222637-675861 History of Marketing00 History of MarketingHistory of Marketing Name: Anisha Prova KarmakarCourse Name: Applied Marketing AnalysisCourse Code: 4FE124Date: 19th November, 2018ABSTRACTThe study purposes to present and describe the history of marketing education and importance of study Marketing also how its applications over the centuries have evolved. Discussing various relevant theories development of Marketing ideas and regenerate worldwide. This study thoroughly discusses the history of marketing and marketing studies. It came out Marketing and Marketing Management relationship exchange business environment has changed over time.
In a drastically changed environment marketing has taken an extended and more complex role in business. The study also indicates employee and student thoughts various aspects and perspectives related to marketing and marketing studies. This study talking about Marketing thoughts and development Finally, it talks about the recent change in the world of marketing which was literature review online activities and the growing popularity of e-commerce websites.
This change also brought changes in the way how marketing come up with new idea and thoughts.TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o “1-3” h z u Chapter 1: Introduction51.1 Importance of STUDY MARKETING51.2 THE POSITION OF MARKETING EDUCATION PAGEREF _Toc525897596 h 51.3 THE HISTORY OF MARKETING THOUGHT6Chapter 2: Marketing Development72.1 MARKETING STRATEGY72.2 SERVICE OF MARKETING PAGEREF _Toc525897600 h 72.3 Marketing Research PAGEREF _Toc525897601 h 8Chapter 3: Literature Review9 and 10Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc525897602 h 11Reference PAGEREF _Toc525897603 h 12CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTIONIMPORTANCE OF STUDY MARKETING Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
The American Marketing Association has defined marketing as “the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.” The techniques used in marketing include choosing target markets through market analysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding methods of influence on the consumer behavior. From a societal point of view, marketing provides the link between a society’s material requirements and its economic patterns of response. This way marketing satisfies these needs and wants through the development of exchange processes and the building of long-term relationships. In the case of nonprofit organization marketing, the aim is to deliver a message about the organization’s services to the applicable audience. Governments often employ marketing to communicate messages with a social purpose, such as a public health or safety message, to citizens.1.
2 THE POSITION OF MARKETING EDUCATION:Presents the viewpoints of both students of marketing and employers of these students, in an attempt to ascertain if we, as educators, are satisfying the needs of both sets of customers, namely the students studying for a sound practical business degree, and the employers requiring students with a solid grounding in the essentials of business coupled with practical skills. Researches first?year marketing students, outlining their expectations and understanding of the subject and focuses on recent employers of marketing graduates and their expectations and understanding of what a graduate should offer. Findings indicate that students are looking for a degree which furnishes them with a wide knowledge base, so improving their employment opportunities. Suggests that employers prefer business graduates, although they also consider there to be a requirement for task?specific training.1.3 THE HISTORY OF MARKETING THOUGHT From his dissertation to his last publication, if his writing provides a guide, Bartels’s thinking seldom strayed far from the development of marketing thought. Bartels’s (1941) dissertation traced the evolution of the marketing literature, as expressed in marketing textbooks, from its origins as an academic discipline in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century through four decades of its development.
The dissertation matured into his magna opus: The Development (or in later editions, The History) of Marketing Thought. He continuously tinkered with this work, updating it through three editions (Bartels 1962, 1976, 1988). Each revision extended his marketing history in time and expanded it in scope by incorporating the most recent developments in the evolving sub disciplines of marketing.CHAPTER 2: MARKETING DEVELOPMENT2.1 MARKETING STRATEGY Marketing strategy continuum concept is presented and a number of marketing and management consequences are discussed.
It demonstrates the need for a marketing concept which allows a variety of approaches to marketing. The nature of a relationship approach to marketing strategy is analyzed in comparison with the nature of a transaction marketing strategy. Relationship marketing and transaction marketing are seen as strategy options at opposite ends of the continuum. Eight marketing and management implications of the two extreme strategies are examined.2.
2 SERVICE MARKETING: Service Marketing is one of the most powerful example, As the literature grew, a fundamental questioning of the legitimacy of services marketing emerged. It is a debate which show that how service Market survive. This debate became most intense during the latter years of the Crawling Out period. The goods marketing versus services marketing debate represented a fundamental challenge to the right of the services marketing field to exist. If the marketing discipline concluded that services marketing was different, the field might gain sufficient acceptance to grow and thrive.
However, if the discipline concluded that services marketing was simply a modest extension of goods marketing, the field would be considered illogical and would die. Today, outside observers looking back at the written literature might assume that the debate was primarily one-sided. This is because virtually all services marketing authors during the 1970s felt compelled to argue that services marketing was different, at least in the introductions to their articles and papers. Few of the critics, however, felt compelled to publish their arguments. Indeed, most advocates were reacting to verbal criticism by reviewers and conference participants.
Within academic departments, this questioning continued as informal discussion and among dissertation committee members. Virtually every services scholar recognized these comments as questioning the legitimacy of their research and writing. Such challenges (even though often not in print) were career threatening, especially because many of the pioneers were young and untenured. In this context, the vigor of the response to these criticisms is not surprising.2.3 MARKETING RESEARCH:Marketing research is one of the areas in which nonprofit organizations in general are most lacking and is thus an area of great potential contribution from service-learning.
