A Business Leadership In partial fulfillment of

A Phenomenological Study of Different Followership Styles as Perceived or Experienced By Officers and Noncommissioned Officers While Serving on Combat Mission in Afghanistan or Iraq Wars Submitted to Regent University School of Business Leadership In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Organizational Leadership Nestor Luis Colls-Senaha Month/Year (please use final defense date) School of Business Leadership Regent University This is to certify that the dissertation prepared by Nestor L. Colls-Senaha titled A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIFFERENT FOLLOWERSHIP STYLES AS PERCEIVED OR EXPERIENCED BY UNITED STATES ARMY OFFICERS AND NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS SERVING ON COMBAT SITUATIONS IN AFGHANISTAN OR IRAQ WARS Has been approved by his/her committee as satisfactory completion of the dissertation requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Approved By Bruce E. Winston, Ph.D.

, Chair School of Business Leadership Maurice A. Buford, Ph.D., Committee Member School of Business Leadership Steve B. Firestone, Ph.D., Committee Member Month/Year Abstract The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the different followership styles as experienced and perceived by United States Army officers and noncommissioned officers serving in combat situations in both Afghanistan and Iraq Wars.

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Literature is fairly non-existent when it comes to followership in the military. In particular, what is not evident are the different followership styles exhibited by United State Army officers and noncommissioned officers in different situations. This qualitative study incorporated a hermeneutic phenomenological approach by conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The researcher reduced the study to one central overarching question (CQ1) and several sub-questions. The open-ended supporting questions further analyzed the phenomenon and divided the central question into supportive parts. Purposeful sampling was used to select ten personnel from the 3d Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) or Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF).

Eighteen candidates were contacted, twelve accepted, three later dropped out, which resulted in nine qualified participants. The research used NVivo, computer-assisted qualitative analysis software, to assist in coding and categorizing responses from the interviews. The limitation of the study was the sample population was limited to the 3d Infantry Division, and the convenience sample may have impacted the data because it was chosen for the proximity to the researcher. The study concluded theres no one best followership style that is best for every situation. Keywords followership, OIF, OEF, counterinsurgency and full-spectrum operations Dedication This study is dedicated to all who served faithfully, selflessly, and made the ultimate sacrifice for this great country so the rest could have life, liberty and the pursuit happiness. Also, to those who feel they are incapable or unable to achieve what God had placed in the recesses of your heart. Isaiah 4028-31 says Do you not know Have you not heard TheLordis the everlastingGod, the Creatorof the ends of the earth. He will not grow tired or weary, and his understanding no one can fathom.

29He gives strengthto the weary and increases the power of the weak. 30Even youths grow tired and weary, and young menstumble and fall 31but those who hopein theLord will renew their strength. They will soar on wings like eagles they will run and not grow weary, they will walk and not be faint. Give it to Him and he will give you the desires of your heart Acknowledgements First and foremost, I give all the glory to God who is able to do immeasurably more than all we ask or imagine according to his power that is at work within us (Ephesians 320). I would like to thank Dr.

Bruce Winston for his consummate professionalism, dedication to excellence, and unique ability to challenge one to achieve greater heights. Also, I would like to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Maurice Buford and Dr. Steve Firestone. Lastly, I would like to thank my family Vicki, Jared, Ryan and Terah for their support and understanding in allowing me to pursue this endeavor over the past several years. Table of Contents Abstract..

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iii Dedication…. iv Acknowledgments.

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..v List of Tables and Figures. viii Chapter 1 Introduction…1 Theories and Variables.

..2 Relationship of the Variables..

..5 Propositions….7 Scope.

…..8 Analysis.

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.9 Limitations of the Study10 Timeline/Budget….10 Chapter 2 Literature Review.11 Situational Leadership Theory and Model Description..

..12 Multilevel Leadership Model Description….13 Followers Role in the Leader-Follower Relationship.

.18 Chapter 3 Research and Methodology……

.. Research Design.

..31 Sample and Population….

.33 Research Instrument and Validity..

..34 Data Collection Method…

35 Data Analysis…….

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38 Managing and Organizing Data……

39 Reading and Memoing Emergent Ideas……39 Describing and Classifying Codes into Themes.

….40 Developing and Assessing Interpretations…

…41 Representing and Visualizing the Data..

…..42 Chapter 4 Results..

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43 Data Management..60 Candidate Selection.60 Interview Process.61 Transcription and Member Checking..62 Data Saturation63 Secure Fire and Storage.

..64 Describing and Classifying. Completing the Interview..

..66 Sub-Question One67 Distrust and Cynicism.68 Active Participation.

70 Doing the Minimum72 Unmotivated74 Didnt Question Leaders.75 Sub-Question Two75 Competent Leaders.76 Questionable Directives.

.77 Change of Job Responsibilities…

78 Sub-Question Three..79 Mutual Trust79 Delegating80 Directive…81 Conflict Inducing..

82 Chapter 5 Discussion87 References…88 Appendix A.

Interview Protocol Guide99 Appendix B. Pre-Qualification Checklist102 Appendix C. Participant Demographic Sheet.103 Appendix D. Informed Consent.104 Appendix E.

Interview Phase (1 -3) …110 Appendix F.115 Human Subject Review Form116 List of Tables Table 1 Participant Demographic Information..

.63 Table 2 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 1 …..

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…71 Table 3 The Samplings View of Situational Followership Styles.71 Table 4 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 1 …

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76 Table 6 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 1 …..

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….81 Table 8 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 2 …

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…..83 Table 9 The Samplings View of Difficult or Simple Followership Styles..

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…86 Table 11 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 2 ..

