “male” and “animal”. 15. ReductionReduction procedure is the kind of reducing the number of words that form the S.

T when translating into T.T. The translator should be more careful that no crucial information is left in translation.16. ExpansionExpansion procedure is also an imprecise translation like reduction procedure. It is the kind of adding some words for T.

T.17. ParaphraseThis is the procedure that explain the meaning of original text in different structure and different words especially when important message is omitted or implicated.18.

CoupletsThis procedure happens when the translator uses two or more procedures. This is commonly used for cultural words.19.

Notes, addition, glossesThe author uses this procedure to add information about the cultural or technical words that are related to his translation. If the information is added within the text, the procedure is called addition. If the information is added at the bottom of the page, it is called notes. If the information is given at the end of the chapter or the book, it is called glosses.

2.2.1 Literal translationLiteral translation is a kind of translation which is based on form rather than the sense and actual meaning of the source language. Hence, it is also termed as ‘form-based’ translation. It is also defined as the absolutely exact translation of the source text without considering its style, grammar and organization.

Exactly, it is a form-targeted and text-emphasized translation. According to Peter Newmark (1988), literal translation ranges from one word to one word, group to group, clause to clause and sentence to sentence. Literal translation enhances the rate of language errors especially in some sharp and compact usages such as idioms, sayings, and quotes.

Literal translation (LT) also does not reproduce actual sense of literary work (poetry, novels, story, etc.) Not only deviation in meaning but also result in ungrammatical form and so miscommunication as a consequence can be occurred.Another term for literal translation is metaphase. It is also convinced as a technical translation because it is crucial for translating technical, scientific, legal, business and medical text. For example, it is needed for a patent which is a long, exactly worded legal definition of an invention. Hence, definitely translating conveyed by words is a great assist here. There is no doubt that it is a factual translation and data oriented translation.

Gadamer (1976) states that “The translator’s task is never to copy what is said, but place himself in the direction of what is said (i.e. in its meaning) “.When one considers translating, that one appear to emphasize on the word orders of language and thought and the struggle is with grammar and words, condition of mood, time (tense) and duration (aspect).

A translator who is either traditional or modern should what is to them more natural, easier, more relaxed than the original. A literal translator cannot add little innovation, change, and adaptation in changing language from source language to target language. The main responsibility of LT is to keep one to one relation between SL and TL.2.3 Previous ResearchesWei Lu, a doctoral candidate at school of foreign language and literature, Shandong University and Hong Fang, a professor at school of Intercultural Studies, Jiangxi Normal University did “Reconsidering Peter Newmark’s (1988) theory on Literal Translation” Their aim is “not to put forward something new, but rather to serve as an attempt to rectify the academic extremity after the cultural turn in Translation Studies”. They pointed out that translators should equally use literal translation and free translation under some situations like when the gap between two cultures is too large, when the expression habits of SL and TL are too different and when the translators regard TL readers won’t understand SL cultures.Chun Li form the Chinese University of Hong Kong managed to do the paper, “Going Ambiguous for Reader Empowerment: An exploration of the literal translation by Lu Zhen Zhong of First John of the New Testament” in 2006.

His purpose is to use it as framework to provide a research on “literal translation of Bible into Chinese”.He compared two translations of Bible into Chinese, Lu Zhen Zhang’s translation (LZZ) of ‘First John of New Testament’ which is translated from original language Greek and Hebrew and the Chinese Union Version (CUV) which is translated from English King James version by missionaries and Chinese ‘helpers’. He aimed to investigate what is meant by ‘literal translation’ in LZZ as Lu described it is ‘a literal Chinese version’. The LZZ gives the readers more freedom to interpret the Bible than CUV by using words of larger semantic domains and theoretically loaded terms. It provides more ambiguity than word-for-word translation. Mans Westling from Stockholm University did a research, “A Qualitative Descriptive Translation Study of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet” on two Swedish translation work of Romeo and Juliet by Carl August Hagberg and Göran O Eriksson in 2008. His purpose is to find out translational behavior of translators and the translation norms that govern those behavior. This analysis follows the methodology for descriptive translation studies developed by Toury (1995).

The analysis is based on the selected soliloquies and dialogues which provide the aim of the research. The different background of the translators lead to their making different decisions during the translation. The considerable space of time between the productions of the two translations also suggests that the respective contemporary extra textual norms of the target cultures caused the differences in translation behavior. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In this section, research methodology and research procedures used in the study will be discussed.