Compilation and interpretation of secondary data are one dimension of marketing research that is relevant for service-learning. Students’ access to library resources can help greatly here. Also, marketing research students may have more extensive knowledge of what type of information is most needed for the organization’s decision making. Primary research projects are another excellent marketing research service-learning objective. A potential scenario (using our homeless shelter example) could involve students again developing a significant sensory experience with and reflection on the issues facing the homeless people. In the conceptualization phase, the students could leverage this concrete experience and reflective observation into the development of interview or focus group inventories or formal surveys, targeted to the homeless people themselves, to potential donors, to government officials, and so on depending on the specific objective.
Students would then collect, organize, analyze, and interpret the data, ultimately making recommendations based on the outcomes. These outcomes would then generate further concrete experiences and reflection.CHAPTER 3: MARKETING LITERATUREDevelopment and Appraisal, 1941 After completing his Ph.D. course work in 1938, for unexplained reasons (perhaps financial difficulties, perhaps the intensity of working with two powerful personalities), Bartels left The Ohio State University”All But Dissertation”—to take an assistant professorship at the University of Washington. It took him three years “in abstentia” to complete his dissertation. When submitted and “Approved by H.
M. Maynard and Theo N. Beckman,” it was the masterpiece a dissertation is intended to be. The dissertation, Marketing Literature—Development and Appraisal (Bartels 1941), covered 525 pages, four hundred of text organized into sixteen chapters and four appendixes of 125 pages.
This work systematized what he had learned from his two major advisers. Bartels (1941, 136) clearly used Maynard’s work on the development of marketing thought as his content area and Beckman’s work in classification and organization as his methodology. He drew on Maynard and Beckman’s (1939) joint work, Principles of Marketing, for his chapters on marketing theory and principles. The dissertation is divided into three sections—”History of Marketing Literature,” “Methodology,” and “Marketing Theory”—and includes several important appendixes.
In the History section, Bartels considered the changing economic conditions that encouraged writers to think about marketing problems, such as the price spread in farm products from producers to consumers and the increasing quantity of manufactured goods available in urban markets. The Methodology section is qualitative and deals with the motivation of various authors to write marketing books, such as providing a practical guide or how-to book, to justify the high costs of marketing, and “to prepare texts for educational purposes” (Bartels 1941, 49). Given the length of discussion for each of the half dozen motives, one gets the distinct impression that Bartels regards the latter as most important. This motive is in keeping with his high regard for teaching and also bears on his subsequent decision to write a book about marketing thought. The section also includes chapters on various viewpoints of marketing, sources of marketing information and materials, disciplines related to marketing, and various methods of presenting marketing knowledge. Chapters in the Marketing Theory section describe what is now termed the traditional approaches to marketing: functions, institutions, and commodities. At the time, however, these approaches, particularly the functional approach, were widely regarded as the corpus of marketing theory and “each of these subjects is analyzed .
. . to reveal the depth and diversity of thought . . . and the evolutionary tendencies characterizing the development of that thought” (Bartels 1941, 151). In the chapter on “Marketing Principles,” Bartels cited several principles common at the time, such as “wholesale prices fluctuate more frequently but less violently than do retail prices,” and “technical products of high unit value usually have a short channel of distribution” (p.
380). Bartels lamented the “relatively few principles of Marketing” developed to date, because most “emphasis has been placed on . . . descriptive material” (p. 385). Consequently, the difficulty of developing them “has been underestimated,” and he stated, “The body of these principles would constitute a theory of marketing” (p. 386).
Today, this view of theory would be considered naive, if not simplistic. However, it is not surprising that theory is regarded in simpler terms, given the time frame in which Bartels was writing, rather than with the rigor expressed by more modern writers schooled in the philosophy of science.CONCLUSIONThis study analyzes importance of study Marketing thoughts development and Marketing service as an academic writing. Marketing study is now a big challenge for students because there are many types of thoughts and strategy is pop up for learning, from first to last a student have to study about Marketing education. Now we have many kind of Marketing mix, Marketing service, Marketing strategies. I have analyzed the given piece of literature to prove that the Marketing thoughts use Several factors and show that. There are so many thoughts like Marketing methodology, Marketing mix, Theory of Marketing are consequently developing them. This discussion gives us the true view that Education of Marketing is great source of learning the social thoughts and needs.
The beyond study shows that how to develop and enlarge the Marketing thoughts and education make us more confident about the awareness and Marketing improvement.REFERENCEHawkins, D. I., ; Cocanougher, A. B. (1972). Student evaluations of the ethics of marketing practices: The role of marketing education.
The Journal of Marketing, 61-64.O? Brien, E. M.
, ; Deans, K. R. (1995). The position of marketing education: A student versus employer perspective.
Marketing Intelligence ; Planning, 13(2), 47-52.Martin, C. L.
(1999). The history, evolution and principles of services marketing: poised for the new millennium. Marketing Intelligence ; Planning, 17(7), 324-328.Fisk, R. P., Brown, S. W., ; Bitner, M.
J. (1993). Tracking the evolution of the services marketing literature. Journal of retailing, 69(1), 61-103.Petkus Jr, E. (2000). A theoretical and practical framework for service-learning in marketing: Kolb’s experiential learning cycle. Journal of Marketing Education, 22(1), 64-70.
Shaw, E. H., & Tamilia, R. D. (2001).
Robert Bartels and the history of marketing thought. Journal of macromarketing, 21(2), 156-163.