…………………………….88 Table 12 Participant Excerpts, Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 3……..90 Table 13 The Samplings View of Leadership Styles ..90 Table 14 Participant Excerpts, Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 3……..93 Table 15 Participant Excerpts, Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 3……..95 Table 16 Participant Excerpts, Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 3……..96 Table 17 Participant Excerpts, Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 4……..98 Table 18 The Samplings View of Leadership Styles ..99 Table 19 Participant Excerpts, Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 4…….101 Table 20 Participant Excerpts, Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 4…….102 Table 21 Participant Excerpts, Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 4…….104 Table 22 Participant Excerpts, Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 4…….105 Table 22 The Samplings View of SQ (3) Leadership Styles While Serving.. Missions106 Table 23 The Samplings View of SQ (4) Leadership Styles While Serving.. Missions107 Table 24 Participant Excerpts, Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 1 2,…….109 Table 25 The Samplings View of SQ (1) Followership Styles While Serving…110 Table 26 The Samplings View of SQ (2) Difficult or Simple Followership… Styles.List of Figures Figure 1 Number of Afghanistan and Iraq Deployments65 Figure 2 World Cloud Illustrates the Leadership and Followership Relationship..66 Figure 3 Number of Afghanistan and Iraq Deployments65 Figure 4 A View of the Situational Leadership and Sub-Themes Along with Frequencies…….118 Figure 5 A View of the Developmental Leadership Approach and Sub-Themes Along with Frequencies…….119 Figure 6 Situational Followership Styles That Were Experienced While Serving On Different Combat Missions…………121 Figure 7 Leading Change in the Organization That Influences Certain Followership Styles in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars….122 Figure 8 Armys Personnel, Training and Doctrine, Studies, But No Followership Focus……..125 Chapter 1 Introduction The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the different followership styles as experienced and perceived by United States Army officers and noncommissioned officers serving in combat situations in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. Much was written about the leader-follower relationship, including the work by Prilipko, Antelo, and Henderson (2011), Mosley and Patrick (2011), Northouse (2010), Bennis (2010), Riggio, Chaleff, Lipman-Blumen (2008) Kellerman (2007), and many others. However, literature was fairly non-existent about followership in the United States Army. In particular, what was not evident were the different followership styles exhibited by Army officers and noncommissioned officers in different combat missions. In combat, leaders cannot participate in every operation due to missions occurring simultaneously, planning the next mission, attending briefings, killed or wounded in action, end of a combat tour, or rotating to a follow-on position. As a result, subordinate officers and noncommissioned officers were required to exercise complex leadership and management tasks in their absence. Therefore, the research study posited theres no one best followership style that is best for every situation. Hersey and Blanchard (1977) developed the situational leadership theory which posited leadership depends upon each situation and no single leadership style can be considered the best (Hersey, 2001, p. 4). Also, Hersey and Blanchard (1984) suggested different leadership styles required for each type of task. Subsequently, Burns (1978) posited leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation (p. 20). They collectively worked together to benefit each other and the organization. Later, Kellerman (2007), Chaleff (1995) and Kelley (1988) introduced theres a distinction between followers and leaders. Additionally, Payne (2016), Leonard (2014) and Stringer (2009) suggested to successfully address leadership the Army must understand the contributions followers made toward military operations to meet the challenges of the Post-Cold War era. However, the Army Doctrine Reference Publication 6-22, Army Leadership (2012), only mentioned follower as an attribute of leadership (p. v). The research study incorporated a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to different followership styles as experienced and perceived by Army personnel serving in combat situations in Afghanistan or Iraq. Theory and Variables There are several leadership and followership theories (Eden Leviatan, 1975 Hersey Blanchard, 1977 Phillips and Lord, 1981 Graen, Novak, Sommerkamp, 1982 Liden, Sparrow, Wayne 1997 Chemers, 2001 Hogg, 2001 van Knippenberg Hogg, 2003 Yukl, 2010 Riggio, Chaleff, Lipman-Blueman, 2008 Sy, 2010) to name a few. However, the research focused on Hersey Blanchard (1977) situational leadership theory and Riggio et al. (2008) followership theory as it related to the different followership styles exhibited by Army officers and noncommissioned officers serving on combat situations in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. Also, according to Crossman Crossman (2011) several definitions of followership have been introduced into literature (Fairhurst Grant, 2010 Kellerman, 2007 Bjugstad, Thach, Thompson, Morris, 2006 Chaleff, 1995 and Kelley, 1988, 1992). However, this study utilized Carsten, Uhl-Bien, West, Patera, McGregor (2010) definition. Carsten et al. (2010) defined followership as A relational role in which followers have the ability to influence leaders and contribute to the improvement and attainment of the group and organizational objectives (p. 559). Hersey and Blanchard (1984) situational leadership theory argued, Leaders must use different leadership styles depending on the situation (p.4). In this framework, the leader vacillated between emphasizing the task or relationship with the follower depending on the situation (Sreenidhi, Helena, Priyanka, 2017). Hunt (1991) concluded direct leadership was the level where individual soldiers and small units carried out very specific tasks in support of higher-level objectives. Additionally, Wong, Bliese, McGurk (2003) addressed direct leadership occurs at the battalion level and below and were lieutenant colonels who commanded units of up to 500 600 soldiers and have been in the Army for about 16 years (p. 675). Company commanders were typically captains who commanded units of up to 100 200 soldiers and been in the Army for approximately six years, and Sergeants Major and First Sergeants were noncommissioned officers (NCOs) who have been in the Army for approximately 15 to 20 years. For example, in Iraq and Afghanistan, areas that assigned to larger units with more personnel, assets, and support were now assigned to small units that assumed the same responsibilities. Shinseki and White (2003) addressed three stratifications of war as strategic, operational, and tactical levels (U.S. Army, 2001a). The strategic level stated, National policy is at stake, and national resources are used to accomplish strategic military objectives derived from the National Command Authority guidance (Wong et al., 2003, p. 662). Also, campaigns and major operations were fought at the operational level which links the tactical employment of forces to strategic objectives (Wong et al., 2003, p. 662). This level links the tactical employment of forces to strategic objectives. Lastly, the tactical level, similarly to the direct leadership level, was where battles and engagements are fought (p. 662). Also, Wong et al. (2003) concluded the shift to more deployable, agile units in the future would require leaders to be more innovative and creative especially at the tactical level where units will be operating much more independently than in the past (p. 674). Consequently, Stringer (2009) asserted followers at lower ranks were increasingly required to exercise complex leadership and management tasks (p. 88). These tasks directly affect the outcome of larger operations which influence American foreign policy not only at the tactical but operational and strategic levels as well. Hersey and Blanchard (1984) posited the leader must adjust to the situation in different ways telling and directing manner, selling and coaching, participating and supporting, or delegating tasks (p. 6). In this instance, the leaders effectiveness and success are ultimately dependent upon the approach the leader takes with the follower which is dictated by the situation. However, while the situational leadership concept included early discussions of followership, its focus remained on the leader and the situational context it did less to portray an independent role for followers. Riggio et al. (2008) posited followership could be a shifting process where the leader and follower roles alternate. Within the shifting role, the follower can take a leading or a subservient role according to whats best for the organization and mission. The U.S. Army Field Manual 3-24.2, Tactics in Counterinsurgency (2009), addressed todays Post-Cold War military operations as highly decentralized requiring valuable insights into skills and competencies starting at the small unit level It requires leaders at all levels to adjust their approach constantlySoldiers and Marines are expected to be nation builders as well as warriors. They must be prepared to help re-establish institutions and local security forces and assist in rebuilding infrastructure and basic servicesThe list of such tasks is long performing them involves extensive coordination and cooperation with many intergovernmental, host nation, and international agencies (Forward, U.S. Army FM 3-24.2). Another view of followership is Kelley, in the book The Art of Followers How Great Followers Create Great Leaders and Organizations, Riggio et al. (2008). Kelley (1988) saw the leaders and followers role as equal but involving different activities (p.147). Also, Kelley (1988) concluded, effective leaders have the vision, interpersonal skills, verbal capacity, organizational talent, and the desire to lead (p. 147). Conversely, effective followers could work well with others, to see the big picture of the roles of both leader and follower and the ability and desire to participate in a team effort for a greater good (Kelley, 1988, p. 147). Kelley outlined five basic followership styles (a) sheep, (b) yes-people, (c) alienated, (d) pragmatic, and (e) star followers (Riggio et al., 2008, pp. 7-8). The sheep were passive followers that relied on the leader to do all the thinking for them. The second style was the yes-people or conformists that actively follow orders and did not question the decisions of the leaders or organizations. Subsequently, alienated followers thought for themselves but were often negative. These follower types dwelt on the current plan of action and what was wrong with it, instead of thinking about the next step. Also, the pragmatics was the type of followers who sat on the fence and waited for others to decide before jumping on board. Pragmatics did what they must to survive. The final type of follower was the star followers. These followers thought for themselves, were active, and had positive energy. They applied independent evaluation of the outcome, and if they disagreed with the leader, they offered constructive alternatives to help the leader and organization (p. 7). Also, Lanier (2012) suggested leaders and followers must tailor their tactics to the situational realities to operate congruently (p. 40). Chaleff (2009), in the book The Art of Followership How Great Followers Create Great Leaders and Organizations, Riggio et al. (2008), suggested five main qualities or dimensions of followership (a) courage to assume responsibility, (b) courage to serve, (c) courage to challenge, (d) courage to participate in personal and organizational transformation, and (e) courage to take moral action (pp. 72-73). Chaleff (2009) acknowledged both leaders and followers serve a common purpose, each from their own role and how this role might be performed in different circumstances (pp. 70-71). Also, according to Riggio et al. (2008), leaders and followers role must be aligned with the organizational goals to be successful. Vane and Toguchi (2010) posited the future operational environment required decentralized positions, distributed operations, effective small-unit leaders, and well-trained small units that must bear the brunt of close combat in the years to come (p. 73). Consequently, Chaleff (2003) suggested being a good follower is risky because a follower is responsible to the leader as well as to the mission of the organization, is willing to serve the leader, is willing to challenge the leader, and is transformational at times (Riggio et al., 2008, pp. 72-73). Therefore, Tsai and Yung (2013) posited the key is rooted in shared values and indispensable conditions of leader and followers who work together to create an effective situation (p. 3). Additionally, Chaleff (2003) posited the follower was a role some individuals assumed at various times in the organization while working collaboratively. Accordingly, Andert, Platt, and Alexakis (2011) suggested alternating leadership may be at odds with the traditional top-down organizational structure. Andert et al., (2011) posited replacing it with a more fluid and interactive leadership and followership as a dual-role. Lastly, Riggio et al. (2008) concluded followership was innately tied to leadership, and without leadership, followership does not exist. Conversely, without followership leadership does not exist. Relationship of the Variables There are several variables used at the tactical level such as mission, enemy, terrain, and weather, troops available, time, and civil considerations were analyzed for each mission (U.S. Army Field Manual 3-24.2, 2009, pp. 1-6 1-7). The mission is the task and purpose that identifies the reason and timeframe to be completed along with the anticipated consequences before and during execution (U.S. Army FM 3-24.2, 2009, pp. 1-6). In a counterinsurgency operation, the enemy situation is somewhat ambiguous and confusing because of the lack of traditional task organization and publicized doctrine. Specifically, the enemy varies in the level of training, commitment, experience and capability (U.S. Army FM 3-24.2, 2009, pp. 1-6). Langley, Smallman, Tsoukas, and Van De Ven (2013) suggested ambiguity can be mitigated by continual development of initial ideas through the arena of organization-wide conversation which minimizes ambiguity, ambivalence, and uncertainties at all levels, especially at the level of the followers. Copeland (2015) argued that is when the follower needs to know the right time to be a sheep (doing routine things routinely), a yes man (shut-up and do your job), or a pragmatist (doesnt make a decision until others decide), alienated (intentionally or unintentionally disrupts the flow of an organization), or a star performer who knows the role they need to play at that moment in time. Wong et al. (2003) surmised leaders and followers must be innovative because units will be operating much more independently. According to Gordan, Gilley, Avery, Gilley, and Barber (2014), this can be done by providing developmental leadership that enables organizations to develop new ideas and provides safe outlets for innovation. Leaders who developed trust continually focused on removing fear, communicating, interacting with followers, accepting followers, and are also personal, trustworthy, and honest (Gordan et al., 2014). Also, Goh and Jie (2014) argued trust is a major factor in producing relationships and culture that is healthy and fruitful. Therefore, todays leaders and followers must create and sustain a culture of accountability and commitment (Hopper, 2008). The commander and staff must consider a multitude of conditions in a counterinsurgency environment such as the terrain and weather and the effects on soldiers, equipment, mobility, and visibility (U.S. Army FM 3-24.2, 2009, pp. 1-7). Consequently, Gronn (2002) posited in a complex environment leadership cant be focused on one individual with the status of leader (p. 429). According to Gronn (2002), it must be viewed as distributed leadership where the aggregated leadership of an organization was dispersed among some, many, or maybe all the members (p. 429). Therefore, to be successful, the commander must judiciously use every available asset to maximize strength to reduce vulnerabilities. The interaction between leaders and followers determines which role is appropriate to assume at the time (Lichtenstein, 2006). Additionally, the commander must leverage all Host Nation security forces such as police, army, and paramilitary forces to control the population and disrupt the insurgency (FM 3-24.2, 2009, p. 1-7). The availability of time is vital to the tactical operations planning and execution. For example, major operations need longer periods of time for detailed planning. For example, Stability operations involving political, economic, and social issues take a considerable amount of time. On the other hand, the planning time is relatively shorter, and the information is limited to offensive operations against a fleeing enemy target (U.S. Army FM 3-24.2, 2009, pp. 1-7). Therefore, Brumm Drury (2013) suggested leaders that conducted long-term planning successfully empowered followers to be positive followers. Brumm and Drury (2013) concluded there was a relationship between strategic planning and followership. However, Carsten Bligh (2008) concluded Leaders who take sole responsibility for creating the vision and the strategy for dissemination run the risk of encountering resistance, misalignment, or worse, rejection of the vision altogether (p. 283). Lipman-Blumen (2005) proposed toxic leaders used vision to harm and destroy followers and organizations. The only antidote to toxic leaders and their misuse of power is courageous followers who were willing to stand up to toxic leaders and their vision. Conversely, destructive follower behavior was never good for any organization. According to Woods (2009), negative followers were pessimists who see the worst in every situation. Also, Lanier (2012) noted passive acquiescent followership did a disservice to both leaders and followers as well. Woods (2009) posited these negative attributes made the job of a leader and follower difficult, especially when it came to meet the goals and mission of an organization. Leaders and followers alike must challenge the negative follower by strategically conveying to them their significance to the organization or ultimately dismissing the individual if the behavior is unchanged (Leichtling, 2006). Lastly, civil consideration is vital in counterinsurgency operations because whoever the population supports has the advantage. Consequently, civil considerations were typically one of the most important variables to accomplish the overall mission (FM 3-24.2, 2009, pp. 1-7). Riggio et al. (2008) posited an effective follower was one who was driven by moral action that was derived from loyalty to mission, vision, and humanity. Followers have a common purpose with the leader but do not serve the leader (Riggio et al., 2008). According to Tsai Yung (2013), the key is rooted in shared values and indispensable conditions of leader and followers who work together to create an effective organization (p. 3). Thus, to some extent, followership is the mirror image of leadership (Tsai Yung, 2013, p. 2). This study analyzed the followership styles perceived and experienced by personnel serving in Iraq or Afghanistan and posits a followership style was dictated by the situation, type of mission or operation. The researcher reduced the study to one central overarching question (CQ1) and several sub-questions (Creswell Poth, 2018). Creswell and Poth (2018) posited the open-ended supporting questions directly supported the central research question (Q1) of the study. The open-ended sub-questions further analyzed the phenomenon and divided the central question into supportive parts (Creswell Poth, 2018). Propositions CQ1. Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one followership style that can be considered the best for each situation SQ1. Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ2. Can you provide examples of the difficulty or simplicity of followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ3. Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ4. Did you identify or experience any leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ5. Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation Scope The research study consisted of participants from the 3d Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. The 3d Infantry Division was selected because of its distinction of having one of the most successful combat records of any U.S. division by its participation in World War I, World War II, Korean, Persian Gulf, Iraq and Afghanistan wars (3d Infantry Division Home Page, 2016). Also, the 3d Infantry Division was selected because of its proximity and access to the Army veteran population. Ten research participants were selected for this study with purposeful sampling from the population of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom (Patton, 2002). Padgett (2008) posited purposeful sampling was a deliberate process of selecting respondents based on their ability to provide the needed information (p. 53). Also, Palinkas, Horwitz, Green, Wisdom, Duan, and Hoagwood (2013) suggested purposeful sampling was widely used in qualitative research to identify and select information-rich cases related to the phenomenon (Patton, 2002, p. 245). According to Mason (2010), a more common sample may consist of 20-30 interviews. Flowers, Larkin, and Smith (2009) recommended between 4 to 10 participants, Padgett (2008) referenced 6 to 10 however, since this was a homogenous sample data saturation may occur with as few as six interviews (Guest, Bunce, Johnson, 2006). Also, this study incorporated a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to explicate the meanings as experiences as we live them in our everyday world (van Manen, 1990, p.11). Analysis The research study used NVivo, computer-assisted qualitative analysis software, to assist in coding and categorizing responses from the interviews. Qualitative data was collected by conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews that were guided by the overarching central and corresponding supporting research questions (Creswell Poth, 2018). A three-phased interview approach was conducted with each research participant (a) pre-interview, (b) initial interview and (c) follow-up interview. The pre-interview phase ensured participants met the qualification criteria, completed the demographic and informed consent forms. An interview guide and protocol were designed to detail the topics to be discussed and the questions to be asked during the interview. The goal of the first phase was to put the co-researchers lived experience related to the phenomenon of study into context and refined the interview content (Seidman, 2006). Also, all interviews were conducted in a climate that the research participants were comfortable to promote comprehensive and honest responses. The second phase of the interview was an opportunity for the co-researcher to reconstruct the details of their lived experience and ensured they were fully transferred and understood for the benefit of the study. Member checking was conducted throughout the sequence of the interviews. Member checking ensured the co-researchers information was an accurate reflection of their lived experiences. The third phase of the interview encouraged the co-researcher to reflect on the meaning of the experience and provided the researcher the opportunity to fill in missing information and pursue leads from earlier interviews. Each interview took approximately two hours, and all interviews were digitally recorded with prior approval from the participants and transcribed verbatim. Additionally, notes were taken while the interviews were conducted to formulate new questions (Patton, 2002, p. 383). According to Patton (2002), note taking will help pace the interview by providing non-verbal cues about whats important, providing feedback to the interviewee about what kind of things are especially noteworthy (p. 383). Lastly, the researcher identified a potential bias concerning personnel selected for this study. The researcher worked with several of the participants in a previous organization. Thus, according to Sinkovics, Penz, Ghauri (2008), in their study, Enhancing the Trustworthiness of Qualitative Research in International Business, proposed three approaches to guarantee construct validity that would remove researchers bias, which are (1a) multiple sources of evidence, (2b) chain of evidence, and (3c) feedback to key informants (p. 703). Limitations of the study The limitation of the study is the sample population is limited to the 3d Infantry Division, and the convenience sample may have impacted the data because it was chosen for the proximity to the researcher. This study was not longitudinal. Thus any insights gained are based on one point in time. Also, the self-reporting nature of the research may have affected the data. It was possible that the participants of the study did not answer the questions truthfully regarding their actions and may have answered or told the story based on how they would have liked to behave in a certain situation rather than how they behaved. Lastly, the population sample is a homogenous group and will not be a cross-cultural study. Timeline/Budget This study will span approximately an eighteen-month period. Twelve months to complete Chapters 1 -3 and proposal defense, two months to conduct interviews and follow-ups, two months to conduct data analysis, and two months for the conclusion. Also, the proposal is estimated to cost 200.00 100.00 for NVivo software, 25.00 for reproduction cost, 50.00 for a recorder and 25.00 miscellaneous costs. Chapter 2 Literature Review This chapter provided a review of the literature corresponding to the leader-follower relationship, leadership styles, and followership. The first section provided the background for the situational leadership theory and model description of the leader empowering the follower to assume a dual role. The second section provided the multilevel leadership model description background, U.S. Army transformation, future conflict requirements, and leadership styles. The third section addressed followership and the importance of the followers role in the leader-follower relationship. Also, each section contained interview questions relevant to the content of this dissertation. Lastly, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the different followership styles as experienced and perceived by U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers serving in combat situations in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. The researcher reduced the study to one central overarching question (CQ1) and several sub-questions (Creswell Poth, 2018). Creswell and Poth (2018) posited the open-ended supporting questions directly supported the central research question (CQ1) of the study. The open-ended sub-questions further analyzed the phenomenon and divided the central question into supportive parts (Creswell Poth, 2018). Interview Questions CQ1. Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one followership style that can be considered the best for each situation SQ1. Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ2. Can you provide examples of the difficulty or simplicity of followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ3. Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ4. Did you identify or experience any leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ5. Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation Situational Leadership Theory and Model Description of the Leader Empowering the Follower to Assume a Dual Role Hersey and Blanchard (1977) posited theres no one best leadership style thats appropriate for every situation. Hersey, Carlos, Randolph (2001) created a situational leadership model II that empowered people through effective one-on-one leadership (p. 22). Hersey et al. (2001) illustrated four different leadership styles S1 directing, S2 coaching, S3 supporting, and S4 delegating (p.22). First, S1 directing was a style used by the leader due to the followers inexperience, lack of motivation or being a new hire (Mulder, 2013). Wong et al., (2003) defined the Army as a hierarchy and suggested there was a clear delineation of power across all organizational levels and clear prescriptions about how leaders and subordinates are expected to interact (p. 659). For example, Army leaders and commanders were obligated to enforce the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) which is like our civilian judicial system. Army Regulation (AR) 600-20 posited, Command is the authority that a leader in the armed forces lawfully exercised over subordinates by rank or assignment (p. 1-2). Also, leaders and commanders at all levels adhered to the Law of War and ensured subordinates operated accordingly (ADRP 6-22, 2012). Subsequently, leaders and commanders were responsible for the subordinates health, welfare, morale, and discipline both on and off duty (p. 1-3). Additionally, leaders directed subordinates to receive proper training and care, uphold expected values, and accomplish missions (ADRP 6-22, p. 1-3). Therefore, the commander shaped the organization and subordinates by mastering individual competencies and tailoring them to the situation at hand (ADRP 6-22, 2012, p. 1-5). Second, S2 coaching required guidance and mentorship to a subordinate who was not capable of completing the task because of lack of skills or knowledge (Mulder, 2013). U.S. Army Field Manual (FM) 7-0 (2009) suggested todays operational environment was one of persistent conflict as experienced recently with the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. Also, the U.S. Joint Forces Command Study concluded The conduct of war demanded a deep understanding of the enemyhis culture, history, geography, religious and ideological motivations, and particularly the huge differences in his perceptions of the external world (p. 6). Stringer (2009) argued the Army lacked language skills and cultural expertise to operate in different environments throughout the world (p. 88). Consequently, the Armys operational concept has changed to all operations were now full spectrum operations (U.S. Army FM 3-0, 2008, p. 3-1). U.S. Army FM 3-0 (2008) suggested, Full spectrum operations required continuous, simultaneous combinations of offensive, defensive, and stability or civil support tasks (p. 3-1). According to U.S. Army FM 7-0 (2009), The Armys strategic depth required leaders, soldiers, and units with competencies in major combat and limited intervention operations (p. 1-3). Also, ADRP 6-22 (2012) concluded Noncommissioned officers have the roles of trainers, mentors, communicators, and advisors (p. 2-2). Therefore, full spectrum operations required decentralized rather than centralized operations and individuals at all levels were required to exercise complex leadership and management tasks (U.S. Army FM 7-0, 2008, 1-3, Stringer, 2009, p. 88). Third, S3 supporting required the leader to create an empowering and motivating workspace to increase the followers motivation (Mulder, 2013). Bush, during his speech at the U.S. Naval Academy in May 2001, suggested the military needed to foster a culture of forwarding thinkers and intelligent risk-taking (Wong et al., 2003). ADRP 6-22 argued effective leaders should allow subordinates to take prudent risks with the understanding mistakes will be made (p. 1-4). However, leaders and subordinates must learn from these mistakes, make corrections, become competent and experienced leaders in the future (ADRP 6-22). Also, Castro et al. (2008) suggested leaders who empowered their subordinates increased positive behavior and intellectually stimulated them to work harder (Liebenstein, 2014, p. 3). Conversely, Prilipko et al. (2011) posited, the goal of an effective follower was to strive towards cultivating a nurturing interpersonal work climate with other team members. Lastly, Belknap (2002) concluded a leader must apply the correct leadership style based on the different level of critical thinking of the follower (p. 55). Additionally, S4 is delegating required the least amount of oversight and used when followers were motivated and competent to complete the task independently (Mulder, 2013). Also, Hersey et al. (2001) identified different leadership styles depending on the followers development levels D1 (low competence and high commitment), D2 (low to some competence and low commitment), D3 (moderate to high competence and variable commitment), and D4 (high competence and high commitment) (p.22). Delegation is a critical skill that benefits the leaders and organization (Gallo, 2012). According to Doty Doty (2012), Operations in Afghanistan and Iraq are decentralized at a level that is new to our Armys culture, and it appears this operating environment will not change shortly (p. 37). Leonard (2014) posited capitalizing on the competencies of the followers improved the acceptance and implementation of the shared vision and provided a better environment for the accomplishment of the mission. Also, ADRP 6-22 (2010) concluded leaders who mentored, developed, and empowered subordinates developed a closer relationship and enhanced followers trust. Therefore, Schermerhorn, Hunt, Osborn (2002) posited, Unique shared values provided a strong corporate identity, enhanced collective commitment, provided a stable social system, and reduced the need of formal bureaucratic controls (p. 50). Finally, each one of these development levels depended on the followers competence and commitment (Hersey, Carlos, and Randolph, 2001, p. 22). Hersey et al. (2001) surmised competence was the knowledge and skills an individual brings to a goal or task (p. 24). Second, commitment was a combination of an individuals motivation and self-confidence in a goal or task (p. 24). Lastly, Hersey et al. (2001) concluded the leadership styles corresponded with the four development levels which moved followers sequentially from D1 – developing to ultimately D4 developed (p. 22). ADRP 6-22 (2011) suggested leaders must create an environment which empowered subordinates and instilled confidence in their abilities. Accordingly, Thach, Thompson, Morris (2006) concluded that developing follower competence was essential for high-performance organizations. Consequently, this required leaders to conduct a bottom to top assessment that identified the strengths and weaknesses of individuals, climate, culture, and organization (ADRP 6-22, 2011). For example, the U.S. Army developed an After-Action Review (AAR) that assessed the individual and unit strengths and weaknesses which increased overall organization effectiveness (Wong et al., 2003). Subsequently, ADRP 6-22 postulated both climate and culture where the context of how leaders and followers interacted, and each