In this paper, both the qualitative and quantitative methods are applied. In this paper, the data have been collected from the original story “The eyes” written by K.T. Muhammad and its translated version by Sayar Mya Than Tint. In this paper, among translation procedures, literal translation proposed by Peter Newmark (1988) is used to analyze translated text. 3.1 Research ProcedureThis research is done step by step. Firstly, the use of literal translation is analyzed closely line by line.

Then, the findings are categorized into word level, phrase level, clause level, and sentence level. Finally, the percentage of all findings at each level is calculated to figure out literal translation used by the translator.4. ANALYSISIn this section, the analysis of literal translation used in the short story “Eyes” and its translated version “??????????????????” is done step by step. In this analysis, it consists of word level, phrase level, clause level and sentence level.Table 4.1 Analysis of literal translation at word level in “Eyes” and “??????????????????”Literal Translation at Word LevelSerialNo.

Line No. Source Language Line No. Target Language8 disproportionate 7 ?????????49 sweetheart 53 ???????50 impatient 54 ???????51 natural 55 ??????????57 soothe 61 ?????????65 hearing 69 ?????67 politely 72 ??????????82 realize 86 ???????????????84 beggar 90 ???????????89 noticed 95 ??????????103 ugliness 113 ????????????121 murderer 127 ???????????121 verdict 126 ?????????122 judge 126 ??????????150 guffaws 153 ?????Literal Translation at Word LevelSerialNo. Line No. source language Line No. Target Language161 ignored 158 ???182 medicine 186 ???193 dust 197 ????????215 stick 221 ????In the analysis at word level, “judge” (noun) is literally translated into “??????????” (noun) in target language. These two words obey the literal translation at word level.

Thus, they are categorized into word level. “guffaws” (noun) is literally translated into “?????” (noun) in target language. These two words obey the literal translation at word level. Thus, they are categorized into word level. “dust” (noun) is literally translated into “?????????” (noun) in target language.

These two words obey the literal translation at word level. Thus, they are categorized into word level. “medicine” (noun) is literally translated into “???” (noun) in target language. These two words obey the literal translation at word level. Thus, they are categorized into word level. “stick” (noun) is literally translated into “????” (noun) in target language. These two words obey the literal translation at word level. Thus, they are categorized into word level.

Table 4.2 Analysis of literal translation at phrase level in “Eyes” and “??????????????????”Literal Translation at Phrase LevelSerialNo. Line No. Source Language Line No.

Target Language2 many funny stories 2 ?????????????????????8 my huge head 7 ???????????????????????????????9 two round eyes 9 ????????????????????????????10 a snub nose 9 ???????????????????35 a social being 36 ???????????????????????49 At last 53 ?????????????50 love story 54 ?????????????51 a wonderful story 56 ?????????????????????????????55 an ape-man 59 ?????????????58 loveless world 61 ???????????????????????????62 a girl’s voice 66 ?????????????????????72 lips parched 75 ???????????????????????73 at the end of verandah 76 ???????????77 a big factory 79 ??????????77 to come again 80 ??????????????????95 a bad man 103 ?????????????????101 sweet and enjoyable 111 ??????????????????126 the ape-man’s mistress130 ?????????????????Literal Translation at Phrase LevelSerialNo. Line No. Source Language Line No.

Target Language131 the handsomest man in the world 133 ???????????????????????????????????140 the begging bowl of a young woman 143 ?????????????????????????????146 After a few days 149 ?????????????????????????164 two months before 166 ??????????????165 After a while 168 ??????????????????169 The doctor’s words 171 ???????????169 my heart 171 ???????????????????169 my life 171 ????????????177 congenital blindness 180 ??????????????????????????180 even in that state of illness 184 ?????????????????????????????????????????180 Her face 184 ????????????186 small hut of mine 189 ???????????????211 burning days 218 ?????????????????????227 be at peace 235 ?????????????231 came up 238 ?????????231 little child 238 ???????In the analysis at phrase level, “two months before” (phrase) is literally translated into “??????????????” (phrase) in target language. These two phrases obey the literal translation at phrase level. Thus, they are categorized into phrase level.”After a while” (phrase) is literally translated into “??????????????????” (phrase) in target language. These two phrases obey the literal translation at phrase level.

Thus, they are categorized into phrase level.”The doctor’s words” (phrase) is literally translated into “???????????” (phrase) in target language. These two phrases obey the literal translation at phrase level. Therefore, they are categorized into phrase level.

“my heart” (phrase) is literally translated into “???????????????????” (phrase) in target language. These two phrases obey the literal translation at phrase level. Thus, they are categorized into phrase level.”my life” (phrase) is literally translated into “????????????” (phrase) in target language. These two phrases obey the literal translation at phrase level. Thus, they are categorized into phrase level.Table 4.

3 Analysis of literal translation at clause level in “Eyes” and “??????????????????”Literal Translation at Clause LevelSerialNo. Line No. Source Language Line No. Target Language27 that people like me have no right to live in it 28 ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????61 she has no strength 64 ?????????????85 No, her eyes would not have allowed her to come to me, 91 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Literal Translation at Clause LevelSerialNo. Line No. Source Language Line No. Target Language126 When I pass 129 ????????????????????????148 she and I, Leela and Abdulla stood together and took silent mutual vow 150 ????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? ?????????????166 When I said yes 169 ????????????????????????????????????170 will she shudder to see me 173 ??????????????????????????????????171 will she still love me and respect me? 174 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????In the analysis at the clause level, “When I pass” (clause) is literally translated into “????????????????????????” (clause) in target language. These two clauses obey the literal translation at clause level.

Therefore, they are categorized into clause level. “she and I, Leela and Abdulla stood together and took silent mutual vow” (clause) is literally translated into “????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????” (clause) in target language. These two clauses obey the literal translation at clause level. Thus, they are categorized into clause level.In source language, “When I said yes” (clause) is literally translated into “????????????????????????????????????” (clause) in target language. These two clauses obey the literal translation at clause level. Therefore, they are categorized into clause level.

“will she shudder to see me” (clause) is literally translated into “??????????????????????????????????” (clause) in target language. These two clauses obey the literal translation at clause level. Therefore, they are categorized into clause level.”will she still love me and respect me?” (clause) is literally translated into “???????????????????????????????????????????????????” (clause) in target language.

These two clauses obey the literal translation at clause level. Thus, they are categorized into clause level.Table 4.4 Analysis of literal translation at sentence level in “Eyes” and “??????????????????”Literal Translation at Sentence levelSerialNo. Line No. Source Language Line No.

Target Language66 She was not good-looking 70 ???????????????????????78 Then it became a habit. 81 ?????????????????????????????81 Is not a woman’s glance capable of maddening a man? 85 ????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????93 Leela, what do you think of me? 100 ????????????????????????95 I was elated. 104 ????????????????????????97 She bashfully bowed her head. 107 ????????????????????????????????????????????102 People who laugh at me are my enemies. 113 ????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????Literal Translation at Sentence levelSerialNo.

Line No. Source Language Line No. Target Language111 Leela and I were religiously incompatible. 120 ????????? ???? ????????????????????116 She was taken aback. 123 ???????????????????????????121 I looked at her trembling lips. 126 ??????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????125 I shall consent. 129 ?????????????????129 I, therefore, don’t care what they say.

133 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????133 You are a Muslim and I am a Hindu. 135 ?????????????????????????133 I thought there would be no one in this world to love me sincerely 136 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????142 Forgive me. 144 ?????????????????144 She was silent. 148 ????????????????????????????150 The laughter of the people around us become louder 154 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????154 let people laugh. 155 ???????????Literal Translation at Sentence levelSerialNo.

Line No. Source Language Line No. Target Language162 I became a lover, a husband, and now going to be a father! 164 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????164 I called a doctor. 166 ?????????????????????????????165 I begged him to save her.

167 ??????????????????????????172 What should I say to doctor? 174 ????????????????????????????? ???????178 Don’t you feel happy? 182 ???????????????????182 The doctor gave me a prescription 186 ?????????????????? ???????????????183 Come to me 187 ?????????????185 I went to the end of the veranda and sat down. 189 ?????????????????????????????????????186 Even that was going to be shuttered. 190 ?????????????????????????????????217 Lives were being consumed 223 ??????????????????????????Literal Translation at Sentence levelSerialNo. Line No. Source Language Line No. Target Language230 My grim secret was trying to burst out 237 ??????????????????????????????????????????????234 Leela’s pure soul gently flowed out 240 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????In the analysis at sentenced level, “I went to the end of the veranda and sat down.” (sentence) is literally translated into “?????????????????????????????????????” (sentence) in target language. These two sentences obey the literal translation at sentence level.