element affected the other. Commanders and leaders cannot prevent every bad thing from happening, but they can develop organizational culture and climate of accountability (Doty Doty, 2012). Hopper (2008) concluded, Accountability built-in organizational culture is less dysfunctional and enhances the followers level of commitment (p. 110). Conversely, Padilla (2013) argued with the absence of checks and balances adversely affected the organizations climate and culture and were detrimental to the success of the organization. This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded theres no single leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, this was relevant to U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers personal perceptions and lived experiences in identifying different leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Multilevel Leadership Model Description, Military Transformation, Future Conflict Requirements and Military Leadership Styles Hunt (1991) posited the long-term organizations viability is affected by the different levels of leadership ranging from sergeants to generals over different time horizons (Wong et al., 2003). Also, Hunt (1991) developed the extended multilevel leadership model that examined military leadership. Hunt (1991) suggested there were three military leadership levels systems, organizational and direct – with tasks, capabilities, and other leadership aspects noted at each level (Wong et al., 2003, p. 659). Each level of leadership paralleled the U.S. Armys stratification of warfare strategic, operational, and tactical levels (U.S. Army, 2001a). First, the systems level of leadership was three to four-star general officers and command sergeants majors interfacing with political officials at the highest levels. The systems-level of leadership was characterized by external environments that were unclear, difficult, and short-fused (Hunt, 1991 and Wong et al., 2003). For example, following 9/11 Secretary of the Army White and Army Chief of Staff General Shinseki were charged with transforming the Army into an instrument of national power that provides full spectrum operational capabilities that are strategically responsive and capable of decisive victory (Shinseki White, 2003, p. 2). At the strategic level, leaders are critical in organizational change and transformation (ADRP 6-22, 2012). According to ADRP 6-22, They establish force structure, allocate resources, communicate strategic vision, and prepare their commands and the Army for future roles (p. 2-5). Consequently, the U.S. Army War College concluded a strategic leaders primary critical task is to create an organizational vision and lead. Second, Hunt (1991) surmised the organizational levels mainly focused on new technology and an organizational structure based on changing world situations, and self-sustainability of the unit (Wong et al., 2003, p. 671). This level of leadership was typically colonels to two-star generals and sergeants majors. However, direct level leadership was predominately at the battalion level and encompassed lieutenant colonels and below, command sergeants majors, first sergeants and non-commissioned officers (Wong et al., 2003). Finally, Hunt (1991) argued how leadership and followership impacted the organizational effectiveness. This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded theres no single leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, this was relevant to officers and noncommissioned officers personal perceptions and lived experiences in identifying different leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Powers (2016) established the guide to U.S. Army organizations which identified and described different levels of leadership from the squad to Corps. Each element in the Armys military organization began with the individual soldier, squad, platoon, company, battalion, brigade, division, and up to Corps (Powers, 2016). Vane and Toguchi (2010) suggested small units, which are typically company and below, were the bill payers for close post-cold war combat operations. Therefore, this required Army leaders to devolve command responsibilities to lower ranking individuals to exercise complex leadership and management tasks (Stringer, 2009, p. 88). This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded theres no single leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, this was relevant in addressing the difficulty or simplicity of followership and leadership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq wars. Shinseki and White (2003) concluded todays Army required a transformational process to meet the challenges of our future adversaries. The transformation encompassed personnel, combat systems, installation and logistics, and leadership development, to name a few (Shinseki White, 2003). Consequently, military leaders were confronted with the arduous task of restructuring the organization to meet the changing world situation (Wong et al., 2003). According to Shinseki and White (2003), soldiers were pivotal in accomplishing our mission in a diverse, unpredictable, and volatile time in our history. Consequently, commissioned officers and noncommissioned officers, at all levels, must apply their skills and knowledge in a wide variety of missions both in peacetime and combat (Shinseki White, 2003). Therefore, leadership must be deliberate in its efforts to draw out the best practices in the followers within the organization to accomplish the Armys goals and mission. This was relevant in addressing the difficulty or simplicity of followership and leadership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq wars. Wong et al. (2003) utilized Hunts (1991) extended multilevel leadership model as a framework that examined military leadership literature, theories, and styles. Wong et al. (2003) posited the Army is a very large, diverse organization that maintained a domestic and global presence ranging from peace to combat roles, independently or concurrently. Also, Wong et al. (2003) surmised the military was a hierarchical organization with a clear delineation of power. Consequently, Wong et al. (2003) concluded Army leadership was intertwined at all levels from sergeants to generals. Lastly, according to Wong et al. (2003), leadership was exercised by both commissioned officers and noncommissioned officers especially at the direct level where close combat was executed with very high consequences (p. 662). This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded theres no single leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation while serving in missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars while serving in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Vane and Toguchi (2010) concluded future conflicts required well-trained small units and decentralized leadership. Traditionally, company and below are considered small units depending on the scope and complexity of the mission (Vane Toguchi, 2010, p. 74). Also, Vane Toguchi (2010) suggested future adversaries would integrate within their civilian populace to thwart the U.S. militarys tactical advantage and overwhelming firepower. Consequently, our adversaries would continue to operate in smaller networks to mitigate our technological abilities to track, locate and destroy them. Therefore, small unit leaders must develop trust, keep their subordinates informed, involve them in the decision-making process, and motivate followers to assume the leadership role to accomplish the mission (Vane Toguchi, 2010). This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded theres no single leadership or followership style that can be considered the best for each situation while serving in missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars while serving in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Stringer (2009) posited the growth of adversaries in foreign areas required junior enlisted and officers to discern hostile situations and make instantaneous decisions that will have long-term effects. According to Stringer (2009), education must transform to address the expanding responsibilities and knowledge gaps. Previously, language, cultural, critical thinking, and strategic training were designated strictly for higher ranking officers (Stringer, 2009). However, with the expanding duties of lower-level officers and enlisted, their success was dependent upon their ability to acquire additional training (Stringer, 2009). The goal of the adapted curriculum was to unify and equip the lower level officers and enlisted with the same critical thinking and problem-solving skills as high-level leaders. This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded there are no single followership or leadership styles that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, what personal perceptions and lived experiences did you have of officers and noncommissioned officers leadership and followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars The U.S. Armys Field Manual 3-24.2 (2009) posited the counterinsurgency battle could not be won by combat units alone because each counterinsurgency was uniquely different. According to U.S. Army FM 3-24.2 (2009), our future adversaries would continue to conduct guerilla or insurgent activities, and U.S. tactical units would need to adapt quickly, understand their strengths and weaknesses as well as the enemies, and be a learning organization to be successful (ix). Additionally, the counter-insurgent battlefield is more difficult than conventional ones because soldiers encountered Host Nation, Coalition and other U.S. forces, nongovernmental agencies, nonprofit organizations, contractors, and multiple ethnic groups that are divided, to name a few. This was relevant addressing the difficulty or simplicity of followership and leadership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq wars. Also, what personal perceptions and lived experiences did you have of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership and followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Followers Role in the Leader-Follower Relationship Kelley (1988) surmised the difference between a follower and a leader was the role they played and not intellect. Also, Kelley (1992) posited managers played both the role of the leader and follower throughout their day-to-day activities and career. Subsequently, Kelley (1988) developed a followership model. Kelley (1988) examined behaviors that led to effective or ineffective followers. Kelley (1988) concluded two dimensions arose as the primary characteristics of followership. The first dimension, independent thinking, measured the degree a follower exercised independent, critical thinking (p. 143). These followers accepted responsibility, took the initiative, and provided leaders with candid recommendations or advise. Conversely, dependent, uncritical thinking, were followers who accepted what the leaders said without question and only did what they were told to do (Bjugstad et al., 2006, p. 308). The second dimension determined if the follower was active or passive. Active and passive followers were different in their ability or inability to engage in organizational activities. For example, active followers assisted leaders in the decision-making process while passive followers waited for the leaders to decide (Tsai Yung, 2013). Kelley (1988, 1992) identified five different types of followership styles 1. alienated, 2. exemplary or star follower, 3. pragmatist or sometimes called survivors, 4. Sheep, also known as, passive, and 5. yes-people or sometimes referred to as conformists (Riggio et al., 2008, pp. 7-8). First, according to Kelley (1988), alienated followers possessed the independent, critical thinking but, were cynical and skeptical. Second, exemplary followers exhibited both independent, critical thinking and were active participants within the organization and supported the leader (Kelley, 1992). Conversely, Sheep or passive followers didnt possess independent, critical thinking, were inactive participants within an organization and required constant direction (Favara, 2009). Fourth, yes-people or conformists actively follow orders and did not question the decisions of the leaders or organization. Lastly, pragmatics or survivors rode the proverbial fence and waited for it to be safe before deciding or acting on something. For example, they performed basic job functions, did the minimum, and survival was their main motivation (Kelley, 1992). Kelley (2008) argued to understand both positive and negative follower behaviors a leader must understand the different followership styles. Also, Kelley (1992) suggested finding the right follower was important as finding the right leader. According to Blackshear (2003), the ideal follower developed and sustained the best organizational performance (p. 25). Therefore, Kelley (1992) concluded a follower who possessed both independent, critical thinking and active followership was considered effective in any organization. This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded theres no single followership style that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, do you believe theres only one leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation Lanier (2012) concluded effective leaders were acknowledged and incorporated followers in daily activities from team to senior level management. Lanier (2012) posited typical situations required both leadership and followership to obviate a persons title or position depending on the situation. According to Lanier (2012), good leadership required good followership and good followership prepared an inexperienced person to become a good leader when the situation arose (Lanier, 2012). Therefore, followership and leadership were mutually supportive, and a follower was not subservient to the leader in a healthy organization (Lanier, 2012). Lastly, Lanier (2012) suggested successful organizations depended on the synergy between leaders and followers. Lanier (2012) surmised leaders and followers vacillated between roles depending on the situation to accomplish the goals and mission. This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded there are no single leadership or followership styles that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, can you provide examples of the difficulty or simplicity of leadership and followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq wars Chaleff (2003) proposed a followership model which was similar to Kelleys (1988) model. Chaleff (2003) used two dimensions to identify the followers behavior. First, the willingness to challenge was like Kelleys (1992) independent, critical thinking (Chaleff, 2003, pp. 40-43 and Riggio et al., 2008, p. 75). Second, the willingness to support was roughly equivalent to Kelleys (1992) active/passive axis (Riggio et al., 2008, p. 75). Also, Chaleff (2003) identified four followership styles 1. implementer, 2. partner, 3. resource, and 4. individualist (Riggio et al., 2008, p. 75). Chaleff (2003) argued implementers were a low challenge and high support. Implementers were like Kelleys (1992) yes-people or conformist (Chaleff, 2003, p. 41). Chaleff (2003) suggested implementers required minimal supervision but, as they are yes-people, they will not tell the leader when he begins down the wrong path (p. 41). According to Chaleff (2003), partners possessed both high challenge and high support. For example, partners were not afraid to challenge a leaders or organizations policies and decisions. Partners were like Kelleys (1992) exemplary/star followers (Auerelie Martin, 2013). Also, Chaleff (2003) argued resources represented followers who do an honest days work for days pay but do not go beyond the minimum expected of them (p. 43). These followers were like Kelleys (1988) sheep/passive followers. Lastly, the individualist was comparable to Kelleys (1988) alienated followers. Chaleff (2003) posited individualists could confront a leader about their behavior or policies but, were critical and resentful. This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded theres no single followership style that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, what personal perceptions and lived experiences did you have of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Tsai and Yung (2013) posited that an effective follower possessed three key elements 1. Work-related knowledge, 2. Good communication skills and 3. Motivation (p. 6). First, an effective follower has integrated themselves into the fabric of the organization, and their input is vital in the decision-making process. The follower resolved problems and explored different alternatives that contributed to the organization (Tsai Yung, 2013). Second, followers expressed their concerns and ideas to the leader with candor and tact. Lastly, an effective follower was motivated to get the job done and met or exceeded the expectation of the organization (Tsai Yung, 2013). Tsai and Yung (2013) concluded followership and leadership created a synergy that allowed for a high functioning interpersonal and intrapersonal skill sets. This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded there are no single followership or leadership styles that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, what personal perceptions and lived experiences did you have of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership and followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Andert et al. (2011) suggested leadership was an alternating role. Andert et al. (2011) recommended the definition of leadership should include multiple people focused on a common goal instead of one individual. Also, Andert et al. (2011) surmised alternating leadership occurred at all levels of organizations with or without the explicit knowledge of senior management. Consequently, Andert et al. (2011) suggested alternating leadership challenged the traditional understanding of autocratic and hierarchical leadership. Lastly, Andert et al. (2011) concluded the leader/follower dual function existed within each (p. 53). This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded there are no single followership or leadership styles that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, what personal perceptions and lived experiences did you have of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership and followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Langley et al. (2013) suggested individuals or organizations can be analyzed over successive time periods. Langley et al. (2013) posited experiences could be observed to understand better specific actions and how those past actions impact current events. Langley et al. (2013) surmised each event could be studied and analyzed into smaller units. Also, leaders that captured these organizational processes over time could place them into practice (Langley et al., 2013, p. 5). Subsequently, transferred knowledge was adapted into actionable processes. According to Langley et al. (2013), those leaders had a better understanding and theoretical interpretation that worked in different situations. However, with todays ever-changing environment leaders may not be able to process each task. Also, a follower may assume the leadership role to complete the task in an ambiguous situation (Tsai Young, 2013). This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded there are no single followership or leadership styles that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, did you identify or experience any leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Gordan et al. (2014) developed a structural model that identified and reinforced specific leadership behaviors from the followers perspective. Gordan et al. (2014) identified five positive leadership behaviors to develop trust (a) fair, (b) employee growth, (c) ethical, (d) culture, and, (e) work-life balance (p. 50). First, Gordan et al. (2014) posited leaders and organizations that treated employees fairly achieved greater success and created a competitive advantage through people and processes (p. 51). Second, Gordan et al. (2014) concluded employee growth and development was another example of positive behaviors engendered by leaders. According to Gordan et al. (2014), employee growth developed their followers and equipped them with the knowledge and skills to be more effective (p. 51). Third, ethical behavior was the most significant and had the most impact on the followers trust in leaders (Gordan et al., 2014, p. 52). Fourth, Gordan et al. (2014) surmised leaders that influenced organizational culture was the next most important behavior. This implied follower involvement and developed personal relationships. Lastly, Gordan et al. (2014) suggested leaders were key factors in establishing a work-life balance and those that did increased trust among followers. Consequently, Gordan et al. (2014) identified two negative behaviors (a) hostile and (b) ineffective environments (p. 50). Gordan et al. (2014) concluded both behaviors had negative effects on developing trust between leaders and followers. This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded there are no single followership or leadership styles that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, what personal perceptions and lived experiences did you have of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership and followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Gronn (2002) proposed a new unit of analysis for leadership based on a more holistic understanding focused on individual versus collective contributions. Gronn (2002) posited previous leadership concepts were too narrow. Also, Gronn (2002) suggested distributed leadership meant the aggregated leadership of an organization is dispersed among some, many, or maybe all of the members (p. 429). Subsequently, Gronn (2002) distinguished between numerical and concerted actions (p. 425). According to Gronn (2002), numerical actions did not apply to one individual. However, numerical actions suggested, organizational members could be leaders at some stage (Wenger, 2000, p. 231). Additionally, Gronn (2002) discussed concerted actions as three main patterns (a) spontaneous collaboration, (b) intuitive working relations and (c) institutionalized practices (p. 425). First, Gronn (2002) suggested spontaneous collaboration involved the interaction of many leaders that manifested in different ways to accomplish numerous tasks (p. 430). For example, individuals with different skills and expertise collaborated for a specific time to solve a problem and then returned to their separate positions within an organization. Second, Gronn (2002) suggested intuitive working relations emerged over time by two or more individuals and developed a working relationship to achieve agreed upon goals. Lastly, Gronn (2002) posited institutionalized practices reflected a more rigid form of hierarchical leadership. However, Gronn (2002) recommended developing new structures that incorporated collaboration and shared outcomes. This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded there are single followership or leadership styles that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, what personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership and followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Brumm and Drury (2013) surmised leaders who practiced strategic planning empowered their followers and encouraged them to be positive. For example, leaders who practiced strategic planning encouraged follower training, communication, participation, and successfully anticipated the time, personnel and resources required to complete the task (Brumm Drury, 2013). Conversely, leaders who conducted poor strategic planning influenced negative follower behavior (Brumm Drury, 2013). Brumm and Drury (2013) suggested leaders who planned poorly created an unbalanced work-life, lacked training, impaired leader-follower relationships, repeated mistakes, and inadequately accounted for personnel and resources to complete the job. According to Chaleff (2009), follower behavior in some cases reflected that of the leader and resulted in low morale or effectiveness. However, positive leader behavior typically resulted in effective followers (Chaleff, 2009). Consequently, Brumm Drury (2013) concluded theres a positive relationship by followers who perceived a leader who conducted strategic planning and how they empowered followers to be good followers or influenced to be poor followers (p. 22). This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded there are no single followership or leadership styles that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, what personal perceptions and lived experiences did you have of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership or followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Carsten and Bligh (2008) posited leaders needed to involve followers in the process of vision creation, dissemination, and implementation (Riggio et al., 2008, p. 277). According to Carsten Bligh (2008), followers were just as important as leaders because they could effectively create and implement the organizations vision (Riggio et al., 2008). Also, Carsten Bligh (2008) surmised organizations that developed an effective, collaborative vision positively influenced the followers behaviors towards the leader and organization (p. 279). For example, leaders who articulated a vision increased the followers trust, performance, and unification (Riggio et al., 2008). Conversely, Carsten Bligh (2008) suggested leaders who espoused a misaligned vision decreased the followers ownership and supported to implement the vision, to name a few (Riggio et al., 2008). Lastly, Carsten Bligh (2008) concluded both leaders and followers were required for a vision to be created, accepted, disseminated and implemented for an organization to be successful (p. 289). This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded there are no single followership or leadership styles that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, what personal perceptions and lived experiences did you have of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership and followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Lipman-Blumen (2005) concluded there are two dimensions of toxic leaders 1. destructive behavior, and 2. dysfunctional personal qualities (p. 652). Also, Lipman-Blumen (2005) suggested destructive behavior manipulated people by feeding on their fears, undermined an institutions rules and policies to prevent mistreatment, and misused power for personal gain, to name a few (p. 652). Additionally, dysfunctional personal qualities consisted of amorality, lack of integrity, and cowardice, to name a few (p. 653). Consequently, Lipman-Blumen (2005) identified four dimensions of toxic leadership 1. intention, 2. intensity, 3. duration, and, 4. impact (pp.653 – 654). First, Lipman-Blumen (2005) posited intention could be unintended or deliberate actions toward an individual or group. Second, Lipman-Blumen (2005) surmised the intensity of the action measured from mild to intense. Third, Lipman-Blumen (2005) suggested the duration of toxic behavior was either short or long-term. Lastly, Lipman-Blumen (2005) surmised a toxic leaders impact referred to the number of lives and careers that were affected by their actions (p. 654). Consequently, destructive behavior and actions of toxic leaders were counterintuitive to building trust and undermined the integrity of an organization. Kelly suggested, Followers were the primary defenders of toxic leaders (Riggio et al., 2008, p. 14). Conversely, toxic followers negatively affected the welfare of the organization and personnel which paralleled that of a toxic leader. This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded theres no single followership style that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, did you identify or experience any leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Goh and Jie (2014) concluded trust were essential in servant leadership and organizational commitment (p. 19). According to Goh Jie (2014), followers who viewed leaders as trustworthy typically had a better relationship with the leader and resulted in greater work satisfaction and organizational commitment. Also, Goh Jie (2014) posited managers who focused less on the conventional top-down organizational hierarchy created a more positive climate and increased follower trust. Goh and Jie (2014) suggested leaders who demonstrated concern, support and empathy increased the followers trust and commitment to the organization. Therefore, leaders must focus more attention on the importance of working together to accomplish the goal or mission and less on the traditional organizational hierarchy (Goh Jie, 2014). Conversely, followers who lacked trust in their leaders were less likely to remain with the organization (Goh Jie, 2014). This was relevant to the current research in that it concluded there are no single followership or leadership styles that can be considered the best for each situation. Also, did you identify or experience any leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Relationship of the Variables There are several variables used at the tactical level such as mission, enemy, terrain, weather, troops available, time, and civil considerations that must be analyzed for each mission (U.S. Army Field Manual 3-24.2, 2009, pp. 1-6, 1-7). The mission is the task and purpose that identifies the reason and timeframe to be completed along with the anticipated consequences before and during execution (U.S. Army FM 3-24.2, 2009). In a counterinsurgency operation, the enemy situation is somewhat ambiguous and confusing because of the lack of traditional task organization and publicized doctrine. Specifically, the enemy varies in the level of training, commitment, experience and capability (U.S. Army FM 3-24.2, 2009). Langley et al. (2013) suggested the continual development of initial ideas mitigated ambiguity through the arena of organization-wide conversation which minimizes ambiguity, ambivalence, and uncertainties at all levels, especially at the level of the followers. Copeland (2015) argued that is when the follower needs to know the right time to be a sheep (doing routine things routinely). Also, to be a yes man (shut-up and do your job), or a pragmatist (knowing when and where to object), alienated (intentionally or unintentionally disrupting the productive flow of an organization), or a star performer who knows the role they need to play at that moment in time. Wong et al. (2003) surmised leaders and followers must be innovative because units will be operating much more independently. According to Gordan et al. (2014), this was done by providing developmental leadership that enables organizations to develop new ideas and provides safe outlets for innovation. Leaders who developed trust continually focused on removing fear, communicating, interacting with followers, accepting followers, and are also personal, trustworthy, and honest (Gordan et al., 2012). Also, Goh Jie (2014) argued trust is a major factor in producing relationships and culture that is healthy and fruitful. Therefore, todays leaders and followers must create and sustain a culture of accountability and commitment (Hopper, 2008). In a counterinsurgency environment, the commander and staff must consider a multitude of conditions such as the terrain and weather and the effects on soldiers, equipment, mobility, and visibility (U.S. Army FM 3-24.2, 2009). Consequently, Andert et al. (2011) posited, The leader and follower is the same personeach dynamically and spontaneously emerging, fading, and re-emerging at all organizational levels (p. 57). Therefore, to be successful, the commander must judiciously use every available asset to maximize strength and reduce vulnerabilities. Leaders and followers interact and assume whichever role is appropriate at the time (Lichtenstein, 2006). Additionally, the commander must leverage all Host Nation security forces such as police, army, and paramilitary forces to control the population and disrupt the insurgency (U.S. Army FM 3-24.2, 2009). The availability of time is vital because it varies for the planning and execution of tactical operations. For example, major operations need longer periods of time for detailed planning. For example, Stability operations that address political, economic, and social issues take a considerable amount of time. On the other hand, the planning time is relatively shorter, and the information is limited to offensive operations against a fleeing enemy target (U.S. Army FM 3-24.2, 2009). Therefore, Brumm and Drury (2013) suggested leaders that conducted long-term planning successfully empowered followers to be positive followers. Brumm and Drury (2013) concluded there was a relationship between strategic planning and followership. However, Carsten Bligh (2008) concluded Leaders who take sole responsibility for creating the vision and the strategy for dissemination run the risk of encountering resistance, misalignment, or worse, rejection of the vision altogether (p. 283). Lipman-Blumen (2005) proposed toxic leaders used vision to harm and destroy followers and organizations. Kelley posited, Followers were the primary defenders of toxic leaders (Riggio et al., p. 14). Conversely, destructive follower behavior is never good for any organization. According to Woods (2009), negative followers are the eternal pessimists who have the amazing ability to extract the worst attributes from any situation. Also, Lanier (2012) noted passive acquiescent followership does a disservice to both leaders and followers as well. Woods (2009) posited these negative attributes make the job of a leader and follower difficult, especially when it comes to meeting the goals and mission of an organization. Leaders and followers alike must be willing to challenge the negative follower by strategically conveying to them their significance to the organization or ultimately dismissing the individual if the behavior is unchanged (Leichtling, 2006). Lastly, civil consideration is vital in counterinsurgency operations because whoever the population supports has the advantage. Consequently, civil considerations are typically one of the most important variables to accomplish the overall mission (U.S. Army FM 3-24.2, 2009, p. 1-7). Riggio et al. (2008) posited an effective follower is one who is driven by moral action that is derived from loyalty to mission, vision, and humanity. Followers do not serve the leader they serve a common purpose with the leader (Riggio et al., 2008). According to Tsai Yung (2013), the key was rooted in shared values and indispensable conditions of leader and followers who work together to create an effective organization. Thus, to some extent, followership is the mirror image of leadership (Tsai Yung, 2013). This study analyzed the followership styles perceived and experienced by personnel serving in Iraq or Afghanistan and posits a followership style will be dictated by the situation, type of mission or operation. The researcher reduced the study to one central overarching question (CQ1) and several sub-questions (Creswell Poth, 2018). Creswell and Poth (2018) posited the open-ended supporting questions directly supported the central research question (CQ1) of the study. The open-ended sub-questions further analyzed the phenomenon and divided the central question into supportive parts (Creswell Poth, 2018). Interview Questions CQ1. Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one followership style that can be considered the best for each situation SQ1. Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ2. Can you provide examples of the difficulty or simplicity of followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ3. Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ4. Did you identify or experience any leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ5. Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation Scope The research study consisted of participants from the 3d Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. The 3d Infantry Division was selected because of its distinction of having one of the most successful combat records of any U.S. division by its participation in World War I, World War II, Korean, Persian Gulf, Iraq and Afghanistan wars (3d Infantry Division Home Page, 2016). Also, the 3d Infantry Division was selected because of its proximity and access to the Army veteran population. Ten research participants were selected for this study with purposeful sampling from the population of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom (Patton, 2002). Padgett (2008) posited purposeful sampling was a deliberate process of selecting respondents based on their ability to provide the needed information (p. 53). Also, Palinkas et al. (2013) suggested purposeful sampling was widely used in qualitative research to identify and select information-rich cases related to the phenomenon. According to Mason (2010), a more common sample may consist of 20-30 interviews. Flowers et al. (2009) recommended between 4 to 10 participants, Padgett (2008) referenced 6 to 10 however, since this was a homogenous sample data saturation may occur with as few as six interviews (Guest et al., 2006). Also, this study incorporated a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to explicate the meanings as experiences as we live them in our everyday world (van Manen, 1990, p.11). Analysis The research study used NVivo, computer-assisted qualitative analysis software, to assist in coding and categorizing responses from the interviews. Qualitative data was collected by conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews that were guided by the overarching central and corresponding supporting research questions (Creswell Poth, 2018). A three-phased interview approach was conducted with each research participant 1. pre-interview, 2. initial interview and 3. follow-up interview. The pre-interview phase ensured participants met the qualification criteria, completed the demographic and informed consent forms. An interview guide and protocol were designed to detail the topics to be discussed and the questions to be asked during the interview. The goal of the first phase was to put the co-researchers lived experience related to the phenomenon of study into context and refined the interview content (Seidman, 2006). Also, all interviews were conducted in a climate that the research participants were comfortable to promote comprehensive and honest responses. The second phase of the interview was an opportunity for the co-researcher to reconstruct the details of their lived experience and ensured they were fully transferred and understood for the benefit of the study. Member checking was conducted throughout the sequence of the interviews. Member checking ensured the co-researchers information was an accurate reflection of their lived experiences. The third phase of the interview encouraged the co-researcher to reflect on the meaning of the experience and provided the researcher the opportunity to fill in missing information and pursue leads from earlier interviews. Each interview took approximately two hours, and all interviews were digitally recorded with prior approval from the participants and transcribed verbatim. Additionally, notes were taken while the interviews were conducted to formulate new questions (Patton, 2002, p. 383). According to Patton (2002), note taking will help pace the interview by providing non-verbal cues about whats important, providing feedback to the interviewee about what kind of things are especially noteworthy (p. 383). The researcher identified a potential bias concerning personnel selected for this study. The researcher worked with several of the participants in a previous organization. Thus, according to Sinkovics, Penz and Ghauri (2008), in their study, Enhancing the Trustworthiness of Qualitative Research in International Business, proposed three approaches to guarantee construct validity that would remove researchers bias, which are (1a) multiple sources of evidence, (2b) chain of evidence, and (3c) feedback to key informants (p. 703). Lastly, participants may face a risk of distress or discomfort by reliving their experiences or perceptions while serving in a combat zone. The researcher reduced these risks by identifying upfront if any participant suffers or been diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and recommended not participating in this study. However, if the participant stated they wanted to participate, during any part of the interview process, if the participant experiences distress well stop, re-group or terminate the interview depending on the circumstance. Limitations of the study The limitation of the study is the sample population is limited to the 3d Infantry Division, and the convenience sample may have impacted the data because it was chosen for the proximity to the researcher. This study was not longitudinal. Thus any insights gained are based on one point in time. Also, the self-reporting nature of the research may have affected the data. It was possible that the participants of the study did not answer the questions truthfully regarding their actions and may have answered or told the story based on how they would have liked to behave in a certain situation rather than how they behaved. Lastly, the population sample is a homogenous group and will not be a cross-cultural study. Chapter 3 Method The research method and design section addressed the selection and applicability of the appropriate research method to create a maximum understanding of the phenomenon of United State Army officers and noncommissioned officers followership styles while serving on combat missions (Van Manen, 1990). This study examined a description of the sample and population of the study, sampling rationale, research instruments for data collection, method, processing, and analysis were addressed in the remaining sections. Also, Padgett (2008) concluded both qualitative and quantitative research designs needed to be systematic, transparent, and as rigorous as possible (p. 45) to enrich the quality of the research study. Research Design Creswell (2013) surmised there were several different qualitative methods a researcher used to analyze data and draw the inference. Padgett (2008) posited qualitative studies didnt follow a predictable step-by-step format but shared with quantitative designs the need to be systematic, transparent, and as rigorous as possible (p. 45). According to Denzin Lincoln (2011), qualitative research attempts to make sense or interprets phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them in their natural settings (p. 3). Also, qualitative research was necessary when a phenomenon such as followership styles on combat missions needed an initial expository exploration to identify variables for future measurement or to give voice to marginalized populations (Merriam, 2009). Wong et al. (2003) concluded literature was fairly non-existent about followership in the military. What is not evident were the different followership styles exhibited by U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers in different combat missions. Patton (2002) posited qualitative methods facilitated an in-depth and detailed study of issues. This description consisted of what they experienced and how it was experienced (Moustakas, 1994). Additionally, a premise of human science research was the recognition of the value of qualitative designs and methods for the study of human experiences, not approachable through quantitative means (Moustakas, 1994 Van Manen, 1990). Subsequently, it was essential to select the appropriate research method to create a maximum understanding of the phenomenon. Consequently, a qualitative research method was selected above a quantitative approach that focused on experience, meaning, and essence over measurements and explanations. Therefore, qualitative research is flexible and iterative. However, it is systematic when it follows methodological guidelines of a specific method or approach (Padgett, 2008, p. 45). Moustakas (1994) proposed hermeneutic science not only involved reading a text but, required the researcher to fully understand the intention that provided a central meaning and unity that enabled one to understand the substance and essence of the experience (p. 9). According to Moustakas (1994), heuristics is a way of engaging in scientific search through methods and processes aimed at finding the underlying meanings of important human experiences (p. 18). This required going beyond a cursory analysis of the dialogue presented but, instead, becoming part of combat veterans experiences and perceptions to understand the phenomena fully. Creswell (2013) posited phenomenology was the study of a phenomenon of interest and common to a specific group of people. Also, Padgett (2008) suggested the phenomenological findings entailed not only the participants experience but the situations and conditions of those experiences (p. 36). Van Manen (1990) noted, The point of phenomenological research is to borrow other peoples experiencesto come to the understanding of the deeper meaningin the context of the whole of human experience (p. 62). The rigorous phenomenon-based research involved identification of the phenomenon and distinguished it from other occurrences, then explored it outside concepts that defined the phenomenon (Haefliger et al., 2012). Also, complex situations demanded complex understanding, and qualitative exploration provided a better understanding (Anderson, 2010). Additionally, Guba et al. (2011) concluded rigor determined by the application of the research method and the interpretation of a study by both the researcher and evaluators or consumers of the knowledge. Conversely, quantitative methods did not support a rich and in-depth initial exposition of an unexplored problem (Van Manen, 1990). The researcher reduced the study to one central overarching question (CQ1) and several sub-questions (Creswell Poth, 2018). Creswell and Poth (2018) posited the central research question (CQ1) was directly supported by the open-ended supporting questions (See Appendix E). The open-ended supporting questions further analyzed the phenomenon and divided the central question into supportive parts (Creswell Poth, 2018). A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was selected to understand the following questions CQ1. Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one followership style that can be considered the best for each situation SQ1. Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ2. Can you provide examples of the difficulty or simplicity of followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ3. Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ4. Did you identify or experience any leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars SQ5. Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation Sample and Population The research study consisted of participants from the 3d Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. The 3d Infantry Division was selected because of its distinction of having one of the most successful combat records of any U.S. division by its participation in World War I, World War II, Korean, Persian Gulf, Iraq and Afghanistan wars (3d Infantry Division Home Page, 2016). Also, the 3d Infantry Division was selected because of its proximity and access to the Army veteran population. Research participants met the following criteria (a) the research participant had experienced the phenomenon, (b) was willing to participate in a lengthy interview(s), (c) granted the researcher the right to record and publish the data in a dissertation, (d) interested in understanding the natural meaning of the phenomena, and (e) agreed to participate free of charge (Moustakas, 1994, p. 107). Ten research participants were selected for this study with purposeful sampling from the population of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom (Patton, 2002). Creswell and Clark (2011) suggested purposeful sampling involved identifying individuals that were knowledgeable with a phenomenon of interest. Also, Padgett (2008) posited purposeful sampling was a deliberate process of selecting respondents based on their ability to provide the needed information (p. 53). Additionally, Palinkas et al. (2013) suggested purposeful sampling was widely used in qualitative research to identify and select information-rich cases related to the phenomenon. Accordingly, Patton (2002) concluded the researchers analytical and observational capabilities, as well as the validity, meaningfulness, and insights generated from qualitative inquiry, have more to do with the information richness of the cases selected than with the sample size (p. 245). Consequently, Flowers et al. (2009) recommended between 4 to 10 participants, Padgett (2008) referenced 6 to 10 however, since this was a homogenous sample data saturation occurred with as few as six interviews (Guest et al., 2006). Once the Human Subject Review Board (HSRB) form was approved those participants that met the criteria were contacted via cell phone or email (See Appendix F). Research Instrument Validity The researcher served as an instrument from the design of the qualitative study through data collection and analysis (Storr Xu, 2012). Moustakas (1990) posited heuristic inquiry led to a definitive exposition. Moustakas (1990) identified six systematic steps in the heuristic inquiry of which three were selected as a prelude to the remaining sections (a) initial engagement, (b) immersion and (c) incubation (p. 27). The first step was selecting a theme that the researcher sought to discover a fundamental truth regarding the meaning and essence of ones own experience and that of others of the phenomenon of study (Moustakas, 2001, p. 265). However, the researchers challenge was to be transparent and suspend everything that interfered with fresh vision or presuppositions via epoch or bracketing (Moustakas, 1994). The researcher wrote a full description of their own experience, thereby bracketing off the experiences from those of the participants. Subsequently, the researcher set aside ones perspective to more purely receiving and analyzes the participants experiences (Moustakas, 1994). Therefore, the participants perspective unfolded as the participant viewed it or the emic perspective, not as the researcher viewed it or the etic perspective (Patton, 2002, p. 268). Consequently, the researcher approached the participants lived experience clear of ordinary thoughts, prejudgments, biases, and preconceived ideas (Moustakas, 1994). Secondly, the immersion process provided the researcher the opportunity to live, grow, understand, and develop questions that illuminated the answer to a problem of importance and significance to the researcher (Moustakas, 1994). Lastly, the researcher stepped back from the immersion process by diverting the focus away from the study to avoid compromising the quality of comprehension for a time (Maciel, 2004). Thomas (2006) posited at this stage the researcher seeks to uncover the meaning that lives within the experience and conveys felt understanding in words using an inductive approach. A semi-structured interview served as an instrument for data collection in addition to the researcher (Creswell Poth, 2018). The semi-structured interview contained a protocol of open-ended questions based on the central focus of the study for data collection. For example, the specific information of participants lived experience or perceptions of followership styles while serving in combat (Burkard Know, 2005). Gray (2004) posited there were several reasons to use interviews for collecting data and using it as a research instrument need to attain highly personalized data, opportunities for probing, and when a good return rate was important (p. 214). The interviews were means of initiating a phenomenological exploration of the lived experiences of themes and meaning of the participants experience (Brinkman Kvale, 2005). The semi-structured format with open-ended questions ensured the participants were the focus of the exploration, and follow-up prompts aided in data collection reliability by consistently exploring the lived experiences of each participant (Creswell Poth, 2018 Moustakas, 1994). Data Collection Method Qualitative data was collected using in-depth, semi-structured interviews that were guided by the overarching central and corresponding supporting research questions (Creswell Poth, 2018). A three-phased interview approach was conducted with each research participant (a) pre-interview, (b) initial interview and (c) follow-up interview. Phase 1, Pre-interview Brinkman and Kvale (2005) recommended thematizing the study to identify issues for initial investigation and to formulate relevant questions (p. 97). The interview questions were open-ended to gain insight into ten co-researchers lived experiences and personal perceptions and utilized a purposeful sampling aimed at co-researchers that were related to the phenomenon (Patton, 2002 Rose et al., 2015). According to Moustakas (1994), a co-researcher was a participant who reviewed their interview data and provided member checking feedback that enhanced the reliability of the individual lived experiences. Participant and co-researcher were interchangeable terms used throughout the research study (Tracy, 2010). Also, semi-structured interviews contained a protocol of open-ended questions focused on the data collection of specific information of participants lived experience or perceptions of followership styles while serving in combat (Burkard Know, 2009). Kvale (1996) posited interviews were powerful and allowed researchers to investigate the participants views in greater depth. Also, Berg (2007) concluded interviews built a holistic snapshot, reports detailed views of participants, and enabled participants to speak in their voice and express their thoughts and feelings (p. 96). Also, Seidman (2006) surmised it was optimal to conduct at least two interviews. The pre-interview phase was an opportunity to establish trust and build rapport with the co-researcher (Patton, 2002). Participants were contacted by phone or email to establish a time and place where the co-researcher feels comfortable (Padgett, 2008). Creswell and Poth (2015) suggested this provided the researcher and participant time to test the interview protocol and guide, complete the participant pre-qualification, demographic and informed consent forms, ask questions and provides clarification (See Appendices A, B, C, D, and E). The researcher sought and obtained a Human Subject Review Board (HSRB) and participant consent approval to mitigate potential ethical issues before the data collection phase of the study (Appendix G). Also, it provided the co-researcher time to dwell and think about their lived experiences which aided the researcher in getting a richer description during the first interview (Englander, 2012). Ten research participants were selected that met the following selection criteria (a) the research participant has experienced the phenomenon, (b) is willing to participate in a lengthy interview(s), (c) grants the researcher the right to record and publish the data in a dissertation,(d) interested in understanding the natural meaning of the phenomena, and (e) agrees to participate free of charge (Moustakas, 1994, p. 107). According to Creswell Poth (2018), the important point of in-depth interviews was describing the meaning of the phenomenon for a small number of individuals who have experienced it with as many as ten individuals (p. 161). An interview protocol and guide were designed to list the topics and questions to be asked during the interview (Brinkman Kvale, 2005 Rose et al., 2015). The interview protocol and guide provided the researcher the freedom to explore, probe, and ask questions that elucidated or illuminated the participants experience (Patton, 2002, p. 342). Padgett (2008) posited the most valuable information from interviews came from probes which some were planned, and others were spontaneous. Probes were critical for getting beyond rehearsed accounts and prefabricated renditions (Padgett, 2008, p. 108). Also, the interview protocol guide design incorporated triangulation and assured overall reliability, repeatability, and validity through the deliberate, consistent, and rigorous application (Jehn Jonsen, 2009). Brinkman and Kvale (2005) posited an interview protocol guide, and pilot test ensured the credibility and dependability of the interview protocol during phase one. The goal of the first phase was to put the co-researchers lived experience related to the phenomenon of study into context (Seidman, 2006). Also, Creswell (2013) concluded researchers benefit by having a pilot session before conducting interviews. The pilot session refined the interview content and determined the feasibility and usefulness as a research instrument (Creswell Poth, 2009). Phase 2, Initial interview Interviews were conducted in a climate that the research participants were comfortable to promote comprehensive and honest responses (Moustakas, 1994). The questions were then further refined to build on previous interviews and discovered new ideas, themes, clarified, and gained thick descriptions of the participants experience of the phenomenon (Creswell Poth, 2018 Patton, 2002). Also, the preferred method of data collection was personal, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews that were conducted in English. Also, the researcher conducted several steps that ensured the research was conducted ethically and responsibly. The participants names were removed and assigned numbers to protect anonymity (Creswell Poth, 2018). The second phase of the interview was an opportunity for the co-researcher to reconstruct the details of their lived experience (Moustakas, 1994 Englander, 2012). This richly detailed the current lived experience with specific details of the co-researcher involvement with the phenomenon (Seidman, 2006). Co-researchers participated through digitally recorded in-depth face-to-face, telephonic, and follow-up activities that ensured their individual lived experiences and perceptions were fully transferred and understood for the benefit of the study (Moustakas, 1994). Notes were taken during the interview to help formulate new questions as the interview moved along. The notes ensured the inquiry was unfolding in the hoped-for-directions and stimulated early insights that were relevant to pursue in subsequent interviews (Patton, 2002, p. 382). Patton (2002) concluded, note-taking helped pace the interview by providing non-verbal cues about whats important, provided feedback to the co-researcher (p. 383). Phase 3, Second interview Lastly, the third phase of the interview encouraged the co-researcher to reflect on the meaning of the experience and provided the researcher the opportunity to follow-up and to fill in missing information and pursued leads from earlier interviews (Padgett, 2008). Member checking sought the co-researchers feedback and ensured the information was an accurate reflection of their lived experiences (Creswell Poth, 2018). Lincoln and Guba (1985) posited this technique is the most critical technique for establishing credibility (p. 314). Also, each interview took approximately two to three hours, and all interviews were digitally recorded with prior approval from the participants and transcribed verbatim. Neuman (2007) concluded qualitative interviews generated large amounts of data. Also, Domyei (2007) surmised a one-hour interview might take up to six or seven hours to transcribe and contained approximately fifty pages of transcript. Consequently, the research study used NVivo, computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software, to manage the data obtained during data collection (Bazeley Jackson, 2013). Also, co-researcher validation for the transcribed and processed interview data aided in the overall reliability of the data (Moustakas, 1994). The researcher determined data saturation when no new information or themes were identified after completing each interview (Merriam, 2009 Moustakas, 1990). All recordings, transcripts, and notes were archived in a computer file with a username and password only known by the researcher that enhanced confidentiality (Southall, 2009). According to Domyei (2007), good qualitative interviews have two key features (a) it flows naturally, and (b) it is rich in detail (p. 140). Therefore, the researcher/interviewer managed the flow of communication by maintaining awareness, how the participant was responding to questions, and what type of feedback was appropriate throughout each phase of the interview process (Patton, 2002). Data Analysis The research study utilized NVivo, qualitative data analysis software, to record, sort, match, link and assisted in answering research questions without losing access to the source data or contexts (Bazeley Jackson, 2013 p. 2). Bazeley and Jackson (2013) concluded theres a widely held perception that the use of a computer helps to ensure rigor in the analysis process. Consequently, Tracy (2010) posited the rigorous analysis was marked by transparency regarding the process of sorting, choosing, and organizing the data (p. 841). Creswell and Poth (2018) identified five systematic data analysis spiral activities (a) managing and organizing the data, (b) reading and memoing emergent ideas, (c) describing and classifying codes into themes, (d) developing assessing interpretations, and (e) representing and visualizing the data (p. 187). Managing and organizing data Creswell and Poth (2018) suggested data collection and analysis, and writing the study were not distinct steps, but are interrelated and often go on simultaneously in a research project (p. 185). The emphasis was placed on reading and re-reading the whole text, noting ideas, linking between passages of text, and drawing connections within the data prior the computer software development (Bazeley and Jackson, 2013). Subsequently, NVivo assisted the researcher in organizing the data into digital files and created a file naming system and ensured materials were located for analysis. Therefore, NVivo was purchased, downloaded, installed and activated for the research study (Bazeley Jackson, 2008). Creswell and Poth (2018) suggested analyzing involved organizing the data, reading through the data, coding and organizing themes, representing the data, and forming an interpretation of them and was not limited to only analyzing text and image data (p. 181). The data analysis for this research study will start during the pre-interview phase and continues through the remainder of all interviews (Ruono, 2005). Also, Moustakas (1994) posited phenomenological data analysis involved the participants experiences or textural description, examination of the context and setting of these experiences or structural description, and summary of the major themes associated with excerpts of the interviews (Padgett, 2008, p. 150). This provided the researcher the opportunity to make slight adjustments to the interview questions and used prompts to key in on emerging themes identified previously (Creswell and Poth, 2018). Additionally, Sinkovics et al. (2008) recommended transparency in the analytical logic which enhanced the research and increased the trust and confidence in the findings. The researcher masked participants names to avoid inclusion of identifiable information in the analysis files for ethical consideration (Creswell Poth, 2018). Also, Creswell and Poth (2018) posited the initial data management impacted future analysis and required the researcher to make plans for long-term secure file storage. The management of the data determined how the files were initially set-up and uploaded to the software program. For example, interview transcripts, journals, and memos were gathered together and organized into files to enhance the researchers ability to compare multiple participants across different forms of data (Creswell Poth, 2018). Reading and memoing emergent ideas Bazeley and Jackson (2013) posited emphasis was placed on reading and re-reading the whole text, noting ideas, linking between passages of text, recording reflections in journals and memos, and drawing connections within the data prior the computer software development. However, NVivo not only provided the ability for these analytical approaches to occur still but increased the capacity to do it simultaneously (Bazeley Jackson, 2013). Ruono (2005) suggested becoming familiar with the data to look for key patterns and sensing themes. This process required the researcher to immerse oneself in the data fully and maintained openness to identify points in the data that might seem particularly important (Moustakas, 1990). An inductive approach was used during the review process to construct themes and meanings from the data (Ruono, 2005). Subsequently, a deductive approach examined whether the data accurately reflected the themes and meanings that were previously identified. These concepts, of which some were retained, some eliminated, and some merged was useful in moving the research along and enhanced memo retrieval (Corbin Strauss, 2015). Padgett (2008) concluded memo-writing is an offshoot of coding where thoughts and ideas emerge from re-reading the transcripts in their entirety several times and searching for patterns or irregularities. According to Silver Lewins (2014), constant comparison of the transcripts or field notes helped the researcher in the initial process of exploring the database. Therefore, memoing created a digital audit that could be retrieved and examined (Silver Lewins, 2014). As the data was evaluated, current points compared to those previously noted as potentially important during the review helped track the development of ideas through the process (Creswell Poth, 2018). During this review, concepts were identified for further exploration and concepts of interest were recorded in the memo. Also, NVivo provided the investigator the ability to create a digital research journal and memo, referred to as nodes, to document thoughts as you read, discuss, observe, or simply reflect on issues as they arise (Bazeley and Jackson 2013, p. 25). Lastly, Moustakas (1994) suggested the detailed steps of gathering, processing, and analysis aided in transferability. Describing and classifying codes into themes The researcher used open-coding and no pre-set codes were identified before the interviews but developed and modified while working through the coding process. This initial coding built a foundation by which meanings within the data were identified, interpretive frameworks developed, comparisons made, the significance of data was determined, and conclusions drawn (Patton, 2002). The data from the first cycle was analyzed for codes that repeated or combined for a pattern and then described in the second cycle. The second cycle codes of the nine participants described their experiences and were shortened to formulate the codes. During this phase, the researcher reviewed, modified and developed the preliminary themes that were identified (Maguire Delahunt, 2017). The codes were placed into clusters to narrow the information into usable data to explain the experience. According to Vaismoradi et al. (2016), this is called typification or grouping the large range of codes under a typical similarity that can be generalized (p. 105). Tipifciation was a result of the researchers creativity during the organization of codes. Different types of codes recognized in the thematic analysis such as, participant perspective codes that identify the participants positive, negative, or indifferent comments about an experience (Vaismoradi et al., 2016, p. 103). The researcher transformed the raw data to higher-level insights or abstractions as the development of a theme (Vaismoradi et al., 2016). The transformation process was according to the researchers judgment and conducted after reaching a general understanding of the content and context of the phenomenon. Therefore, the coding process started to reveal explicit and implicit meanings (Moustakas, 1990). Each cluster was assigned a label covering different codes. The label was the cornerstone by which the level of abstraction of data analysis was improved and then created (Vaismoradi et al., 2016). According to Sandelowski Leeman (2012), a label captured complete ideas, what was important, and presented by the participant. During labeling, the researcher produced an understanding of codes by reference to their understanding of the concepts and experiences. However, a phrase or sentence was preferred, because a label was usually found or derived through conversation topics, meanings, and feelings while reading the participants transcript. Therefore, themes were developed, fit together and connected to the overarching theme for the research (Creswell, 2013). At the end of this step, the codes were organized into broader themes that said something specific about the research question (Maguire Delahunt, 2017). Braun Clark (2006) provided a six-phase approach for this type of analysis. The steps were as follows (a) become familiar with the data, (b) generate initial codes (open coding), (c) search for themes (first cycle), (d) review themes (second cycle), (e) define themes (themeing), and (f) write-up. Subsequently, reduced and combined into five or six themes that would be used in the end to write a narrative (Creswell Poth, 2018). A theme was a pattern that captured something significant or interesting about the data or research question (Maguire Delahunt, 2017). According to Maguire and Delahunt (2017), themes should be coherent and distinct from each other. Themes should answer the following do the themes make sense, does the data support the theme, am I trying to fit too much into the theme Do they overlap or are they separate themes, and, are there subthemes (p. 3358). NVivo organized the qualitative data to serve as containers for a specific concept or category and auto-coded each co-researchers response to each interview question (Bazeley Jackson, 2013). Consequently, the software facilitated the analysis, but the researcher was the instrument in data reduction, building conceptual frameworks, and not the analytical software (Padgett, 2008). According to Sinkovics et al., (2008), computer software assisted the analytical