Thus, they are categorized into sentence level.”Even that was going to be shuttered.” (sentence) is literally translated into “?????????????????????????????????” (sentence) in target language. These two sentences obey the literal translation at sentence level. Thus, they are categorized into sentence level.”Lives were being consumed” (sentence) is literally translated into “??????????????????????????” (sentence) in target language. These two sentences obey the literal translation at sentence level.

Thus, they are categorized into sentence level.”My grim secret was trying to burst out” (sentence) is literally translated into “???????????????????????????????????????????????” (sentence) in target language. These two sentences obey the literal translation at sentence level. Therefore, they are categorized into sentence level.”Leela’s pure soul gently flowed out” (sentence) is literally translated into “??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????” (sentence) in target language.

These two sentences obey the literal translation at sentence level. Therefore, they are categorized into sentence level.5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONIn this section, the findings and the discussion will be presented.

The findings of literal translation in “??????????????????” are shown in the tables of respective levels. (The literal translation is used for 19 words, 34 phrases, 8 clauses and 30 sentences in the translated text.) The percentage of each level in literal translation is shown in the chart. (21% of literal translation used in translated text is word, 38% of is phrase, 9% of is clause and 32% of is sentence.)Table 5.1 Table of Frequency and Percentage of Literal Translation at Each Level Used in “??????????????????”Level of Literal Translation Frequency PercentageWord 19 21%Phrase 34 38%Clause 8 9%Sentence 30 32%Figure 5.

1 Pie Chart shown by Percentage at Each LevelWhen studying English version “Eyes” and Myanmar version “??????????????????”, literal translation procedure is identified step by step. By the time all of the data analysis is done, the results are calculating into percentages so that they can be clearly figured out the literal translation used at word level, phrase level, clause level, and sentence level. We have found out that the highest rate of percentage is phrase level with 38%.

This is because it is easy to translate the phrases according to the similar phrasal structures of the two languages. For example, “a girl’s voice” is translated into “????????????????? ???” and “my life” is translated into “?????????? ??”. The second highest percentage is sentence level with 32%. It is assumed that the sentence level may be the least percentage in the literally translated text.

However, in this short story, the original author used many short simple sentences such as “I was elated”, “I shall consent” and “I called a doctor”. These short sentences support the sentence level to stand as the second highest rate. Meanwhile, the clause level occurs at the lowest level with 9% because long sentences are complicated to be translated literally and so just parts of them, literally called clause, obey literal translation.

Literal translation is like a draft and a sense of arranging the words in advance. So, sometimes, the way the translator conducts the short story and uses the words seems a little bit odd and it doesn’t get to the point at once. For example, Sayar Mya Than Tint says the word “a bad man” as “??????????????????”, however, the readers can feel automatically “??????” in Myanmar term. So, it can deviate the sense of readers’ understandability and sometimes it can make the readers confused the meaning.

On the other hand, the writing and translating style of Sayar Mya Than Tint is beyond the best. He is the most famous figure and the master of translation field in Myanmar. Therefore, only if he uses the literal translation or direct translation procedure, he can use the words to be comfortable and linked with each other. So, the communication cannot be broken down because of the translator’s good command of language. His usage of words makes the readers free from barriers in reading this translated short story.

6. CONCLUSIONThe aim of the research is to identify the literal translation used in the short story, “??????????????????”. The analysis of the study focuses on the four levels of literal translation; word to word, phrase to phrase, clause to clause, sentence to sentence. According to Peter Newmark (1988), the literal translation procedure causes the target language out of context. However, in this paper, the analysis shows that the literal translation used by author Mya Than Tint is smooth, natural and gives general sense to the reader.