process of coding, data analysis, easier accessibility which strengthened credibility, replicability, and substance of research results. Therefore, data saturation was reached when enough information was accumulated to replicate the study (OReilly Parker, 2012) when no new information was attained (Guest et al., 2006), and coding was no longer productive (Guest et al., 2006). Developing and accessing interpretations Patton (2002) concluded interpretation attached significance to what was found, making sense of findings…and portraying a holistic picture of the phenomenon (p. 480). Also, this time was used for reflection and elaboration which is a quality control measure to guarantee the data obtained is useful, reliable, and authentic (Patton, 2002, p. 384). Member checking will seek the co-researchers feedback to ensure the information reflects their lived experiences succinctly (Creswell Poth, 2018). The overall reliability of the data was improved by the co-researcher validating the transcribed and processed interview data (Moustakas, 1994). Patton (2002) surmised qualitative analysis vacillated between the phenomenon of interest, the description of what occurred, and the interpretation of those descriptions. NVivo offered options to organize data transparently and facilitate a constructive discussion and interpretation (Sinkovics et al., 2008). The software enabled the researcher to code-and-retrieve and query to facilitate further analysis and comparison of subsets of the data (Padgett, 2008). Also, query searches from different databases were used in the study to create, minimize or expand codes (Bazeley Jackson, 2013). Bazeley and Jackson (2013) suggested NVivo contained seven queries were grouped into three categories. For example, text-mining queries searched for specific words or phrases. The second category, theory-building queries, explored the relationships among items in the database. Lastly, the clerical queries helped manage the analytic component process (Bazeley Jackson, 2013). Representing and visualizing the data The researcher organized the data into a creative synthesis and developed a complete picture of the experience which represented the entire group of co-researchers (Moustakas, 1994). Also, Creswell (2013) proposed data analysis consists of preparing and organizing the data for analysis, then reducing the data into themes through a process of coding and condensing codes, and finally representing the data in figures, tables or a discussion (p. 148). Sutton and Austin (2015) suggested planning the findings to be presented, insert themes as headings for the section, and then telling the participants stories by using their quotations to express their experiences verbally. According to Tracy (2010), transferability of a study was dependent upon origination from a valid population for the consumers of the research (Tracy, 2010). NVivo provided the researcher with a visual summary to see relationships in the data and patterns generated through charts, graphs, and diagrams (Bazeley Jackson, 2013). For example, the researcher used NVivo to create a visual image of the initial assumption that followership styles were dictated by the situation, type of mission or operation, by personnel serving in Afghanistan or Iraq Wars. The model depicted the relationship between the leadership styles, the situation or combat mission, and how they impacted the follower and the different followership styles. In NVivo, a journal was simply a document that was always available for modification and linked to other sources which supported those thoughts (Bazeley Jackson, 2013). Also, the journal was coded and accessible as well as any memo or document created within the project (Bazeley Jackson, 2013). Additionally, Sutton Austin (2015) described this as synthesizing the research findings that represented the meaning that participants ascribed to their life experiences (p. 231). Lastly, according to Bazeley Jackson (2013), visualization models will force the researcher to clarify concepts, think through the links between them, and will be an effective tool for communicating the central understanding to the audience. Chapter 4 Results The purpose of this qualitative research study is to explore the different followership styles as experienced and perceived by United States Army officers and noncommissioned officers who served in combat situations in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. This chapter is divided into three separate sections (a) management and organization of data, (b) description and classification of codes into themes, and (c) development and interpretation assessment. Data Management and Organization This section outlines the candidate selection, interview process, member checking, data saturation, secure file storage, and organization. The research study uses reflexivity and direct interviews to explicate the lived experience of the phenomena which represents only a fraction of the participants life (Moustakas, 1994). Also, the emphasis was placed on reading and re-reading the whole text, noting ideas, linking between passages of text, and drawing connections within the data prior the computer software development (Bazeley and Jackson, 2013). Candidate selection The 3d Infantry Division was selected because of its proximity and access to the veteran population. Candidates were selected using purposeful sampling from the population of officers and noncommissioned officers who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom (Patton, 2002). Research participants had to meet the following criteria (a) the research participant has experience the phenomenon, (b) is willing to participate in a lengthy interview(s), (c) grants the researcher approval to record and publish the data in a dissertation, (d) interested in understanding the natural meaning of the phenomena, and (e) agree to participate free of charge (Bazeley and Jackson, 2013). Once the Human Subject Review Board (HSRB) was approved, potential candidates were notified by phone or email to find a qualified sample and population for the study. The search for qualified candidates continued for approximately two weeks. Eighteen candidates were contacted four did not meet the criteria, two declined to participate, twelve accepted, one later declined for personal reasons, one did not complete the pre-interview phase, and one never returned emails or phone calls. This resulted in nine qualified participants. Interview process Once the Human Subject Review Board (HSRB) was approved a three-phased interview was conducted with the nine research participants. Phase one is the pre-interview, phase two is the initial interview, and phase three consisted of the follow-up interview. Interviews began approximately five days after the HSRB was approved and all interviews were completed within two weeks. Each interview averaged approximately one hour in duration. The pre-interview phase establishes trust and builds rapport with the co-researcher. Participants are contacted via email or phone once the HSRB is approved to conduct phase one of the interview process (Brinkman Kvale, 2015, Rose et al., 2015). The pre-interviews are conducted in a climate where the co-researchers are comfortable and promoted comprehensive and honest responses (Moustakas, 1994). The preferred interview method is personal, face-to-face, and conducted in English. Phase one provides the researcher and participant time to pilot test the interview protocol and guide, complete the participant pre-qualification, demographic and informed consent forms, ask questions and provide clarification (Creswell and Poth, 2018). An interview protocol and guide are designed to list the topics and questions to be asked during the interview. Creswell (2009) concluded researchers benefited by having a pilot session before conducting interviews. Subsequently, the pilot session provides the co-researcher time to dwell and think about their lived experiences which aide the researcher in getting a richer description during the first interview (Englander, 2012). According to Moustakas (1994), a co-researcher is a participant who reviews their interview data and provides member checking feedback that enhances the reliability of the individual lived experiences. Participant and co-researcher are interchangeable terms used throughout the research study (Tracy, 2010). Additionally, the semi-structured format with open-ended questions ensures the co-researchers are the focus of the exploration and follow-up prompts aide in data collection reliability by consistently exploring the lived experiences of each co-researcher (Creswell Poth, 2018 Moustakas, 1994). Consequently, the research study uses a phenomenological aspect of epoche which is supported using the interview protocol and guide that keeps the focus of the interview on the co-researchers experiences and perceptions related to the phenomenon (Moustakas, 1994). Therefore, a pilot session refines the interview content and determines its feasibility and usefulness as a research instrument (Creswell and Poth, 2018). The second phase of the interview was conducted approximately five days after the HSRB was approved. The initial interview is where the co-researcher reconstructs the details of their lived experiences (Moustakas, 1994 Englander, 2012). The interview details the current lived experience with specific details of the co-researchers involvement with the phenomenon (Seidman, 2013). Co-researchers participate through digitally recorded in-depth face-to-face interviews, and follow-up activities that ensure their individual lived experiences and perceptions are fully transferred and understood for the benefit of the study (Moustakas, 1994). Notes are taken during the interview and help formulate new questions as the interview moved along. The research study uses notes to ensure proper documentation of the participants demeanor, non-verbal expressions, body language and relevant information to keep the interview on track and to pursue follow-up interviews (Patton, 2002). All nine interview recordings will be transcribed verbatim and sent to the co-researcher in a word document. Lastly, the third phase of the interview encourages the co-researcher to reflect on the meaning of the experience and provides the research study the opportunity to follow-up to fill in missing information and pursue leads from earlier interviews (Padgett, 2008). Each transcribed interview is sent to the respective co-researcher to ensure the information is an accurate reflection of their lived experiences (Creswell Poth, 2018). Also, this assists in establishing credibility (Lincoln Guba, 1995). The interview phase is complete when all co-researchers reviews and approves their respective transcripts for accuracy and satisfaction. Transcription and member checking All interview recordings were sent to TranscriptionPuppy.com, a professional transcription company, with a 99 accuracy guaranteed. Two transcribers work on the project, and a senior manager oversees every project for optimal accuracy. Each transcriber has at least five years of experience and undergoes rigorous training, and the data is securely stored. Also, the transcribers sign a Non-Disclosure Agreement to protect the privacy of the information (TranscripitonPuppy, 2013). All nine interview recordings are transcribed verbatim and sent to the co-researcher in a word document within five days of the interview to conduct member checking. Also, to ensure the information accurately reflects there lived experience of the phenomena. The use of the interview protocol and guide further aides in the reliability (Ali Yusof, 2011) of the study through triangulation and affords the co-researchers the opportunity to member check (Moustakas, 1994) their interview transcription. Additionally, the within the method of triangulation is the purposeful design of the interview protocol guide that stimulates, explicates, and verifies the deeply rich data from the participant (Seidman, 2013). Data saturation Nine research participants are selected for this study with purposeful sampling from the population of U.S. Army 3d Infantry Division officers and noncommissioned officers who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom (Patton, 2002). Creswell and Clark (2011) suggested purposeful sampling involved identifying individuals that were knowledgeable with a phenomenon of interest. Also, participants must possess the ability to articulate their lived experience of the phenomena (Padgett, 2008). Additionally, the qualitative inquiry is enhanced by the richness of the information provided by the participant. Additionally, the researchers observation and analysis enhance the quality of the inquiry, but not necessarily by the sample size (Patton, 2003). Also, Flowers et al. (2009) recommended between 4 to 10 participants, Padgett (2008) referenced 6 to 10 however, since this is a homogenous sample data saturation can occur within six interviews (Guest et al., 2006). The research study uses recursive and constant comparison processes beginning with the first interview and continues this throughout the data collection process until saturation occurs (Ruono, 2005). The process requires fully immersing in the data and maintaining openness to identify points in the data that are important. Also, this provides the opportunity to adjust interview questions slightly and use prompts to key in on emerging themes that are identified. After several reviews of the data, the qualitative study begins to see very clear points of interest emerge and records it for further exploration. Therefore, the research study can eliminate, merge, and reduce the themes to five which represents the phenomena taking place among the participants. Data saturation is complete when there are no new information or themes, further coding is no longer feasible, and the study can be replicated with the rich and thick data descriptions are obtained (OReilly Parker, 2012 Guest et al., 2006). Secure file storage and organization NVivo software is used as the system for securing and organizing the data. According to Bazely (2013), NVivo assists the research study by organizing the data into digital files and creates a file naming system that ensures materials can be easily located for analysis. The research study masked the co-researchers names to avoid inclusion of identifiable information in the analysis files for ethical consideration (Creswell and Poth, 2018). Co-researchers names are replaced with a number system from 1 9 depending on the order of the interview participants. The number system determines how the files are set-up and uploaded to the software program. Also, Creswell Poth (2018) posited the initial data management impacted future analysis and required the study to make plans for long-term secure file storage. For example, demographic information is gathered together and organized into files which enhance the researchers ability to compare multiple participants across different forms of data (Creswell Poth, 2018). As illustrated in Table 1 below, demographic information of the nine participants depicts years of military experience, education, and deployment experience. Six of the nine participants (67) retired from the U.S. Army, and three of the nine (33) were full-time soldiers or on active duty. According to goarmy (2018), retired soldiers were those who remained on active duty or served in the Reserves or Guard for enough time (usually a minimum of 20 years). However, active duty soldiers are those who served in the Army 24 hours a day, seven days a week for the duration of their service commitment. Each soldier had their specialized training and served a critical function within his or her unit (goarmy, 2018). Also, all nine participants had 191 cumulative years of military experience and 24 cumulative years of deployment experience in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. Five of the nine participants (56) have masters degrees, three of the nine have bachelors degrees (33), and one has a high school diploma (11). Table 1 Participant Demographic Information Demographic VariableParticipant Percentage Years of Military Experience (191 cumulative years)5 to 10 Years111.011 to 21 Years222.022 – 32 Years of Age667.0EducationHigh school graduate111.0Bachelors degree333.0Masters or post graduate degree556.0Total Years of Deployment ExperienceAfghanistan116.0Iraq137.0 Also, NVivo provides the research study a visual summary to see relationships in the data and patterns generated through charts, graphs, and diagrams (Bazeley Jackson, 2015). For example, Figure 1 below illustrates the number of participant deployments to Afghanistan and Iraq. Six of the nine participants (67) experienced deployments to both Afghanistan and Iraq. Two of the nine (33) experienced one deployment to either Afghanistan or Iraq. Additionally, seven of the nine (78) participants experienced two to four deployments to Afghanistan and Iraq. Consequently, demographic data is used to validate participant responses from the pre-qualification checklist answers which determine suitability for inclusion in the purposeful selected criteria sample. EMBED Excel.Chart.8 s Figure 1. Red represents the Iraq deployments, and blue represents the Afghanistan deployments. Each deployment is typically a year in duration. All nine participants had 24 cumulative years of deployment experience in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. Describing and Classifying Codes into Themes Section two describes the first and second cycle coding, and themeing process (Saldana, 2013 Moustakas, 1994). The research study uses a thematic analysis which identifies patterns or themes within qualitative data (Braun Clarke, 2006). Braun Clark (2006) provides a six-phase approach for this type of analysis. The steps are as follows (a) become familiar with the data, (b) generate initial codes (open coding), (c) search for themes (first cycle), (d) review themes (second cycle), (e) define themes (themeing), and (f) write-up. Become familiar with the data The research studys emphasis is placed on reading and re-reading the whole text, noting ideas, linking between passages of text, and drawing connections within the data before the computer software development (Bazeley Jackson, 2013). Consequently, notes facilitate reflexivity and provide the researcher an opportunity to remember, question, and make meaning of the data. The notes allow the researcher to remain faithful to participants perspectives and improve the validity of theme development (Vaismoradi, Jones, Turunen Snelgrove, 2016). The researchers closeness to the data provides the ability to generate ideas and make sense. Therefore, coding reduces the amount of raw data to what is relevant to the research question. Also, NVivo provides the ability for these analytical approaches to occur and increases the capacity to do it simultaneously (Bazeley Jackson, 2013). Generate initial codes In this phase, the researcher organizes the data in a meaningful and systematic way (Maguire Delahunt, 2017). The number of common responses correlates the individual responses once the interviews transcribed, read several times, and notes taken (Saldana, 2013 Vaismoradi et al., 2016). Subsequently, this allows the researcher to describe the trend of the participants perspectives that can be traced back using direct quotations from the transcription. Also, the initial data entry gives a first-draft visual of the texts most salient words and potential codes and categories (Saldana, 2013). These connections describe and expand on followers perceptions of their experience and suggested conceptual relationships amongst their perceptions. Subsequently, this forms a visual representation of the perceptions, terminology, and related associations as perceived by the followers. Consequently, this later connects themes, experiential impact on followers, and feelings about the overall lived experience in the data analysis process. Figure 2. NVivo word cloud illustrates the relationship between the leadership and followership as well as common words and descriptions provided by the participants. The query function of NVivo allows the research study to test theories, identify trends, examine relationships, and compare data (Bazeley and Jackson, 2013). The study generates a word frequency query of the term followership once the source data is entered. The word frequency illustrates the relationship between the leadership and followership as well as common words and descriptions provided by the participants. The software provides a detailed word count but does not analyze data beyond this descriptive level (Saldana, 2013). Figure 2 above depicts the word frequency query of the term followership as generated by the source data entered to NVivo. The researcher uses open-coding, and pre-set codes were not identified before the interviews but developed and modified while working through the coding process. This initial coding builds a foundation by which meanings within the data identified interpretive frameworks developed, comparisons made, the significance of data determined, and conclusions drawn (Patton, 2002). However, the researcher did not code every piece of text, only those segments of data that were relevant to or captured something interesting about the research questions (Maguire Delahunt, 2017). Also, the main component of data analysis is collecting codes under potential subthemes or themes and comparing the emerged coding clusters together and about the entire data set (Vaismoradi et al., 2016). Therefore, coding is essential for qualitative research to make sense of the text from interviews, observations, and documents (Creswell Poth, 2018). Search for themes A theme is a pattern that captures something significant or interesting about the data or research question (Maguire Delahunt, 2017). According to Creswell Poth (2018), regardless of the size of the database, recommend 25-30 categories of information. Subsequently, the research study reduces and combines them into four to six overarching themes that can be used in the end to write a narrative (Creswell Poth, 2018). The codes are matched by reading through each participants response, highlighting and tying all relevant matching codes to the various responses, and then analyzing the similar patterns. Also, the codes are organized and compared regarding similarities and differences to assign a place to each cluster of codes about the research question (Vaismoradi et al., 2016). Therefore, the researcher is an integral part of the analysis and presenting the results in term of a storyline. As a result, these concepts, some are retained, some eliminated, and some merged are useful in moving the research along (Corbin Strauss, 2015). Review themes The data from the first cycle is analyzed again for codes that repeat or combined for a pattern and then described in the second cycle. The second cycle codes of the nine participants describe their experiences and are shortened to formulate the codes. During this phase, the researcher reviews modify and develop the preliminary themes that were identified (Maguire Delahunt, 2017). The codes are placed into clusters to narrow the information into usable data to explain the experience. According to Vaismoradi et al. (2016), this is called typification or grouping the large range of codes under a typical similarity that can be generalized (p. 105). Typification is a result of the researchers creativity during the organization of codes. Different types of codes are recognized in the thematic analysis such as, participant perspective codes that identify the participants positive, negative, or indifferent comments about an experience (Vaismoradi et al., 2016, p. 103). According to Maguire and Delahunt (2017), themes should be coherent and distinct from each other. Themes should answer the following do the themes make sense, does the data support the theme, am I trying to fit too much into the theme Do they overlap or are they separate themes, and, are there subthemes (p. 3358). Define themes The researcher transforms the raw data to higher-level insights or abstractions as the development of a theme (Vaismoradi et al., 2016). The transformation process is according to the researchers judgment and conducted after reaching a general understanding of the content and context of the phenomenon. Therefore, the coding process starts to reveal explicit and implicit meanings (Moustakas, 1990). Consequently, finding the appropriate answer to the research question depends on selecting the relevant section of the transcription for coding and choosing an appropriate size so not to lose the subtlety of the meaning (Vaismoradi et al., 2016). A label is assigned to each cluster covering different codes. The label is the cornerstone by which the level of abstraction of data analysis is improved and then created (Vaismoradi et al., 2016). During labeling, the researcher produces an understanding of codes by reference to their understanding of the concepts and experiences. Therefore, themes began to develop, fit together and connect to the overarching theme for the research (Creswell, 2013). At the end of this step, the codes are organized into broader themes that say something specific about the research question (Maguire Delahunt, 2017). Write-up According to Auerbach Silverstein (2003), a theme functions to categorize a set of data into an implicit topic that organizes a group of repeating ideas (p. 38). Also, themes are ideas presented by participants during interviews that summarize what is going on, explain what is happening, or suggest why something is done the way it is (Rubin Rubin, 2012, p. 118). The more the same code occurs in a text, the more likely it can be a theme. However, the importance of a theme should not be influenced by its level of frequency but capture something important about the overall research question (Vaismoradi et al., 2016). Therefore, the constant comparison is rigorously applied to narrow the themes which represent the phenomena experienced and expressed by the participants responses to the research questions (Creswell Poth, 2018). Development and Interpretation Assessment Lastly, this section depicts the interpretation of the phenomenon as it relates to the lived experiences of the co-researchers, the restatement of the research questions, and selected followership definition (Moustakas, 1994 Creswell Poth, 2018). Sub-themes share the same central organizing concept as the theme but focuses on one notable specific element and exists underneath the umbrella of the theme (Vaismoradi et al., 2016). Subsequently, the narration encompasses a storyline that provides a holistic view of the phenomenon of study (Vaismoradi et al., 2016, p.107). This process consists of extracting verbatim significant statements from the data, formulating meanings about them through the researchers interpretations, clustering these codes into a series of organized themes, and then elaborating on the themes through rich written description (Butler-Kisber, 2010 pp. 50-61). Also, the saturation of the theme is improved by how it moves from raw data towards a coherent storyline based on the whole data rather than isolated parts. Consequently, the researcher raises the participants perspective to an abstract level of conceptualization. Therefore, an implicit meaning or an overall theme emerges by seeking the underlying meaning in the participants words, and how it fits about the research question and research study (Vaismoradi et al., 2016). The qualitative study reduced the research questions to one central overarching question (CQ1) and several sub-questions (Creswell Poth, 2018). The open-ended supporting questions (SQ 1 5) further analyze the phenomenon to obtain a greater understanding of the co-researchers lived experiences with followership styles while serving on combat missions (Creswell Poth, 2018). The findings are presented in a logical manner starting with the supporting questions (SQ1 SQ5) which generates and builds the theoretical basis for completely answering the central research question (CQ1) of the study. Each element of the questions outlined in the interview protocol and guide present emerging themes. Sub-Question (1) Followership Styles While Serving on Combat Missions The first question presented to the participants was, Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars The researcher identified significant verbatim participant excerpts from the interview transcripts. The coding clusters of information related to the phenomena are labeled by seeking the underlying meaning in the participants words and how it fits about the research question. While reflecting on the followership aspect of the question, five sub-themes arose distrust and cynicism, active participation, doing the minimum, inexperience, and didnt question leaders (see Table 2). Table 2 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 1 Sub-Question (SQ1)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)people resented being there. people became very disgruntled. leadership didnt listen or care about our input. you knew no one was going to take care of you. this alienated a lot of people because of fear. The leader would challenge you every step of the way.- Dissatisfied with the Situation or Leader – The negative attitude towards leadership – Followers no longer provided input – Leaders Didnt Care – Leadership Created Fear Changes made at this stage – Negative Attitude was merged with Dissatisfied with the Situation or Leader. – Created a new theme, Leaders Created Fear – Collapsed Leadership Did Not Provide Feedback to Leaders Didnt CareOverarching Theme Situational Followership Styles Sub-Theme Distrust and Cynicism Memo-writing extracts All participants purported to strive to be an exemplary or star follower but sometimes failed depending on the leader and situation. Participants sometimes stated the leader prevented them from certain followership styles or the situation dictates otherwise. Table 3 The Samplings View of Situational Followership Styles FrequencyTheme9Distrust and Cynicism8Active Participation6Doing the Minimum3Unmotivated 2Didnt Question Leaders Distrust and cynicism The leading response to sub-question one revolved around being distrustful and having unmet expectations. Participant 3 best captured the essence of the theme It depends on the leader and the situation. Our unit was in the remote mountains of Afghanistan and was a very hostile and violent place. The only way the leadership could get to our location was by helicopter. Also, the only food we had for about a month was Meals Ready to Eat (MREs) which are the prepackaged food we ate three times a day. We were a high functioning unit, but the leadership never recognized or acknowledged our hard work and sacrifice. For example, our followership style continued to change from exemplary to becoming more distrustful. One day our supervisor arrived, and when he stepped off the helicopter instead of commanding soldiers for doing a good job, he starts chastising them for having unkempt uniforms and being unshaven. The people he was referring to just come from a five-day patrol in minus zero-degree temperature during the start of the fighting season. This type of behavior continued throughout the rest of deployment. As a result, it created ineffective followers because we no longer believed in our leadership. Participant 1 shared an experience of distrust towards a new leader arriving before their deployment to Afghanistan The leader created distrust amongst the followers by displaying an attitude of, Im in charge, and therefore there is no other answer possible than the one I have. This created a very cynical environment and bad followers. People felt the leadership didnt listen or care about their ideas or input. Consequently, it redefined the way members interacted and did things half-heartily. This created a lot of tension and people became very disgruntled and unhappy. Participant 2 added how one leader confronted personnel in public and people became demoralized The leader would challenge you every step of the way, not necessarily your ability, but to try to get you to do what he wanted you to do. On one occasion, I was in his office and heard yelling down the hallway, and several people came out of their offices to see what was going on. The supervisor was screaming and using profanity towards a subordinate. The subordinate had his fist clenched, his knuckles were white, and he was standing there shaking. Several of us walked over to him when the supervisor left to see if he was O.K. The person stated, If you guys hadnt stepped out of your offices, I wouldve knocked him on his butt. This alienated a lot of people because they feared they would be the next target. Participant 5 described an experience during one of his Iraq deployments which increased hostility and decreased teamwork within the unit The supervisor berated people in front of their peers and subordinates on the onset of arriving in Iraq. Our attitude towards the leader was one of cynicism and distrust. Unfortunately, this caused people not to help one another because they felt demoralized. People resented being there and developed an I dont give a damn attitude which caused us to move from a functional to a dysfunctional unit. In a similar experience, Participant 6 explained It was a very difficult environment to work because there was no top cover and soldiers see those types of things. This changed the morale of the unit. Its an added layer of complexity to the personal battles that you must address in a combat environment. It changed our followership style because you knew no one was going to take care of you either way. Participant 7 believed cynicism and distrust towards their leadership caused people to leave the Army Normally units come back from a deployment stronger from the time spent near one another. The things that weve done together and went through together made us stronger. We came back from this deployment, and people were jumping ship left and right. Officers were resigning, and soldiers were getting out when their contract ended. It was the first time Ive ever seen anything like this. Everyone was dissatisfied, burned out, and followers did not want to follow anymore. It was crazy Participant 8 added My experience with this leader resulted in regrettably a change of my performance from a level that had previously gotten my supervisor recognition to sufficiency. My exceptional performance was dependent upon thinking outside the box and being the first one to break down doors. Serving under a leader who doesnt care led to a significant loss of loyalty and normalization of my performance. This was the worst time in the Army, and I was ready to get out. Fortunately, I didnt let this experience dictate my decision to stay until retirement. This supervisor rode you endlessly, ridicule people in front of their peers and subordinates, and ostracize the individual for not being a team player or label them incompetent. When the supervisor left on his mid-tour leave, he told his deputy to ride certain people in his absence. Some followers fell in line and conformed to a similar type of behavior. They would inform the supervisor if anyone said anything negative about him. This created an environment of distrust