This can be assumed that the level of naturalism of literal translation depends on the professionalism and aptitude of the author and types of work of literature he or she translates.In addition, this paper provides as a preliminary study for larger study like literal translation or translation procedures used in translating texts or literary work. This paper will also be a great help for English specialization students who want to do research on Mya Than Tint’s literary works.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, we would like to show courtesy to our Rector of Yangon University of Foreign Languages, Dr. Kyi Shwin and Pro-rectors Dr. Yi Yi Maw and Dr. Mi Mi Aung, for giving us valuable and precious moment. We would like to express our great appreciation to Dr. Ni Ni Aung, Professor and Head of the Englis0h Department, Yangon University of Foreign Languages, for her effective tips on ways to conduct term paper. We also would like to show our thanks to Daw Yi Yi Lwin, Lecturer of English Department, for teaching us how to do translating professionally, how to become a good translator or interpreter and let us know lots of translation theories. And this paper would have impossible without the powerful support and energetic guide of our supervisor Daw Lwin Lwin Hla Pe, Assistant Lecturer of English Department, so we also would like to express our gratitude to our supervisor for her time and suggestions.

We are also thankful to all our teachers from English Department who are never tired of teaching and explaining us patiently without hesitation. Through the support of our beloved teachers with their kindness, our term paper has successfully finished.ReferencesBook ReferenceNewMark, P. (1988). A textbook of translation.Hertfordshire: Prentice HaH International VUIO Ltd.

Pym, A., & Petekrestenko, A. (2007). Translation research projects 1. Spain: Intercultural Studies Group.

Tint, M.T. (1993). Naingan tagar khitthit ganawin wuthtu tomyar: Achit mhar myat si shi ei (International modern classical short stories: The eyes). Yangon: Bawa Takatho Sarpay.E-ResourcesArffman, I.

(2012). Unwanted literal translation. Retrieved from https://ww.hindawi.com Borges, T. (2015). Literal vs free translation. Retrieved from https://www.

proz.comG, M. (2015). Neither free or literal.

Retrieved from https://www.proz.comLu, W., & Fang, H. (2012). Reconsidering Peter NewMark’s Theory on Literation Translation Retrieved from www.academypublication.comMuhammed, K.

T. (1952). The eyes. Retrieved from anthony-me.blogspot.

com Rosengrant, J. (1994). Language translation. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org;stableWesting, M.

(2008). A qualitative descriptive translation study of Shakespeare Romeo ; Juliet. Retrieved from http://www.diva-portal.org;get;fulltext01APPENDIXAll who have eyes to see laugh when they see me.

Some burst out in Homeric laughter. They have many funny stories to tell about me.But I know what they say…what makes them laugh like asses.

One reason that they laugh is that I, too, had a sweetheart! More, I married her! How I became a lover and husband is a story they reckon as a wonder which can make them laugh and laugh. If you want to understand this wonderful amusement, they will ask you to have a look at me. After all, I am a human being.

I am a short man, black like coal, with disproportionate limbs. My huge head is the crown of that deformity as well as my ugliness. On my face are two round eyes in deep hollows, a snub nose, a big frog-like mouth, and a narrow forehead between two over-sized ears. There are also marks showing how greedily smallpox, which attacked me in my twelfth year, pecked at the flesh of my face; a fall in my boyhood has left me lame of the right leg. Yes, I am indeed a mountain of ugliness. They tell me that at first sight I create in everyone an impression of a black monkey.

But people do not necessarily laugh on seeing a monkey. Their laughter is roused when they realized that the monkey-like animal is a fellow human being. While walking along the road once, I heard a man telling his companion, “This man here reminds me of the Hunchback of the Notre Dame.” Though I am no hunchback, I never stopped to protest. After all, it is not for me to decide what or whom I remind people of.

Anyway, their laughter has taught me a great deal about myself.I shrink into myself like a forget-me-not when I see colorfully dressed young women flitting along the roads, because they turn their faces abruptly, like Brahmans at the sight of an ill-omened owl. It is when they haughtily refuse to regard me as a fellow human being and to respect my feelings as a human being—it is then that I realize my pathetic plight.

Endowed, like any of you, with a sense of the beautiful, I, too, enjoy the sight of but you seem to consider it an unpardonable crime on my part. In short, the world clearly announces that people like me have no right to live in it. I know that, too.My father died before memory had dawned on me, and so my old mother is all I had by way of a home. How far could the influence of heredity account for it—who was responsible for my pitiable and horrible deformity? My father? My mother? No, I cannot blame either. Why blame them? I was born.