and caused followers to be cynical towards one another. Active participation The second leading theme of the participant responses for sub-question one was active participation within the organization. Table 4 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 1 Sub-Question (SQ1)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)an active follower that cares about what happens in the organization. you put out a 100 effort to support him and the mission. be an independent-thinker. follower thats active and willing to get the job done you wanted to go above and beyond. – Involved in the Organization – Puts out 100 All the Time – Requires Little to No Supervision – Takes the Initiative Changes made at this stage – Supports the Team and the Leader was merged with Involved in the Organization. – Created a new theme, Takes the Initiative – Collapsed Stays Positive Leadership to Takes the InitiativeActive Participation Memo-writing extracts The leadership empowered people to be forward-looking, involved, desired feedback, and genuinely cared for the people who made it easy to be involved and actively participate. Participant 1 depicted the theme the best You build followers who are forward-looking by giving them the freedom to do things based on their initiative. This allows individuals to be a team member that has a vested interest in the accomplishment of the task or mission. You may not be the head of the team, but youre a member of the team and become an active follower that cares about what happens or what does not happen within the organization. Participant 2 explained The leadership during one of my deployments to Afghanistan empowered us to make decisions. However, this was not always the case, especially in combat. People tend to get protective of their authority, and they dont give it out because they have no confidence in their followers. But, these guys were very competent and had tremendous confidence in themselves and their followers. This gave us the freedom to do things based on our initiative and anticipate how it will affect the following-on mission. Participant 3 submitted My first deployment to Iraq some of us worked in positions that were outside our normal duties and responsibilities. Our direct supervisor took really good care of us but stretched us to the limits. This type of leader made you a good follower. People knew they would be taken care of, so you put out a 100 effort to support him and the mission. That form of leadership made us want to please him. People were not just willing but wanting to do the things that needed to be done. Participant 4 added You want to follow a leader that respects you and what you think. You want a leader that wants your input and wants you to be part of the decision making. That type of leader makes a strong and effective follower. The follower will make a positive impact on the organization once they feel appreciated and motivated by the leadership. Either way, this develops a follower thats active and willing to get the job done regardless of the mission. Participant 5 shared During my deployment to Iraq, we had a great leader. He got to know his followers, and that built his confidence in us and us with him. He supported us in every possible way which inspired us to be involved whole-heartily in each mission. He taught us that as a leader you had to be an independent-thinker and open to those people that were following you. You couldnt be so authoritarian that you cant get support from your followers, especially in combat. He always instilled in us to be able to follow well, because if we couldnt follow then how could, we become an effective leader. Participant 6 stated In Iraq, we had leadership that enabled their followers and wanted them to understand everything that was going on. This made people want to be involved in every mission that came down the pike. Your ideas and contributions were appreciated, so you wanted to go above and beyond. We were able to do our jobs, and use our talents that would accomplish the mission to the betterment of the organization. Participant 7 contended The leadership during this specific deployment to Iraq was amazing. They listened to their subordinates and understood how to assess people. They built plans using the collective genius of the whole organization. The leadership enabled us to have frank and open discussions. This provided purpose to the organization which made us want to actively follow and be involved in the decisions that were made. Participant 8 concluded During one of my Iraq deployments, the leadership created an environment that gave you the confidence to accomplish the mission. He did this by enabling his followers to go out and do something on their effort to support the mission as a whole. He was open to receive information from his subordinates and incorporate it in the final decision which motivated us to become active participants to ensure the unit was successful in everything we did. Did the minimum The third leading response of this sample dealt with both leaders and followers who did the minimum. Table 5 Participant Excerpts, Coding Clusters, and Themes Sub-Question (SQ1)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)complained that its constantly changing by the hour. never provided any recommendations for improvement. people were not willing or wanting to make a mistake. provide clear, step-by-step directions. …all they cared about was themselves – Uncertain and Unstable with Changing Orders – Does exactly what the leader says – Takes Care of Themselves Changes made at this stage – Never Provided Solutions was merged with Does Exactly What the Leader Says – Collapsed Does Not Take Risks and created a new theme, Takes Care of Themselves – Eliminated You Have to Give Something to Get Something Done Did the Minimum Memo-writing extracts Most of the participants mentioned only a few occasions where people consistently did the minimum. Changing orders seemed to put people in positions of just sitting on the fence because they knew it was going to change. Participant 5 captured this theme the best In Iraq, I experienced people who did the minimum to survive. We would go on patrols for two to three days at a time and get shot at by Rocket Propelled Grenades (RPG), small arms and Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). Unfortunately, we lost several soldiers during this deployment. Everyone was scared and very cautious, but we all had a job to do, and we depended on one another to get it done. This type of person would make the minimum and question decisions but never provided any recommendations for improvement. In this environment that was unacceptable. We had 19 and 20-year-old soldiers risking their lives every day and all they wanted is their leadership to make solid, quick decisions and take the initiative to keep everyone safe. Participant 2 added We arrived in Iraq, and our vehicles and equipment were arriving by ship at the port. We had a limited window to marry up the personnel, vehicles, and equipment before moving to our assigned area of operations which was throughout certain regions in Iraq. I was tasked to find out what the problem was and come up with a solution to fix it. It took me half a day to realize the problem was one person who put the minimum effort, was full of excuses, and refused to decide until getting approval from her supervisor. This person blamed the system, complained that its constantly changing by the hour and no one informs her of the changes. I told her exactly what I was going to do and all I asked was she stayed out of our way. I grabbed several of my soldiers we identified each of our vehicles and equipment and left the port with no problem. Participant 3 expanded In Afghanistan, I felt we were somewhat handicapped when it came to the Rules of Engagement compared to Iraq. Unfortunately, that caused some people to sit on the fence because they were too afraid to decide without running it through the chain command. It was somewhat more politically sensitive than Iraq, and this uncertainty trickled down the line, and people were not willing or wanting to make a mistake that could cost them their jobs. This indecision could cost people their lives in Afghanistan because it was a fluid environment. You couldnt be in survival mode and do the minimum you had to commit one way or the other to be able to achieve the mission. Participant 4 surmised During one of the training exercises leading up to our deployment, I encountered a follower who wanted to play it safe. He did the minimum, didnt make decisions quickly, and never wanted to excel in anything he did. His people went around him to get things done because we all had things that needed to be accomplished before heading down range. He was one of the few I had to provide clear, step-by-step directions because he wouldnt engage. Unfortunately, the way you train, in most cases, will dictate how you fight. He did less than what he was capable of and became complacent which made other people anxious. I replaced him before we deployed. Participant 6 continued My second tour in Afghanistan I had people that were passive and wouldnt step up unless they knew the answer to the question or that is was the right thing to do. They thought they were back home in a safe environment, but unfortunately, we were in a combat zone, and split-second decisions had to be made with the information you had at the time. You couldnt sit there until someone made the decision for you or told you what to do or do the minimum. They were paralyzed because they rather survive and play it safe. These people never stepped up to the task, were never last, but always could be found somewhere in the middle. Participant 8 concluded When we arrived in Iraq, I saw a few people who didnt want to leave the safety of the Forward Operating Base (FOB). They didnt care about the soldiers or the mission, all they cared about was themselves and surviving the tour of duty. They didnt even do the minimum of what their job or duty and responsibilities and soldiers see this type of self-preservation and selfish behavior. Unfortunately, the more people you take out of the mission for complacency, everyone else had to pick up their slack and work longer hours. Although they didnt want to do their jobs, the job still had to get done. That meant less time off for the rest of us who stuck it out. Inexperience The third leading response of this sample was no experience within the organization because of a new mission or position (see Table 6). Participant 5 captured the theme the best During our deployment to Iraq, our traditional mission changed, and we had to reorganize our unit when we arrived in the theater. Since we were a field artillery unit, we would normally fire from a distance and typically were not directly involved in close combat missions. We received a change of mission to break down into platoon gun, convoy patrols. Some of us had to assume platoon leader roles as noncommissioned officers since each truck required one. We had a handful of junior leaders that were ineffective and required constant supervision. Unfortunately, these individuals were inexperienced and eventually moved from these positions into jobs that were significantly lacking in responsibility. Table 6 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 1 Sub-Question (SQ1)/ Participant ExcerptCoding ClusterThemejunior leaders that were ineffective. individuals that required constant direction. inexperienced and lack the knowledge. teach soldiers to think on their initiative and not treat them like sheep.- Doesnt Do Their Share of Work – Required Constant Supervision – Followers Were Inexperienced or Unskilled – Leaders Treat People Like Sheep Changes made at this stage – Eliminated Leaders Are Very Controlling – Combined Doesnt Like Being a Follower with Leaders Treat People Like Sheep – Contracted Unhappy with Doing the Work with Doesnt Do Their Share Inexperienced Memo-writing extracts Participants 2, 5 and 9 were the only ones to provide examples of unmotivated people, and the majority shared most of the time this could be corrected by mentoring and coaching Participant 2 explained I was fortunate through five deployments I only came across a few individuals that required constant direction and rarely participated in anything that was going on. In my experience, these were the guys that were already in some trouble and awaiting discharge, punishment or both. These individuals hurt an organization because your always short of personnel, and now you must take another person to supervise them, and now your down two people. Most of the time you could sit down with this person and build up their confidence and find out what the underlying problem. But, it depends on what type of follower this person is to see if they can become motivated to get the job done or if they will continue to be mediocre. Participant 9 asserted In a combat arms unit, you are constantly getting brand new soldiers straight out of training thats thrown into a combat situation. These individuals are inexperienced, scared, and want to participate but lack the knowledge. As a leader, you must delicately balance the time you spend with the new, inexperienced soldiers and the mission at hand. Thats why its so important to train each follower to step into the coaching, mentoring and teaching role to help these soldiers think and do things on their initiative and not treat them like sheep. Occasionally, you may come across a soldier not willing to be trained, and thats when you find a different course of action. Didnt question leaders The final theme that arose from the codification came from the ideology of Participant 8. Table 7 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 1 Sub-Question (SQ1)/ Participant ExcerptCoding ClusterThemefollower pretty much went along with everything. Everyone tried to please the boss. no one said anything or made recommendations. follower pretty much went along with everything the supervisor said – Defer to the Leader – Eager to Please the Boss Changes made at this stage – Merged Always Says Yes and Dont Ask why with Defer to the Leader – Combined Didnt Ask Why or Didnt Question the Purpose and End State with Defer to the Leader – Collapsed Saying Yes Instead of No with Eager to Please the Boss Didnt Question Leaders Memo-writing extracts I want to combine these with other themes or sub-themes, but theyre completely different from the others, so I made a separate category Participant 8 exclaimed We had a talented group of people that were conforming and just surviving. He continued The people within the section were working but not producing anything. They were going through the motions to get through the deployment. It was like a weird purgatory where there was no focus from the supervisor, and no one said anything or made any positive recommendations. Everyone tried to please the boss and conform to his desires even when they made no sense. This was something I never experienced or understood because with this caliber of competent followers would typically overcome these types of situations using tact and candor. Luckily, a month later we got another supervisor that was very competent and focused our efforts by providing clear guidance that allowed us to produce actionable products. Participant 9 added During my first tour in Afghanistan, our supervisor was inexperienced and leading us into combat. We were in a remote location, so we rarely would see our higher headquarters and we pretty much operated autonomously. A lot of the tactical orders coming down from his boss didnt make sense and caused a lot of problems and placed us in very dangerous situations. The follower pretty much went along with everything the supervisor recommended even though he knew there were better ways to execute the operation. This lack of effective followership caused people to become complacent, and pretty much do what they needed to do to survive. This type of followership took a toll on the morale of the unit and placed us in a difficult position to want to do the right thing not to want to care anymore. In summary, coding clusters were developed from the segments of the participants data that captured something interesting about the Sub-Question (1) Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars A label was then assigned to each coding cluster that was derived from the participants transcript that identified a conversation topic, meaning, or feeling. Subsequently, while reflecting on the research question five sub-themes arose distrust and cynicism, active participation, doing the minimum, inexperience, and didnt question leaders. These sub-themes were under the umbrella of the overall theme Situational Followership Styles. Hersey Blanchard (1984) suggested leaders must use different leadership styles depending on the situation. Sub-Question (2) Difficulty or Simplicity of Followership Styles The second question presented to the participants was, Can you provide examples of the difficulty or simplicity of followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Table 4 below highlights the responses. Competent leaders Six of the nine (67) participants indicated the simplicity of followership styles was dependent on the competency of the leader (See Tables 8 9 below. Participant 8 laid the foundation and suggested The simplicity of my followership style is based on the people involved. For example, the leaders I reported to were exceptionally ethical, moral and competent, so it was easy to be an exceptional follower. They were a socially intelligent group of individuals, and when they provided guidance, you were right there with them to execute the mission without question. This was based on the trust you had and who they were as human beings, not just military leaders. You knew the leadership cared about you as a person and this was the best experience and unit I served with during my five combat rotations to Iraq and Afghanistan. We trained hard, efficiently, and executed exceptionally well in combat because of their competency and culture they built as leaders. Table 8 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 2 Sub-Question (SQ2)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)He fought for his people. leaders I reported to were exceptionally ethical, moral and competent leadership cared about you as a person. leadership style continually motivated me. we trained hard, efficiently, and executed exceptionally well. He put his career on the line several times because he stood up for what was right- Leads by Example – Appeals to the Moral and Ethical Values – Mobilizes Energy and Resources – Expresses Confidence in Followers – Assumed Risk and Responsibilities Changes made at this stage – Presented a Clear Guidance and Great Communicator was merged Mobilizes Energy and Resources – Combined Espoused Values and Vision with Appeals to Moral and Ethical Values – Collapsed High Self-Confidence with Leads by ExampleOverarching Theme Leading Change in Organizations Sub-Theme Competent Leaders Memo-writing extracts This question probably created the most emotions because the followers expressions went from enthusiastic to very angry as they recalled different leaders and situations. Table 9 The Samplings View of Difficult or Simple Followership Styles FrequencyTheme6Competent Leaders 4Questionable Directives2Change of Job ResponsibilitiesParticipant 1 added The leadership I experienced during one of my tours in Iraq was exceptional, competent and caring. This was a very sensitive, upper echelon position that required quick decisions and an immediate notification process. My supervisor was a full bird colonel and very competent. He wanted to hear the good, bad and the ugly. He solicited your opinion and wanted you to tell him the way you see it, what you know and dont know. He was a straight shooter and wanted your best effort and backed you up to the end. He leadership style continually motivated me to be a star follower and made it easier to want to follow. Participant 2 contended Both my immediate supervisors were very competent leaders. We were on orders to deploy to Afghanistan, but the political situation changed, and our orders were canceled. I was eligible to retire, and the unit was now on orders to deploy to Iraq. However, the position I would fill would put me reporting to another colonel instead of the one I was working directly with at the time. They asked me if I would consider going to Iraq with them instead of retiring. I said I would if they would maintain the same supervisory reporting relationship. Two weeks later the leadership said itd been changed and that gave me a lot of respect and confidence in following through with their word. I deployed to Iraq with them, and my loyalty and followership never waived even though I experienced personal hardship during my tour of duty. Participant 3 described The immediate supervisor during my tour to Iraq was very competitive, so it was very easy to follow him. He was very knowledgeable and made you want to do things that you were doing versus having him tell you what to do. The way supervisors treat people is a huge factor in how difficult or easy it is to be a follower. There were no difficulties whatsoever working with him because he knew what he was talking about based off his experience. He was the type of person who walked in a room, and you knew he was competent. Participant 5 indicated My first tour to Iraq was an amazing experience. We had a huge change in mission when we arrived and reorganized on the fly. My immediate supervisor selected me above my peers to lead four-gun platoons and instilled in me the confidence that I couldnt muster at the time, because of my inexperience. He trained, mentored and coached us and made us one of the best leaders within the unit. He was competent, caring and an exceptional leader that trusted his people. This motivated us to learn and learn quickly. He took something difficult and made it easier and this, in turn, made following simple. Participant 7 added We had a great commander in Afghanistan. He fought for his people and withstood a lot of abuse and backlash from his boss for speaking up for us. He put his career on the line because he stood to the chain of command when he knew decisions were not right. We would go to hell and back for this guy, and we did just that during that tour. He would go out on patrols with us to show how much he cared and was willing to sacrifice the face the hardship we were facing daily. He motivated to be great followers because he exuded competence in everything he did and never wavered morally or ethically. There was no doubt in anyones mind that his leadership made our followership that much easier during a difficult time, environment and tour. Questionable directive Four of the nine (45) participants experienced questionable or ambiguous directives which made their followership style difficult. The remaining five (55) expressed on occasion receiving questionable or ambiguous directives but was able to receive clarification before executing the mission. Table 10 displays the results. Participant 1 described I had a leader in Afghanistan that was questionable and never provided clear or concise directives. His directive was I dont know what I want, but I will know when I see it. This put everyone in a difficult position because you didnt know where to start and what was the end state. Without those two things, it was difficult to develop effective courses of actions because you were spinning your wheels. Participant 7 expressed My deployment to Iraq was probably the most difficult time I experienced as a follower. It seemed that most of the directives that came down from higher placed us in an ethical dilemma. Unfortunately, those that questioned the decision were removed from their position, and that was it. If at any point you showed the courage as a follower, you were done. This was without a doubt the worst 14 months of my life because you walked on pins and needles because your job wasnt safe. Dont get me wrong if you shot a kid without checking or getting an identification, then Im all for nailing someone to the wall. But, if youre in pursuit of doing whats right and something happens in the fog of war than you stand behind your people. In that environment, its sometimes hard to distinguish between the good and bad guys because everyone had weapons from young to old. Table 10 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 2 Sub-Question (SQ2)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)leader was questionable and never provided clear or concise directives. put everyone in a difficult position. I had to decide if I was going to do it for my boss or do what is right. without a doubt the worst 14 months. its an added layer of complexity to the personal battles that must be addressed in combat. most difficult positions as a follower is receiving a directive thats questionable or ambiguous. – Increased Uncertainty and Complexity – Does Not Foster a Positive Environment – The threat to Values and Ideals – Demoralized Individuals and Unit Changes made at this stage – Merged Lack of Trust and Negative Command Climate with Does Not Foster a Positive Environment – Collapsed Fear of Personal Failure under Threat to Values and Ideals – Added Demoralized Individuals and Unit – Combined Complexity of the Environment with Increased Uncertainty and ComplexityOverarching Theme Leading Change in Organizations Sub-Theme Questionable Directives Memo-writing extracts Questionable directives added anxiety to the participants and truly had a negative impact and it was like opening an old wound. Look to see if develop follower skills and confidence to change of job responsibilities. Participant 1 described I had a leader in Afghanistan that was questionable and never provided clear or concise directives. His directive was I dont know what I want, but I will know when I see it. This put everyone in a difficult position because you didnt know where to start and what was the end state. Without those two things, it was difficult to develop effective courses of actions because you were spinning your wheels. Participant 7 expressed My deployment to Iraq was probably the most difficult time I experienced as a follower. It seemed that most of the directives that came down from higher placed us in an ethical dilemma. Unfortunately, those that questioned the decision were removed from their position, and that was it. If at any point you showed the courage as a follower, you were done. This was without a doubt the worst 14 months of my life because you walked on pins and needles because your job wasnt safe. Dont get me wrong if you shot a kid without checking or getting an identification, then Im all for nailing someone to the wall. But, if youre in pursuit of doing whats right and something happens in the fog of war than you stand behind your people. In that environment, its sometimes hard to distinguish between the good and bad guys because everyone had weapons from young to old. Participant 8 shared The difficulty or simplicity I experienced as a follower was based on the personality of the people involved. I think anytime I had a moral or ethical line that I had to contend with and decide whether Im going to do it for my boss or do what I think is right. If the person youre working with is ethical, the decision is usually simple, but if your boss has questionable integrity, then the position youre in becomes more difficult. This is probably the easiest delineation between the difficulty and simplicity of followership. I think who the person is a huge factor in how difficult or easy because its an added layer of complexity to the personal battles that must be addressed in combat. Participant 9 described One of the most difficult positions to be in as a follower is to receive a directive thats questionable or ambiguous. In a combat zone, you typically dont have time to get clarification or ask questions, because the mission needs to be executed quickly. Thats when you analyze the situation, trust your gut, stay true to yourself, make an audible and live with the consequences afterward. Luckily, its been my experience when I provided my superior a back brief of what happened, explained the situation that we faced, the question would inevitably come up on why I didnt follow the directive to the letter. I would express the intent of the directive was accomplished, but the situation dictated a somewhat different response which was always a difficult time because you never knew what the leader would do. Change of job responsibilities Two of the nine (22) participants experienced a change in job responsibilities when they deployed. Table 11 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 2 Sub-Question (SQ2)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)it was an awkward position to be in because I was always viewed as the expert. my success from my previous position transferred over to this new one. we had to change our job responsibilities completely. I did look for my supervisor to coach and direct me through some of these new processes. in a short period we were able to train and mentor new people. – Fill Key Positions with Competent People – Dealing with Stress and Difficulties of Job Change – Empower Competent People – Create a Sense of Urgency – Provide Opportunities for Early Success Changes made at this stage – Merged Communicate a Clear Vision with Prepared People for Change – Collapsed Prepare People for Change under Fill Positions with Competent People – Added Create a Sense of UrgencyOverarching Theme Leading Change in Organizations Sub-Theme Change of Job Responsibilities Memo-writing extracts I was impressed because all these positions were not remotely close to their area of expertise, but they consistently excelled regardless of the circumstance and didnt complain about the difficulty of transitioning to a new job other than it was awkward to go from an expert to a steep learning curve. Participant 3 captured this theme the best. He indicated I was assigned to a completely different position that was outside the realm of my expertise during my first deployment to Iraq. It was an awkward position to be in because I was always viewed as the expert in my field of work. We had a supervisor that took care of us, and we had a good working relationship. We had to deal with a lot of stress, had to respond immediately and contact other effective elements within the theater. I consider myself an independent and critical thinker, but in this position, since it had a different job responsibility, my followership style shifted from a star follower to some extent a semi-passive follower. I didnt wait for my supervisor to make the decision I did look for him to coach and direct me through some of these new processes. He was a great mentor that was directive at times but coached and mentored you as well. He was a no-nonsense type of leader that supported you which gave me the confidence to make decisions right away knowing he had my back. Participant 4 elaborated During my first tour to Iraq, our mission changed from a traditional unit to a completely different organization. We had to completely change our job responsibilities and how we operated to something that was new and unprecedented. On top of that my responsibilities as a non-commissioned officer changed to one an officer which increased the learning curve that much more. Fortunately, I had a supervisor that instilled confidence in me and encouraged me to excel regardless of the challenge. My success from my previous position transferred over to this new one and I became the expert over a short period and were able to train and mentor new officers transitioning into similar positions throughout the organization. To recap, the second question presented to the participants was, Can you provide examples of the difficulty or simplicity of followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars The overall theme for sub-question two was Leading Organizational Change with the following sub-themes competent leaders, questionable directives, and change of job responsibilities. Kelley (2008) argued leaders must understand the different followership styles to understand both positive and negative follower behaviors. Participants responses reflected the difficulty or simplicity depending how the leader treated the followers during different missions and circumstances and either changed the organization positively or negatively. Sub-Question (3) Leadership Styles While Serving on Missions The third question presented to the participants was, Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Four sub-themes were identified mutual trust, delegating, directing, and conflict-inducing. Table 12 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 3 Sub-Question (SQ3)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)trust was a common denominator in the leader and followership styles. we all trusted our leadershipthey empowered us. once mutual trust is developed each work to achieve the same goal and vision. trust grew stronger through the deployment and people wanted to get involved. it comes back to that building that trust. trust and decrease resistance.- Created a Good Working Relationship – Improved Productivity – Improved Morale – People Wanted to Get Involved – Increased Commitment – Decreases Resistance Changes made at this stage – Merged Great Working Environment with Created a Good Working Relationship – Collapsed – Positive Reinforcement of Completing the TaskOverarching Theme Situational Leadership Styles Sub-Theme Mutual Trust Memo-writing extracts Most participants stated trust depended on what type of leadership style was exhibited. This included the followership style as well as the leader. Table 13 The Samplings View of Leadership Styles FrequencyTheme6Mutual Trust 4Delegating3Directive 2 Conflict Inducing Mutual trust Six of the nine (67) participants expressed leadership styles of both the officers and noncommissioned officers involved trust. Participant 9 contended Trust was a common denominator in the leader and followership styles to be the most effective in combat. The leader could not be in all places because several missions were going on simultaneously. The leader had to trust the followership style and allow him the flexibility to stay true to the intent, but also deviate if necessary for the protection of the soldiers and accomplishment of the mission. Also, the follower cant be at all the briefings so had to trust the leadership style of the supervisor without hearing firsthand the information that was provided before the mission. Once this mutual trust was established the leadership and followership styles were complimentary. Participant 1 explained We all trusted the leadership we had in Iraq because most of us knew him when he was a junior officer. The sergeant major we worked with before deploying. Both empowered their followers to make decisions, and we had a mutual trust that only got stronger during the deployment. Participant 4 exclaimed Good leaders get to know the strengths and weaknesses of their followers and know which ones they need to coach, mentor, and which ones they can leave alone with minimal direction. Also, followers get to know their leaders strengths and weaknesses and understand when to step in to make things happen because of their expertise in a certain area. Once respect is established, mutual trust is developed as both works to achieve the same goal and vision. Once this bond is created, the sky is the limit on what the unit can achieve. Participant 5 elaborated In combat, you cant be a micromanager because your followers will then sit back and allow you to make all the decisions which are detrimental to the unit. Getting people involved is the key, and once people are involved they take full responsibility for what happens, and they are fully aware of the cost if the mission fails. This makes both the leader and follower responsible and develops trust because now each knows you are there to succeed, so you support each other to ensure success. Participant 6 maintained I do think that there are specific leader styles that influence positive followership styles. It comes back to that building that trust, and it comes from being there and the leader showing their confidence, showing that they know what theyre doing through multiple situations. Participant 8 replied In combat, you cant be a micromanager because your followers will then sit back and allow you to make all the decisions which are detrimental to the unit. Getting people involved is the key, and once people are involved they take full responsibility for what happens, and they are fully aware of the cost if the mission fails. This makes both the leader and follower responsible and develops trust and decreases resistance because now each knows you are there to succeed, so you support each other to ensure success. Delegating Nine of Nine (100) participants agreed delegating was the most preferred method of leadership. However, four of nine (44) provided their perceptions or experiences while conducting missions in Afghanistan or Iraq wars Participant 9 captured the theme the best They empowered us to make decisions which were not always the case especially in combat. People tend to get protective of their authority, and they dont give it out. This leadership knew how delegate to which gave us tremendous confidence in making things happen and work as a team. People were vested in ensuring that you did everything to achieve the goals and accomplish the mission. Participant 2 stated It didnt matter how it got done it was just the result they cared about. The leadership was really good, and they left you to your methods and only asked to see if you needed anything to accomplish the task or mission. This created an environment where people cared about what happened and ensuring things got done without being directed or asked. The leadership knew how to delegate and ensured you had everything to accomplish the mission. Table 14 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 3 Sub-Question (SQ3)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)they empowered us to make decisions. It didnt matter how it got done it was the result they cared about continued to give us more tasks but knew our limits. even tedious tasks made the job a little more interesting than doing nothing.- Empowered the People – Provided Minimal Guidance – Increased the Individuals Potential – Kept Them Informed – Made the Job More Interesting Changes made at this stage – Merged Enabled the Follower and Provided Opportunities with Empowered the People – Collapsed Kept Them Informed with Provided Minimal Guidance – Added People Wanted to Get InvolvedOverarching Theme Situational Leadership Styles Sub-Theme Delegating Memo-writing extracts All participants believed delegating was an effective leadership style but agreed in some cases this is not always possible. Most at one time stated they didnt delegate. Participant 6 added In Iraq, the leader had a lot of experience in combat which I believed gave him confidence in delegating different things to each of us to teach us to be better soldiers and still provided us a safety net to ensure we didnt fail. As we grew in the knowledge, he continued to give us more tasks, but somehow knew what our limits were and still gave us a little bit more to grow us more than what we thought could be done within our abilities. Participant 7 shared Sometimes the tasks that were delegated were tedious, but we understood the leadership did not have the time to accomplish everything, so we each did our part to accomplish the mission. When things got monotonous even tedious tasks made the job a little more interesting than doing nothing but waiting for the next mission. Directive Three of the nine (33) participants recalled instances of directive leadership styles experienced during one or more of their deployments. (See Table 15) Participant 1 expressed When youre on the ground and moving through the combat zone, somebody must be in charge and directing people. Sometimes the situation youre walking into is unclear, and as a follower, you must be willing to obey the order and execute because what you are doing is supporting a piece of the pie. Without you doing your piece the other people cant do theirs, so the mission starts falling apart. You not only have to trust the leadership style of your supervisor, but you must trust the followership styles of those that are on your left and right. Its not an individual but a team effort. Participant 7 elaborated There are situations when your leadership style must be hey, do what I tell you to do because its life or death. Theres no wiggle room for me to sit and have a debate with you. When youre in this situation, you cant have a followership style that does the opposite of what youre told. It wasnt an environment where you can say in the middle of a firefight cease-fire, check fire, we need to stop and fix this before we continue fighting. If your leadership and followership styles are not flexible, it gets compounded once you get into combat. Participant 8 expressed Sometimes your followership style is putting faith in your leaders if its time sensitive and the situation is unclear. I think the directive leadership style is appropriate during a crisis. It would be the preferred style because you must get resources and the mission-aligned and go in the same direction. The closest example is a battle drill. If were hit with an IED or if somebody is shooting small arms fire you go through the battle drill. Hey, action North, action East, action to the 1 oclock and react with muscle memory you go through the battle drill as the situation develops. It can be very detailed as this is what I need you to do a, b, c, and. d. Table 15 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 3 Sub-Question (SQ3)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)sometimes the situation youre walking into is unclear, and as a follower, you must be willing to obey the order and execute. There are situations when your leadership style must be hey, do what I tell you to do because its life or death. – Obey Because the Situation is Unclear – Some Circumstances Dictated a Directive Approach Changes made at this stage Merged Your Task is a Smaller Piece of the Entire Pie and Lacking the Full Picture with Obey Because the Situation is Unclear – Deleted – Frustrated with Organizational Constraints because this didnt apply to the participant, but to one of the followers under themOverarching Theme Situational Leadership Styles Sub-Theme Directive Memo-writing extracts Most participants stated trust depended on what type of leadership style was exhibited. I was surprised participants that provided that provide experiences of directive leadership were mostly positive and not negative. Conflict inducing Participant responses reflected instances when the leadership exhibited negative behavior towards the followers that was counter-intuitive to instilling confidence, initiative, and effective followership (See Table 16). Participant 2 reminisced I was in Afghanistan and part of a transition team and escort certain individuals to and from meetings and locations. The incoming person was very unapproachable and offensive in his demeanor. Our experience was not solicited or respected even though were running those roads very routinely. He ignored our knowledge of the area of operations and told us how to proceed and how he wanted things to work. This caused a lot of tension because we were not only charged with his safety but the safety of everyone on the convoy detail. Unfortunately, because of his leadership style, we had to salute, do what we were told, and try to do the right thing without getting people incompetently killed in the process. Table 16 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 3 Sub-Question (SQ3)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)created a lot of conflict between him and his followers. the person was very unapproachable and offensive in his demeanor. – Undermines the Followers Will and Initiative – Changed Your Followership Style Changes made at this stage – Merged Unprovoked Punishment or Behavior Consistently Used Dysfunctional Behavior under Undermines the Followers Will and Initiative because of the similarities in the participants response – Combined Stifled Initiative and Caused In- Fighting with Changed Your Followership StyleOverarching Theme Situational Leadership Styles Sub-Theme Conflict Inducing Memo-writing extracts This one was borderline toxic leadership, but a lot of the experiences were mostly from an angry, unapproachable person that didnt display good interpersonal behavior characteristics and not necessarily toxic all the time. Participant 3 confided The immediate supervisor during my third tour in Iraq was very abrasive and created a lot of conflict between him and his followers. His leadership style was one of intimidation, profanity, and controversial. When you get a person with this type of personality, you try to keep your distance because you dont know when hes going to blow up and who he will direct his anger. You could be a courageous follower and confront this type of leadership style, but in the long run, it effective your career and potential promotion opportunity. Also, you could do the minimum and try to survive, but that would put you on his radar screen and is anger was crazy. Unfortunately, of the majority of us went into the survival mode and tried to avoid him as much as possible. In conclusion, mutual trust, delegating, directing, and conflict-inducing were sub-themes derived from Sub-Question (3) Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars These sub-themes focused on one notable element underneath the overall theme Situational Leadership Styles. According to Hersey Blanchard (1984), leaders must adjust their leadership style depending on the situation. Similarly, the participant responses reinforced how the leader adjusts the style of leadership depending on the situation experienced during different combat missions. Sub-Question (4) Leadership Styles That Influenced Certain Followership Styles The fourth question presented to the participants was, Did you identify or experience any leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Nine of nine (100) participants acknowledged they experienced different leadership styles that influenced their followership styles one way or the other (See Table 17). Close Relationship Participant responses reflected several experiences when the leadership exhibited a desire to establish a professional relationship which positively impacted the followers confidence to overcome their weaknesses and rely on their strengths to accomplish the mission. Participant 2 reminisced The one leader in Afghanistan was relatively new, but he had a real good fatherly instinct. I learned a lot from him. He was in his 40s, and all the young soldiers in our unit were only 18 and 19-year-old men and women. Those soldiers were someones children. He fully understood the responsibility he had for their lives, and he took care of all of us, from those young soldiers, all the way up to us senior NCOs. He looked after us like he was looking after his children. He was a father figure that you wanted to please and do a great job. Table 17 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 4 Sub-Question (SQ4)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)he was a father figure that you wanted to please and do a great job. it was much easier for me to work with leaders that are friendly, more open, receptive, more supportive. he had confidence in me to be able to train his officers. he overcame the stress by letting him know he was the best lead vehicle and I couldnt put just anybody up there. – Be a Father Figure – Be More Supportive – High Expectations – Help People Deal with Stress Changes made at this stage – Moved Espoused Values to Sub-theme Adaptive – Collapsed Meet with People under Be More SupportiveOverarching Theme Developmental Leadership Approach Sub-Theme Close Relationship Memo-writing extracts Look at moving espoused values to sub-theme Adaptive. Also, does Father Figure collapse under Be More Supportive. Keep it separate because they are two different sub-themes from the participant responses. Participant 3 commented I think it was much easier for me to work with leaders that are friendly, more open, receptive, more back and forth communication. That type of leadership recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of their immediate subordinates and is willing to help overcome their weaknesses and apply their strengths to prepare them for success better. Four sub-themes were identified close relationship, adaptive, participative, and mentorship. Table 18 The Samplings View of Developmental Leadership Approach FrequencyTheme5Close Relationship 4Adaptive 3Participative 2 Mentorship Participant 5 We started noticing trends in Iraq during our convoy operations. The enemy would hit the first to make you stop and ambush the convoy. One of the followers became stressed and told me he didnt want to be the lead vehicle because all the lead vehicles were getting hit. I encouraged by letting him know he was the best lead vehicle and I couldnt put just anybody up there leading. His confidence built back and overcame his fear because I continued to encourage him on how important he was in keeping us all alive and safe. Participant 6 shared The leadership I had in Iraq took good care of us. I think it was much easier for me to work with leaders that are friendly, more open, supportive, more back and forth communication. That type of leadership recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of their immediate subordinates and is willing to help them overcome their weaknesses and apply their strengths to prepare them for success better. Participant 9 exclaimed My supervisor had so much confidence in me. Once we got a couple of months in Iraq all the newly arriving junior officers had to come to me to learn how I was doing things, the way that I had my books together, and how they needed to operate. So, it was like he had confidence in me to be able to train his officers. Adaptive Nine of Nine (100) participant agree the leader needed to be flexible to adapt to each situation. The leader was able to keep aware of the situation by consulting the followers who had recent knowledge of the area of operations and involve them in both the short and long-range planning. This assisted the leader in providing a clear and more concise guide to the follower and involving the follower in the process. According to the participants this reduced ambiguity and created a more ethical and moral environment because any questions could be answered or cleared up through the planning process since the followers were involved in the decisions, planning, and execution of the mission (See table 19 below). Participant 8 explained this theme the best People cared about each other, and you learned a lot at all levels. It was all based on the culture that was established by the leader and his team. It was impressive he espoused the right culture and personality to restore the ethics of the organization which needed to get changed. We trained hard, we trained efficiently, and we finally became the team everyone talks about. As I said, Id go to hell and back with that leadership team. Participant 2 recalled There are crisis situations when you must be direct. Therere no debates this is how were going to do it and lets go. You can ask people for their input but in certain situations, you cant. A lot of times in combat situations it was understood that whatever the leader said, that was going to happen because everything happens so quickly. When the followers understand that the leaders must make those calls, and when they say to do something, theres no time to react. As the situation unfolds the leadership briefs you as it progresses, and want the crisis is over you can talk about it, and things that couldve happened shouldve happened or wouldve happened. Participant 3 stated The leadership developed plans that were amazing because they built off the collective genius of everyone involved. His approach and how he listened to his subordinates gave us the confidence to provide our input, and this made us want to support him and the mission. The cool thing was he was talented and understood how to assess people personally and professionally. Hes was part of the brilliant change the dynamics to reestablish purpose to the organization. Participant 9 maintained My immediate supervisor was open to feedback. His approach and how he listened to his subordinates gave us confidence a willingness to support him. Once we got going and into operations and he then looked for detailed analytical reports. You had to analyze and think about your assessment of the situation in the sector and what you think is trending. You had to ask yourself where we need to focus our effort. Table 19 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 4 Sub-Question (SQ4)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s) restore the ethics of the organization which needed to get changed. you had to analyze and think about your assessment of the situation in the sector and what you think is trending. leadership developed plans that were amazing because they built off the collective genius of everyone. hes was part of the brilliant change the dynamics to reestablish purpose to the organization.- Espoused Ethics – Maintain Situational Awareness – Plan for a Complex Task – Prepare People for Change Changes made at this stage – Merged sub-themes Communicate a Clear Vision and Act as a Change Agent with Prepared People for Change – Collapsed Provide Briefing When Crisis Occurs under Maintain Situational AwarenessOverarching Theme Developmental Leadership Approach Sub-Theme Adaptive Memo-writing extracts I struggled with the overall theme and went back and forth between learning environment or developmental leadership approach. Since it was a leading question, I went with the overall theme Developmental Leadership Approach. Participative Participant responses reflected several experiences when the leadership involved them in the decision-making process, included them in planning, and appreciated your feedback and involvement in the execution and success of the mission. Table 20 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 4 Sub-Question (SQ4)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)You need to show people you appreciate them. you werent scared to tell them hey you forgot this and took care of it. followers were not just willing but wanting to do the things. – Show Appreciation – Encourage People to Express Their Thoughts – Willing to Cooperate – Changes made at this stage – Merged Listen to Dissenting Views, Try to Utilize Suggestions, and Consulting with People under Encourage People to Express Their Thoughts – Collapsed Keep People Informed to Encourage People to Express Their ThoughtsOverarching Theme Developmental Leadership Approach Sub-Theme Participative Memo-writing extracts I had to merge or collapse several sub-categories into one sub-category because the responses did not support several different ones that I originally noted while reading through the transcripts. Participant 1 reminisced In Afghanistan, we had leadership that wanted you to be involved. They were creating great followers, and I think that that traveled when they left. Those followers became leaders and some of which were already leaders at different echelons anyway, but it filtered down. Followers were not just willing but wanting to do the things that needed to be done. Participant 5 reminisced You need to show people you appreciate them. When you come off a mission, you come back to base, and you clean up your equipment, refill the vehicles, and sure everyone has every they need. One time, returning from a mission, I happened to walk around the vehicle and notices several bullets holes on the sides of the vehicles. One was in the window directly outside of where I was sitting. Thats why you must tell people you appreciate them because you never know when its your time or someone elses time to go. Participant 8 stated I had a very participative leader in Iraq, and as a follower it made you want to think of what they wanted to be done and think about what they needed to be done. You werent scared to tell them hey you forgot this and took care of it. You knew they would appreciate the initiative and when you briefed them what was done, the leader sat down with you and went over different ways that it could have been done. It wasnt a criticism, but more of looking at a problem differently and coming up with more solutions. Mentorship Two of Nine (22) of the participant responses reflected experiences when the leaders provided mentorship to them. Mentoring can be a useful technique to strengthen organizational commitment, adjusting to change, and for career advancement. Table 21 provides participant excerpts from their interview transcripts along with clusters of coding and themes (See Table 21). Participant 7 provided the best description Everything must be flexible, not only in combat but also in a peacetime environment. If youre not a leader thats flexible and adapt your style based on the personalities and the people you deal with than your destined to fail. Theres no one leadership style that you can start out with and continue all the way through a situation or career. Ive experienced a lot of different situations in Iraq and Afghanistan and to lead properly I had to find that right leadership style for me to garner the support I needed to accomplish the mission. Finding that sweet spot and how you deal, or you display your leadership is going to influence those that are below you and itll either increase or degrade your leadership style. Table 21 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 4 Sub-Question (SQ4)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)everything must be flexible, not only in combat but also in a peacetime environment. coaching, supporting and mentoring his subordinates to help develop them as members of the team. – Prepare People for Change – Prepare People for Success Changes made at this stage – Merged Transcend Self-Interest, Empower Competent People and Provide Adequate Training under Prepare People for Success – Collapsed Provide a Clear Vision under Prepare People for ChangeOverarching Theme Leadership is a Dynamic Process Sub-Theme Mentorship Memo-writing extracts I was surprised to see there were not more examples of mentorship, but after reading through the transcripts several times, most of the mentorship happened before deployment. Theres not much time to mentor once youre in combat. Participant 8 added In Iraq, I looked towards my immediate supervisor who was more into coaching, supporting and mentoring his subordinates to help develop them as members of the team. This was a great leadership style. I would watch and learn how to not only train better soldiers to accomplish the mission but make them better people at the same time. In conclusion, close relationship, adaptive, participative, and mentorship were sub-themes derived from Sub-Question (4) Did you identify or experience any leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Vane and Toguchi (2010) posited the future operational environment required decentralized positions, distributed operations, effective small-units that bear the brunt of close combat in years to come (p. 73). According to Tsai Yung (2013), the key is rooted in shared values and indispensable conditions of leader and followers who work together to create an effective organization (p. 2). Table 21 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Question 4 Sub-Question (SQ4)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)everything must be flexible, not only in combat but also in a peacetime environment. coaching, supporting and mentoring his subordinates to help develop them as members of the team. – Prepare People for Change – Prepare People for Success Changes made at this stage – Merged Transcend Self-Interest, Empower Competent People and Provide Adequate Training under Prepare People for Success – Collapsed Provide a Clear Vision under Prepare People for ChangeOverarching Theme Leadership is a Dynamic Process Sub-Theme Mentorship Memo-writing extracts I was surprised to see there were not more examples of mentorship, but after reading through the transcripts several times, most of the mentorship happened before deployment. Theres not much time to mentor once youre in combat. Sub-Question (5) One Best Leadership Style The fifth question presented to the participants was, Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation Nine of Nine (100) participants agreed no one leadership style was the best for every situation. Sub-questions 3 4 were used to answer this specific research question. Table 22 reflects specific participant excerpts and coding clusters to reinforce the participant answers. Table 22 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Sub-Questions 3 4 Sub-Question (SQ34)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)trust was a common denominator. It didnt matter how it got done it was the result they cared about sometimes the situation youre walking into is unclear. created a lot of conflict between him and his followers. it was easier to work with leaders that are friendly and supportive. you had to analyze and think about your assessment of the situation in the sector and what you think is trending. followers were not just willing but wanting to do the things. coaching, supporting, and mentoring his subordinates to help develop them as members of the team.- Mutual Trust – Provided Minimal Guidance – Obey Because the Situation is Unclear – Undermines the Followers Will and Initiative – Be More Supportive – Maintain Situational Awareness – Willing to Cooperate – Prepare People for Success Changes made at this stage – Used existing participant excerpts, coding clusters and themes for sub-questions 3 4 so no changes were necessary.Overarching Themed for Sub-Questions 3 4 Situational Leadership Styles and Developmental Leadership Approach Sub-Themes (SQ2) Mutual Trust, Delegating, Directive, and Conflict Inducing (SQ4) Close Relationship, Adaptive, Participative, and Mentorship Memo-writing extracts Combine Sub-Questions 3 4 to answer Sub-Question 5Both sub-questions 3 and 4 provided participant responses to the different leadership styles and ones that influenced certain followership styles while serving on combat missions in Afghanistan and Iraq wars. The overall themes and sub-themes for sub-questions 3 4 are highlighted in Tables 22 and 23, respectively. Selective participant excerpts are provided below to reinforce each of the sub-themes. Table 22 The Samplings View of SQ (3) Leadership Styles While Serving on Missions Overall Theme Sub-ThemeSituational Leadership Style Mutual Trust Delegating Directive Conflict Inducing Participant 9 contended Trust was a common denominator in the leader and followership styles to be the most effective in combat. The leader could not be in all places because several missions were going on simultaneously. The leader had to trust the followership style and allow him the flexibility to stay true to the intent, but also deviate if necessary for the protection of the soldiers and accomplishment of the mission. Also, the follower cant be at all the briefings so had to trust the leadership style of the supervisor without hearing firsthand the information that was provided before the mission. Once this mutual trust was established the leadership and followership styles were complimentary. Participant 2 stated It didnt matter how it got done it was just the result they cared about. The leadership was really good, and they left you to your methods and only asked to see if you needed anything to accomplish the task or mission. This created an environment where people cared about what happened and ensuring things got done without being directed or asked. The leadership knew how to delegate and ensured you had everything to accomplish the mission. Participant 1 expressed When youre on the ground and moving through the combat zone, somebody must be in charge and directing people. Sometimes the situation youre walking into is unclear, and as a follower, you must be willing to obey the order and execute because what you are doing is supporting a piece of the pie. Without you doing your piece the other people cant do theirs, so the mission starts falling apart. You not only have to trust the leadership style of your supervisor, but you must trust the followership styles of those that are on your left and right. Its not an individual but a team effort. Participant 3 confided The immediate supervisor during my third tour in Iraq was very abrasive and created a lot of conflict between him and his followers. His leadership style was one of intimidation, profanity, and controversial. When you get a person with this type of personality, you try to keep your distance because you dont know when hes going to blow up and who he will direct his anger. You could be a courageous follower and confront this type of leadership style, but in the long run, it effective your career and potential promotion opportunity. Also, you could do the minimum and try to survive, but that would put you on his radar screen and is anger was crazy. Unfortunately, of the majority of us went into the survival mode and tried to avoid him as much as possible. Table 23 The Samplings View of SQ (4) Developmental Leadership Approach Overall Theme Sub-ThemeDevelopmental Leadership Approach Close Relationship Adaptive Participative Mentorship Participant 3 commented I think it was much easier for me to work with leaders that are friendly, more open, receptive, more back and forth communication. That type of leadership recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of their immediate subordinates and is willing to help overcome their weaknesses and apply their strengths to prepare them for success better. Participant 2 recalled There are crisis situations when you must be direct. Therere no debates this is how were going to do it and lets go. You can ask people for their input but in certain situations, you cant. A lot of times in combat situations it was understood that whatever the leader said, that was going to happen because everything happens so quickly. When the followers understand that the leaders must make those calls, and when they say to do something, theres no time to react. As the situation unfolds the leadership briefs you as it progresses, and want the crisis is over you can talk about it, and things that couldve happened shouldve happened or wouldve happened. Participant 1 reminisced In Afghanistan, we had leadership that wanted you to be involved. They were creating great followers, and I think that traveled when they left. Those followers became leaders and some of which were already leaders at different echelons. Followers were not just willing but wanting to do the things that needed to be done. As a follower it made you want to think of what they wanted to be done and think about what they needed to be done. You werent scared to tell them, hey you forgot this and then take care of it yourself. Participant 8 added In Iraq, I looked towards my immediate supervisor who was more into coaching, supporting and mentoring his subordinates to help develop them as members of the team. This was a great leadership style. I would watch and learn how to not only train better soldiers to accomplish the mission but make them better people at the same time. In summary, sub-question five presented to the participants was, Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation Consequently, this research question was answered using the sub-themes and overall themes derived from sub-questions 3 4 which were mutual trust, delegating, directing, conflict-inducing, close relationship, adaptive, participative, mentorship and the overarching themes Situational Leadership Style and Developmental Leadership Approach, respectively. Hersey Blanchard (1984) concluded the leader must adjust to the situation in different ways by utilizing different leadership styles. Also, Avery et al. (2014) suggested developmental leadership enables organizations to develop new ideas and provide safe outlets for innovation. Similarly, participant responses paralleled both Hersey Blanchards (1977) and Avery et al. (2014) conclusion that no one best leadership style s appropriate for every situation. Central-Question (1) One Best Followership Style Central Question 1 was, Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one followership style that can be considered the best for each situation Table 24 Participants Excerpts Displayed Along with the Coding Clusters and Themes for Central Question 1 Sub-Question (SQ34)/ Participant Excerpt(s)Coding Cluster(s)Theme(s)people resented being there. an active follower that cares about what happened in the organization. provide clear step-by-step directions. junior leaders that were inexperienced. leaders I reported to were exceptionally ethical, moral and competent. leader was questionable and never provided clear or concise directives. my success from my previous position transferred over to this new one.