Perhaps they had not wished or expected that I should be born. We tried to keep the skeleton of a family—I who did not fade, and mother who did not fall. Should not that family tree put forth new branches and keep alive?The family sense of a man, who is a social being, began to manifest itself through my guileless mother. She asked me, “Son, mustn’t you bring home a bride?”That question of mother’s was no surprise to me.

Restraining my heavy heart, I replied, “Oh, yes, mother, in due course.”She began to consult her grey-haired neighbors. The consultation lasted for a few days. Returning day after day with a pained look on her face, she became a problem to me.

Everyday I would ask her, “What’s the matter, Mother?” And she would say, “Oh, nothing.” Under that “nothing” throbbed a mother’s heart full of despair and helplessness.Two weeks crept by. Mother stopped going out. Those who had sympathetically remarked, “Poor chap! How hard his mother tried to get him a bride! Oh, God, why did you create a man like this!”Secretly, I began to try cosmetics. I tried wearing fine clothes. But my attempts only made people laugh louder. Was I becoming uglier? I realized that bathing couldn’t turn a crow into a swan.

To continue my life story. At last, I too found a sweetheart! You must be getting impatient to hear my love story—the story of my humanity. I longed to love and be loved. Is it not natural? The story of my love is a wonderful story indeed—involving a young woman who loved me and later married me, utterly disregarding my appearance, which turned away all eyes and disgusted all minds.My mother’s struggle to get a daughter-in-law ended in failure. No woman would wish to become the wife of an ape-man. Groaning under the burden of this failure, my mother became a victim of all ailments natural to old age—from which she never recovered. My mother, who used to soothe my burning heart, at least occasionally with the cool breeze of her affection, my dear mother, who kept me bound to this loveless world by the golden thread of her love, my mother, who was my very life, and who found some sort of beauty even in my terrible ugliness—she died leaving me all alone.

I shall not weep over it now, for she has no strength to suffer anymore.And then it happened. There was the tap-tap of a heavy stick against the door, and then a girl’s voice saying, “Something for a beggar, sir?” I cannot see, master.” I looked at her and then her eyes. It was a pitiful sight. Forgetting myself, I thought: “Poor girl, she is young, without eyes—a life in which hearing and touching alone are possible.”She was not good-looking, but her well-proportioned body had the charm of youth. Poor thing! My heart went out to her.

“You may come in and sit down here,” I politely asked her. She began to grope for the door. I got up and led her by the hand. It was the first time I was touching a young woman—with a heart heavy with suppressed emotions. Again, I looked at her face.

Despite her sightless eyes, youth had preserved her face beautifully. Her high bosom was not far away from mine. Before I could think, I began to shiver as if with chill.

I felt my lips parched, my limbs strangely transformed, my breathing quickened. “You may sit down here.” I led her to the seat at the end of the verandah. Did she feel the trembling of my hands? I gave her a little of the food I had cooked, and a rupee besides.She told me that her name was Leela, that she and her old mother lived in a thatched hut near a big factory in the city.

When she was leaving, I asked her to come again.Leela began to come often. Then it became a habit.

We would talk of all kinds of things. I felt somewhat relieved of the burden of my heart and of my life. Moments of life began to hold attractions for me. Leela’s eyes! If they had sight, they would enhance her beauty. Is not a woman’s glance capable of maddening a man? Though I had learned this only from other people’s experience, I could realize what it meant. My hungry heart, too, had its cravings.

If only Leela had her eyes! Not that I did not know how foolish this was. If she had eyes, perhaps she would not be a beggar. Even if she became one, she would not accept from me anything more than mere alms! No, her eyes would not have allowed her to come to me, to talk to, everyday.I thought so unconsciously, because, I happen to be like anyone else. Is it any fault of mine?People noticed our meetings, but no one envied us.

Being an “ape-man,” I was already a target of their ridicule. Now the story of my love for a blind woman gave them something more to laugh at. They were amused at the alliance between deformity and blindness. Funny, isn’t it?One day, I asked Leela, “Leela, what do you think of me?” Her shy smile gave a great joy. “Speak, Leela!” I insisted.”Did I say you are a bad man?” she softly replied.

I felt her reply was sincere. I was elated. Even though I had not intended to, I asked her abruptly, in a fit of emotion.

“Do you like me, Leela?” She bashfully bowed her head but said nothing. I felt that all the charm of life lay heaped up in that scene.Leela left soon afterwards. “Leela.

” At last, I, too, had a name I could utter with love in this vast, desolate world; someone I could expect with eager joy. Life, which had seemed desolate to me, became sweet and enjoyable. Was it not my luck!People who laugh at me are my enemies. Suppose they put into Leela’s mind ideas about my ugliness. Had they already done so? Who knows! But how could she tell attractive beauty from disgusting ugliness when she could not tell day from night? She had told me she was born blind. I do not say that she being born blind was my good fortune; but was that her misfortune?Leela came again the next day. I was thinking about our marriage, how to accomplish it.

Should not a representative for God bear witness to the alliance between man and woman? But no priest of God would be ready to officiate at our marriage. There is a reason for it. Those representatives of God have worldly viewpoint which they call “spiritual.” Leela and I were religiously incompatible. They would give us no help, however loudly it may be proclaimed that in this world where there are more women than men, no woman but Leela would wish to marry me.

It is only in matters of this that priests who represent God in various names will agree among themselves. Perhaps you are not aware of the fact that I am a Muslim. But after all, is it a fact?I asked her, “Leela, will you marry me?” I felt she was taken aback. The fact of my being a Muslim must have made her pause and think, “What are you saying?” There was a limit to the sympathy that this blind beggar woman could feel.”Leela, it is enough if you realize that I am human being.

God has sent you to me. Caste and creed are man’s own creations.”Pleadingly, I looked at her trembling lips.

I felt like a murderer awaiting the verdict of the judge. Yes, it was for her to decide whether I should live or die. Leela was silent. Was it not significant? I went on, “Speak, Leela. I went on to protect you. Do promise to make me happy.””I shall consent,” she replied at last. “I have heard people say so many things about me contemptuously. When I pass, they say, there goes the ape-man’s mistress. According to them, you have no beauty.””What do you feel, Leela?”She went on, “I don’t understand the beauty they all talk of; nor have I seen an ape. I, therefore, don’t care what they say. Would I feel different even if they said that you are the handsomest man in the world?””It is with my heart that I have seen the world. I see beauty and ugliness with my heart. You are a Muslim and I am a Hindu. If you have no objection, I have none. I thought there would be no one in this world to love me sincerely. But…””Then why the ‘but’?” I asked anxiously.”Yes, there is a big ‘but’ behind this beggar’s profession. I have no untainted womanhood to offer you. Though blind, I have wanted to love. But by beggar’s bowl—empty even after the whole day’s begging—laughed devilishly at the empty stomach of my mother and myself. I had to yield to creatures of lust approaching through the horror of night. There is no use to your getting indignant with me. No man puts anything in the begging bowl of a young woman in the name of charity. I thought your first show of sympathy had the same motive. Forgive me. But today I respect no one but you as a human being.”I was stunned momentarily. There was a silence for a few minutes. “Leela,” I said at last, “it is the story of man’s sordid selfishness. I shall not think of it anymore.” She was silent.After a few days, the event took place, creating a sensation in my village. Without any representative of God to bear witness, and without waiting for anybody’s recommendation, she and I, Leela and Abdulla—stood together and took silent mutual vow to become partners in life.The laughter of the people around us became louder. There were guffaws when Leela and her mother came to live with me.The self-appointed custodians of society looked askance at us. People did not realize that two burning hearts were at the bottom of this story of love and marriage. I tried to cheer up Leela. “Leela, let people laugh. They must be crazy.”We began to live. I won’t say that ours was a happy married life. It was the maddening urge of our humanity. That was our life. Social ethics and religious conventions assumed a horrible vengefulness upon us. We received no help or cooperation. We had no illusions that we could live happily. But we wanted to live and were prepared to face our difficulties.And then it happened. Leela was going to be a mother. My being an ape-man and Leela’s blindness were no bar. We ignored the world’s gossip and sneers. Joys which I had never expected in my life had come to me. I became a lover, a husband, and now going to be a father! I thanked God! He is great! Praise be to Him! For Leela’s sightless eyes!But Leela fell ill two months before the child to be born. I called a doctor. He examined her. I begged him to save her. After a while, he asked, “Is she blind from birth? When I said yes, he examined her eyes again, and thoughtfully remarked, “I can restore her eyesight by an operation. But it is impossible now. Let her regain her health after recovery.”The doctor’s words shook my heart, my youth, my life! He says he can give light to Leela’s eyes! When she can see, will she shudder to see me, whom she knows as a man with a heart, worthy of love? The moment she begins to see, will she still love me and respect me? What should I say to the doctor? “No, her eyes need have no sight,” I tried to shout out. But what I said was, “Leela, the doctor says your blindness can be cured!”I was mechanically repeating what she had already heard. How could I explain to her that the restoration of her sight might cut at the very root of my life? What is it that man would not do to keep his eyesight? Is it not great good fortune for anyone to be cured of congenital blindness? Leela, who had fully understood my heart, did not know the worldly side of me. She said, “If I can regain my sight, I want to have it. Don’t you feel happy? If I can see you, I know you will love me all the more.”Her face was rich with contentment even in that state of illness. Was it only because a new life was sprouting up?The doctor gave me a prescription, and explaining to me how the medicine was to be given, said, “Come to me when normal health has been restored after delivery. Then I shall tell you more about the operation.” Leela was calm, but a storm raged within me. My mind was afire with violent thoughts. I went to the end of the veranda and sat down. It was only in this small hut of mine that I had some peace. Even that was going to be shattered. My world was small.”No! Never! You shall not restore sight to Leela’s eyes. Oh, Doctor! You have conspired with the scornful enemies to kill me. But I will kill first. Why have you flung fire into our lives? No, you are not to blame. You have to fight blindness. Blindness is one of the worst diseases. You cannot remain indifferent to it. You may give sight to her. You know nothing of my life. May Leela be able to see! May God give her that great blessing which every human being should have! But I must become dust before that—before she can know what is meant by “ape-man”! Then I can live on her memory as a man rich in love. Will her present love for me and the beauty she sees in me last forever?” My heart was crying.Leela gave birth to a boy. Society was embarrassed at the birth of an illegitimate child. Some laughed aloud like asses. Isn’t that funny! That child born of an ugly father and a blind mother was innocent. It inherited Leela’s looks and my eyes. Whose good fortune could it be?Leela regained her health. She reminded me of that which my selfishness had made me keep down. “Shall we go and see the doctor now?”She did not know what a storm her words created in my heart. I lied to her. “Yes, I had forgotten.” I shall go and find out today.” I knew I was lying. I felt like one tossing in mid-ocean.I went out and, returning after a couple of hours, said to her, “The doctor is dead!”That was all I could say. I had thought I would not be able to say even that. I could not make a show of the grief which I, her husband, should have felt over the death of the good doctor who had promised to cure Leela’s blindness. I had to keep down in my agonized heart a secret born of cruelty and selfishness. It was a burden too heavy to bear. What I did for my own safety undermined peace of mind forever. The burning days moved on.One day, as I returned home, I saw something heart-rending. Leela’s mother had not moved a big copper vessel from the room. Leela, while rushing to the cradle of the crying baby without taking her stick, had stumbled on it. She had dashed against the doorpost. She was bleeding. I rushed her to the hospital.Lives were being consumed. Do you feel like laughing now? I have no more complaint! Who cares for my complaints!Leela, my life, my world! A doctor called me and said, “It must have been a terrible fall. The injury is serious.”I went to Leela. She lay writhing in pain. I spoke to her. She said, sobbing, “Are you here? I am going. If I could see once with my eyes!”The last wish of Leela seemed to me to be the trial of my endurance. Had she been grieving that the doctor was dead? She was silent.”Leela!” I said to her. “To see me with eyes is not, after all, a great thing. Have you not seen me with your broad and clear heart? I know that in this world you alone have seen rightly. People cannot see each other with eyes. And so, dear, be at peace. You will soon be well.”Leela listened to me and then there was a pause. The bright sun had already gone down. Leela began to cry. I was in agony. My grim secret was trying to burst out. I could no longer stand there. Leela’s mother came up and put the little child by Leela’s side. The tiny creature began to cry, perhaps suffocated by the tragic atmosphere. Leela’s mother also began to cry. I felt helpless.Leela’s pure soul gently flowed out. I don’t remember what I did. The beating of one’s heart stopped; some other’s burst.The sun had now set and the darkness thickened.People who could not perceive the currents under my horrible ugliness and my strange love story will laugh when they see me. I sometimes wonder, what would have been my story if I had been blind, too!????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????????????????????? ???????? ????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????? ??????????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????????????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????????? ????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????? ????????????? ???????????????????????????????????? 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