- Dissatisfied with the Situation or Leader – Involved in the Organization – Does Exactly What the Leader Say – Doesnt Do Their Share of Work – Appeals to the Moral and Ethical Values – Increased Uncertainty and Complexity – Dealing with Stress and Difficulties of Job Change Changes made at this stage – Used existing participant excerpts, coding clusters and themes for sub-questions 3 4 so no changes were necessary.Overarching Themed for Sub-Questions 1 2 Situational Followership Styles and Leading Change in Organizations Sub-Themes (SQ1) Distrust, Cynicism, Doing the Minimum, and Inexperienced (SQ2) Competent Leaders, Questionable Directive, and Change of Job Responsibilities Memo-writing extracts Combine Sub-Questions 3 4 to answer Sub-Question 5Nine of Nine (100) participants agreed no one followership style was the best for every situation. Both sub-questions 1 and 2 provided participant responses to the different followership styles and ones that influenced certain followership styles while serving on combat missions in Afghanistan and Iraq wars. The overall themes and sub-themes for sub-questions 1 2 are highlighted in Tables 25 and 26. Selective participant excerpts are provided below to reinforce each of the sub-themes. Table 25 The Samplings View of SQ (1) Followership Styles While Serving Overall Theme Sub-ThemeSituational Followership Styles Distrust and Cynicism Active Participation Doing the Minimum Inexperienced Participant 3 acknowledged It depends on the leader and the situation. Our unit was in the remote mountains of Afghanistan and was a very hostile and violent place. The only way the leadership could get to our location was by helicopter. Also, the only food we had for about a month was Meals Ready to Eat (MREs) which are the prepackaged food we ate three times a day. We were a high functioning unit, but the leadership never recognized or acknowledged our hard work and sacrifice. For example, our followership style continued to change from exemplary to becoming more distrustful. One day our supervisor arrived, and when he stepped off the helicopter instead of commanding soldiers for doing a good job, he starts chastising them for having unkempt uniforms and being unshaven. The people he was referring to just come from a five-day patrol in minus zero-degree temperature during the start of the fighting season. This type of behavior continued throughout the rest of deployment. As a result, it created ineffective followers because we no longer believed in our leadership. Participant 1 contributed You build followers who are forward-looking by giving them the freedom to do things based on their initiative. This allows individuals to be a team member that has a vested interest in the accomplishment of the task or mission. You may not be the head of the team, but youre a member of the team and become an active follower that cares about what happens or what does not happen within the organization. Participant 9 added During my first tour in Afghanistan, our supervisor was inexperienced and leading us into combat. We were in a remote location, so we rarely would see our higher headquarters and we pretty much operated autonomously. A lot of the tactical orders coming down from his boss didnt make sense and caused a lot of problems and placed us in very dangerous situations. The follower pretty much went along with everything the supervisor recommended even though he knew there were better ways to execute the operation. This lack of effective followership caused people to become complacent, and pretty much do what they needed to do to survive. This type of followership took a toll on the morale of the unit and placed us in a difficult position to want to do the right thing not to want to care anymore. Participant 5 captured the theme the best During our deployment to Iraq, our traditional mission changed, and we had to reorganize our unit when we arrived in the theater. Since we were a field artillery unit, we would normally fire from a distance and typically were not directly involved in close combat missions. We received a change of mission to break down into platoon gun, convoy patrols. Some of us had to assume platoon leader roles as noncommissioned officers since each truck required one. We had a handful of junior leaders that were inexperienced and required constant supervision. Unfortunately, these individuals were ineffective and eventually moved from these positions into jobs that were significantly lacking in responsibility. Table 26 The Samplings View of SQ (2) Difficult or Simple Followership Styles Overall ThemeSub-ThemeLeading Change in OrganizationsCompetent Leaders Questionable DirectivesChange of Job Responsibilities Participant 8 concluded The simplicity of my followership style based on the people involved. For example, the leaders I reported to were exceptionally ethical, moral and competent, so it was easy to be an exceptional follower. They were a socially intelligent group of individuals, and when they provided guidance, you were right there with them to execute the mission without question. This based on the trust you had and who they were as human beings, not just military leaders. You knew the leadership cared about you as a person and this was the best experience and unit I served with during my five combat rotations to Iraq and Afghanistan. We trained hard, efficiently, and executed exceptionally well in combat because of their competency and culture they built as leaders. Participant 1 described I had a leader in Afghanistan that was questionable and never provided clear or concise directives. His directive was I dont know what I want, but I will know when I see it. This put everyone in a difficult position because you didnt know where to start and what was the end state. Without those two things, it was difficult to develop effective courses of actions because you were spinning your wheels. Participant 3 indicated I was assigned to a completely different position that was outside the realm of my expertise during my first deployment to Iraq. It was an awkward position to be in because I was always viewed as the expert in my field of work. We had a supervisor that took care of us, and we had a good working relationship. We had to deal with a lot of stress, had to respond immediately and contact other effective elements within the theater. I consider myself an independent and critical thinker, but in this position, since it had a different job responsibility, my followership style shifted from a star follower to some extent a semi-passive follower. I didnt wait for my supervisor to make the decision I did look for him to coach and direct me through some of these new processes. He was a great mentor that was directive at times but coached and mentored you as well. He was a no-nonsense type of leader that supported you which gave me the confidence to make decisions right away knowing he had my back. In conclusion, sub-questions 1 2 were used to answer the central question, Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one followership style that can be considered the best for each situation The sub-themes and overarching themes were distrust and cynicism, active participation, doing the minimum, inexperience, competent leaders, questionable directives, change of job responsibilities, and the overarching themes were Situational Followership Styles and Leading Change in the Organization, respectively. Nine of nine (100) of the participants agreed the followers effectiveness and success are ultimately dependent upon the approach the follower takes with the leader which is dictated by the situation. Consequently, Chaleff (2003) suggested being a good follower is risky because a follower is responsible to the leader as well as to the mission of the organization, is willing to serve the leader, is willing to challenge the leader, and is transformational at times (Riggio et al., 2008, pp. 72-73). Lastly, all of this was personified in the participants excerpts and responses to the central question (CQ1) of the research study. Chapter 5 Discussion Chapter 5 is organized to summarize the key findings of this study. The chapter is divided into five separate sections (a) research background, (b) interpretations of the findings (c) implications of the findings, (d) literature contributions, and (d) recommendations for future research. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the different followership styles as experienced and perceived by United States Army officers and noncommissioned officers serving in combat situations in both Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. Research Background The research study incorporated a hermeneutic phenomenological approach by conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews. This inquiry was introduced in Chapter One by identifying various authors who wrote about the leader-follower relationship, including the work by Prilipko, Antelo, and Henderson (2011), Mosley and Patrick (2011), Northouse (2010), Bennis (2010), Riggio, Chaleff, Lipman-Blumen (2008) Kellerman (2007), to name a few. However, literature was almost non-existent when it came to followership in the United States Army. What was not evident were the different followership styles exhibited by Army officers and noncommissioned officers in different combat missions. Therefore, the research study posited there was no one best followership style that was best for every situation. The study analyzed the followership styles perceived and experienced by personnel serving in Iraq or Afghanistan and posits a followership style will be dictated by the situation, type of mission or operation. The study reduced the research questions to one central overarching question (CQ1) and several sub-questions (Creswell Poth, 2018). The open-ended supporting questions (SQ 1 5) further analyze the phenomenon to obtain a greater understanding of the co-researchers lived experiences with followership styles while serving on combat missions (Creswell Poth, 2018). The limitation of the study was the sample population was specific to the 3d Infantry Division, and the convenience sample may have impacted the data because it was chosen for the proximity to the researcher. The study was not longitudinal. Thus any insights gained were based on one point in time. Also, the self-reporting nature of the research may have affected the data. It was possible that the participants of the study did not answer the questions truthfully regarding their actions and may have answered or told the story based on how they would have liked to behave in a certain situation rather than how they behaved. Lastly, the population sample was a homogenous group and was not a cross-cultural study. Interpretation of Findings This section provides inferences that surfaced from the research findings and offers plausible answers to the central question (1) and sub-questions (1-5). The answers are discussed in a manner that reflects the personal perceptions and lived experiences of Army officers and noncommissioned officers in different combat missions. While reflecting on the followership aspect of the question, several over-arching themes and sub-themes arose according to each research question presented to the participant. The findings are presented in a logical manner starting with answering the central research question (CQ1) of the study which was directly supported by the open-ended supporting questions. The open-ended sub-questions further analyzed the phenomenon and divided the central question into supportive parts (Creswell Poth, 2018). Several findings were identified such as no one followership style s best for every situation, and depending on the situation or leadership style, no one leadership style is best for every situation, and followership styles can be difficult or easy, to name a few. Therefore, instead of merely discussing the value the follower adds to the leader, this section propels the inquiry a step further by addressing the impact followership styles can have on the whole organization. Followership Styles Figures 5 illustrates the sub-themes along with the frequencies, which emerged from central question one that was presented to the participants, Based on your perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one followership style that can be considered the best for each situation Figure 5 Situational followership styles that were experienced while serving on different combat missions. Both sub-questions 1 and 2 provided participant responses to the different followership styles and ones that influenced certain followership styles while serving on combat missions in Afghanistan and Iraq wars. The sub-themes and overarching themes were (SQ1) distrust and cynicism, active participation, doing the minimum, inexperience, (SQ2) competent leaders, questionable directives, change of job responsibilities, and the overarching themes were Situational Followership Styles (SQ1) and Leading Change in the Organization (SQ2), respectively. The participants responses reflected the leadership must be deliberate in their efforts to draw out the best practices of the followers to accomplish the Armys goals and mission. Chaleff (2003) suggested being a good follower is risky because a follower is responsible to the leader as well as to the mission of the organization, is willing to serve the leader, is willing to challenge the leader, and is transformational at times (Riggio et al., 2008, pp. 72-73). Consequently, nine of the nine (100) participants agreed no one followership style s best for every situation. Additionally, Doty Doty (2012), posited, Operations in Afghanistan and Iraq are decentralized at a level that is new to our Armys culture, and it appears this operating environment will not change in the near future (p. 37). Lastly, participant 5 elaborated, Getting people involved is the key, and once people are involved they take full responsibility for what happens, and they are fully aware of the cost of the mission fails. Leadership Styles Nine of the nine (100) research participants agreed mutual trust was the most effective method that involved both followers and leaders accomplishing the mission. For example, participant 9 contended, Trust was a common denominator in the leader and followership styles to be the most effective in combat. According to Gordan et al. (2014), leaders who developed trust continually focused on removing fear, communicating, interacting with followers, accepting followers, and are also personal, trustworthy, and honest. Therefore, the commander shaped the organization and subordinates by mastering individual competencies and tailoring them to the situation at hand (ADRP 6-22, 2012, p. 1-5). Therefore, Hersey and Blanchard (1984) suggested different leadership styles were required for each type of task. Lastly, Goh and Jie (2014) argued trust is a major factor in producing relationships and culture that is healthy and fruitful. Figure 6 illustrates the sub-themes along with the frequencies, which emerged from sub-question five, Based on your perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation Consequently, this research question was answered using the sub-themes and overall themes derived from sub-questions 3 4 which were (SQ3) mutual trust, delegating, directing, conflict-inducing, (SQ4) close relationship, adaptive, participative, mentorship and the overarching themes Situational Leadership Style (SQ3) and Developmental Leadership Approach (SQ4), respectively. According to research participants delegating was the second most effective leadership style. Participant 2 stated, The leadership knew how to delegate and ensured you had everything to accomplish the mission. Also, Castro et al. (2008) suggested leaders who empowered their subordinates increased positive behavior and intellectually stimulated them to work harder (Liebenstein, 2014, p. 3). ADRP 6-22 (2010) concluded leaders who mentored, developed, and empowered subordinates developed a closer relationship and enhanced followers trust. Figure 6 A View of the Situational Leadership Overall and Sub-Themes Along with Frequencies. Additionally, Schermerhorn, Hunt, Osborn (2002) posited, Unique shared values can provide a strong corporate identity, enhance collective commitment, provide a stable social system, and reduce the need for formal bureaucratic controls (p. 50). All participants acknowledged directing was necessary depending on the situation, especially in combat. Wong et al., (2003) defined the Army as a hierarchy and suggested there was a clear delineation of power across all organizational levels and clear prescriptions about how leaders and subordinates are expected to interact (p. 659). For example, Participant 1 explained, When youre on the ground and moving through the combat zone, somebody must be in charge and directing people. Sometimes the situation youre walking into is unclear, and as a follower, you must be willing to obey the order and execute because what you are doing is supporting a piece of the pie. Without you doing your piece the other people cant do theirs, so the mission starts falling apart. You not only have to trust the leadership style of your supervisor, but you must trust the followership styles of those that are on your left and right. Its not an individual but a team effort. However, conflict-inducing was the least preferred and less effective leadership style regardless of a peacetime or combat environment according to all the participant responses. Participant 3 stated, His leadership style was one of intimidation, profanity, and controversial. Consequently, this was the only type of leadership style that rendered participants ineffective as followers. Figure 7 A View of the Developmental Leadership Approach Overall and Sub-Themes Along with Frequencies. Difficulty or Simplicity of Followership Styles Participant responses reflected the difficulty or simplicity depending how the leader treated the followers during different missions and circumstances and either changed the organization positively or negatively. Kelley (2008) argued leaders must understand the different followership styles to understand both positive and negative follower behaviors. Also, Avery et al. (2014) suggested developmental leadership enables organizations to develop new ideas and provide safe outlets for innovation. In this framework, the leader vacillates between emphasizing the task or relationship with the follower depending on the situation (Sreenidhi, Helena, Priyanka, 2017). As such, the various participant responses seem to suggest a paradigm shift of how the U.S. Army views the traditional hierarchical organizational structure to one thats more decentralized and fosters a culture of forward thinkers and intelligent risk-taking (Wong et al., 2003). According to the research participants, depending on the leadership styles they experienced, they were able to overcome the change of job responsibilities and questionable directives however, the only obstacle that was insurmountable was that of a toxic leader. Figure 8 Leading change in the organization that influences certain followership styles in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. Implications of the Findings This section focuses on how the findings impact the different pillars of the Army Institution 1) the Army culture, 2) training and doctrine, and 3) followership perception. Figure 8 Armys culture, training, doctrine, and perception of followership. Army Culture The Army culture puts loyalty to the leader and ability to absorb hardship of all kinds high on the attribute list from a practitioners point of view (Ulmer, 2012). As an institution, the Armys been reluctant to confront this directly and has made only minor, incremental adjustments to education, training and development systems, and practitioner literature (Copeland, 2015. The institution is by no means broken, but it deserves some refurbishing (Ulmer, 2012). The desired mission command culture depends heavily on an environment of mutual trust that only high-quality leaders and followers can produce. Hollander (2007) argues that leadership, either positive or negative, cannot be effective without actively engaged followers. However, no reference is made to the importance of followers to the success of the leader in the practitioners literature. The followers are included in the concept of leadership and may be seen in the leader, but their actions are not seen as independent of the leader (Keim, 2013). Also, Kellerman (1999) concluded, to engage followers in the joint pursuit of mutually agreed on goals the goals must represent significant rather than merely incremental change (p. 10). Over the past several years the Army has a renewed interest on toxic leadership and its consequences on the organization (Elle, 2012). For example, the 2009-2010 Annual Survey of Army Leaders conducted by the Center for Army Leadership and the U.S. Army War College study, Leadership Lessons at Division Command Level-2010 A Review of Division Commander Leader Behaviors and Organizational Climates in Selected Army Divisions after Nine Years of War, were conducted on behest of the Secretary of the Army and the Army, Chief of Staff, respectively. The study and survey validated the presence of toxic leadership within the Armys ranks and found that 80 percent of Army officers, noncommissioned officers, and civilians surveyed, had directly observed a toxic leader in the last year and that about 20 percent of the respondents said that they had worded directly for one (Jaffe, 2011, p.25). The U.S. Army is a hierarchical bureaucracy and disciplined response remains a bedrock value (Ulmer, 2012). Payne (2016), Leonard (2014), and Stringer (2009) suggested to address leadership successfully the Army must understand the contributions followers make toward military operations to meet the challenges of the Post-Cold War era. ADRP 6-22 postulated both climate and culture where the context of how leaders and followers interacted, and how each element affected the other. Also, Hopper (2008) concluded, Accountability built-in organizational culture is less dysfunctional and enhances the followers level of commitment (p. 110). Additionally, Padilla (2010) argued with the absence of checks and balances adversely affected the organizations culture and were detrimental to the success of the organization. The Army must make followership a priority by changing its culture at all levels by simultaneously updating their training, doctrine, publications and perception of followership. Therefore, the research findings could prove extremely valuable by allowing for a more in-depth knowledge of followership culture. Training and Doctrine The Army has conducted several studies on toxic leadership such as 2011-3 CALL Technical Report, 2010 Division Commander Study, and the 2007 Leadership Quarterly, to name a few. Ulmer (2012) provided several recommendations for the Army to implement changes. One of the recommendations were no longer spending additional resources on further external studies but to coordinate and integrate ongoing efforts into a comprehensive program in which education should play a role. Destructive behavior and actions of toxic leaders are counterintuitive to building trust and undermines the integrity of an organization. Kelly suggested, Followers were the primary defenders of toxic leaders (Riggio et al., 2008, p. 14). However, the updated Army Doctrine Reference Publication 6-22, Army Leadership (2015), only mentioned follower as an attribute of leadership (p. v). The absence of the role of followers within military publications ignores the influence they can have on leaders actions (Copeland, 2015). Yukl (2009) points out that the amount of training and development within an organization is dependent upon the attitudes and values about development. When the environment and culture are supportive, it encourages people to apply skills they have learned especially in different combat situations as experienced in Afghanistan and Iraq wars. Also, creating a learning environment that balances individual with organizational needs would be a good starting point for instituting change. A learning organization promotes continuous learning for its employees at all levels, which could ultimately improve organizational success. Lanier (2012) surmised leader and followers vacillated between roles depending on the situation and both are mutually supportive. Therefore, successful organizations depends on the synergy between leaders and followers (Lanier, 2012). With the advent of information technology and the dynamics of modern organizations have led to the decentralization of information thereby giving followers easy accessibility to some information that would have only been accessible by leaders (Bjugstad, Thompson, Morris, 2006). These developments have empowered followers causing them to become more courageous than before (Ntiamoah, 2018). Also, the educational field has experienced these changes with many leaders of international universities laying more emphases on the need to reconsider the high attention placed on leaders as compared to followers (Ye, 2008). There is a need for employers and employees alike to recognize and harness the influence that followers have on modern organizations because, without followers, organizational change is impossible it takes the acceptance and commitment of followers for organizational change to occur (Baker, Mathis, Stites-Doe, 2011). Followership is a separate but integral part thats often overlooked in relation to leadership. According to Stringer (2009), education must transform to address the expanding responsibilities and knowledge gaps. The goal of the adapted curriculum is to unify and equip the followers with the same critical thinking and problem-solving skills as leaders (Stringer, 2009). Consequently, Vane and Toguchi (2010 concluded future conflicts required well-trained small units and decentralized leadership. Followership Perception The problem of not fully understanding followership and their contributions must be attacked simultaneously at several levels to embrace full spectrum operations effectively. U.S. Army FM 3-0 (2008) suggested, Full spectrum operations required continuous, simultaneous combinations of offensive, defensive, and stability or civil support tasks (p. 3-1). According to U.S. Army FM 7-0 (2009), The Armys strategic depth required leaders, soldiers, and units with competencies in major combat and limited intervention operations (p. 1-3). Also, Lanier (2012) surmised leaders and followers vacillated between roles depending on the situation to accomplish the goals and mission. Lastly, good leadership required good followership and good followership prepared an inexperienced person to become a good leader when the situation arose (Lanier, 2012). Northouse (2007) stated, Todays leaders need to acquire a challenging set of competencies if they intend to be effective in present-day global societies (p. 302). The same applies to followers. Kelley (1992) posited leaders contribute approximately 20, and followers contribute 80 to the success of an organization. Therefore, the art of followership will be recognized as equally important as leadership in unlocking the untapped potential of organizations and followers success and effectiveness (Lundin Lancaster, 1990). Literature Contribution The study of followership has come to the forefront in recent years but still has not been researched to the extent of leadership, especially in the Army. Follower research must move away from the leader-centric focus of the last forty years which was stated from the outset byBurns (1978). Theres no absolute parallel between the perceptions of the follower and leader in scholarly literature. However, there are many commonalities that should be exploited through research as a means of improving the understanding of follower characteristics and their impact on organizational performance.In recent times, organizational hierarchies that encouraged high power distance culture between leaders and followers are on the decline due to decreased management levels and flatter organizations(Mohamadzadeh, Mortazavi, Lagzian Rahimnia, 2015). Followers may or may not have the authority of the leader, but they still can wield power and influence that can benefit the organization (Kellerman, 2009). Recommendations for Future Research There are several recommendations for the future research. First, research would benefit from a more conceptual definition of followership. Second, followership characteristics, behaviors, and outcomes that provide a greater balance in the leader-follower relationship should be researched to remove the associated negative stigma of followership. Understanding followers behaviors and the mediating factors associated with them are very important and have the potential to add value to followership research. Third, future research could benefit by utilizing a model-based approach to provide a more holistic followership theory with a deeper understanding of followership. Forth, a multi-service (Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force) study, in garrison and combat, be conducted to simultaneously adjust the negative perception of followership across all services. Lastly, future research can benefit by conducting a followership study like the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) research by Dorfman, Javidan, Hanges, Dasmalchian, and House, 2012). Consequently, followership is influenced at the subcultural level that can produce diverse outcomes in followership style, motivation, and performance (Riggio et al., 2008). As values change beliefs about the skills and behaviors will change and require additional research to refine or potentially identify new followership theories to effectively lead organizations and people both militarily and corporately. In conclusion, a follower-centric perspective is often overlooked in the life of an organization. There is value in seeking the views and insights of followers to understand the culture and dynamics within an organization. Practitioners, scholars and organizations alike can no longer ignore recognizing the various types of followers since they make up almost eighty percent of an organization (Oyetunji, 2012). Therefore, more attention needs to be placed on their characteristics and effectiveness in the workplace that followers bring to organizations (Mushonga and Torrance, 2008). As research between the follower, leader and the situation evolve the Army must acknowledge changes within their publications, training and culture to reflect the impact followers have on the mission and overall success of the institution. The role of followers is multifaceted, and followers do not just have one type of role rather they have many (Danielson, 2013). Therefore, leadership must be deliberate in its efforts to draw out the best practices in the followers within the organization to accomplish the Army goals and mission. According to Stringer (2009), this requires Army leaders to devolve command responsibilities to lower ranking individuals to exercise complex leadership and management tasks (p. 88). Effective followers are part of change in an organization and create and sustain a culture of accountability and commitment (Riggio et al., 2008, p. 110). Cartsen et al. (2010) suggested effective followership helps develop effective leaders and studying followership helps to give more support to the leadership process. Subsequently, a leader should understand how to cultivate a setting where others can step up and lead making leadership a collective activity (Mochari, nd). Also, a follower must sometimes follow from the front and lead from behind. To further emphasize the point, Adair (2008) posited, employees can occupy both follower and leader roles simultaneously (p. 153). Consequently, followers do not serve the leader, they serve a common purpose with the leader (Riggio et al., 2008). Also, Wong et al. (2009) posited the Army is a very large, diverse organization that maintains a domestic and global presence ranging from peace to combat roles, independently or concurrently. According to Shinseki and White (2003), followers were pivotal in accomplishing our mission in a diverse, unpredictable, and volatile time in our history. 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Appendix A Interview Protocol and Guide (1 of 3 Phases) Start Time of Interview _______________________________________________ End Time of Interview _______________________________________________ Date ______________________________________________________________ Place _____________________________________________________________ Interviewer Nestor L. Colls-Senaha______________________________________ Participant _________________________________________________________ 1. Interview Protocol Project A Phenomenological Study of Different Followership Styles as Perceived or Experienced by United States Army Officers and Noncommissioned Officers While Serving on Combat Missions in Afghanistan or Iraq Wars. 2. Briefly Describe the Project The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the different followership styles as experienced and perceived by U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers serving in combat situations in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. 3. Collection of historical career and demographic data as ice-breaker to ease participant into a comfortable rhythm with the interviewer. 4. Complete the Pre-Qualification Checklist. 5. Complete the Informed Consent Document. 6. Explanation of followership definition from the study. 7. A detailed explanation of Kellys five different followership styles. 8. A detailed explanation of Hersey and Blanchards four different leadership styles. 9. Review the questions for understanding and clarity. 10. Put the co-researcher participants life experience or perceptions related to the phenomenon into context. Definition of Followership used in this research study – Carsten et al. (2010) defined followership as a relational role in which followers have the ability to influence leaders and contribute to the improvement and attainment of the group and organizational objectives (p. 559). Kelley (1988, 1992) identified five different types of followership styles 1. alienated, 2. exemplary or star follower, 3. pragmatist or sometimes called survivors, 4. Sheep, also known as, passive, and 5. yes-people or sometimes referred to as conformists (see Figure 3). First, according to Kelley (1988), alienated followers possessed the independent, critical thinking but, were cynical and skeptical. Second, exemplary followers exhibited both independent, critical thinking and were active participants within the organization and supported the leader (Kelley, 1992). Conversely, Sheep or passive followers didnt possess independent, critical thinking, were inactive participants within an organization and required constant direction (Favara, 2009). Fourth, yes-people or conformists actively follow orders and did not question the decisions of the leaders or organization. Lastly, pragmatics or survivors rode the proverbial fence and waited for it to be safe before deciding or acting on something. For example, they performed basic job functions, did the minimum, and survival was their main motivation (Kelley, 1992). Hersey et al. (1985) illustrated four different leadership styles S1 directing, S2 coaching, S3 supporting, and S4 delegating (p.22). First, S1 directing was a style used by the leader due to the followers inexperience, lack of motivation or being a new hire (Mulder, 2013). Second, S2 coaching required guidance and mentorship to a subordinate who was not capable of completing the task because of lack of skills or knowledge (Mulder, 2013). Third, S3 supporting required the leader to create an empowering and motivating workspace to increase the followers motivation (Mulder 2013). However, S4 delegating required the least amount of oversight and used when followers were motivated and competent to complete the task independently (Mulder, 2013). Also, Hersey et al. (1985) identified different leadership styles depending on the followers development levels D1 (low competence and high commitment), D2 (low to some competence and low commitment), D3 (moderate to high competence and variable commitment), and D4 (high competence and high commitment). Central Question (CQ) 1. Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one followership style that can be considered the best for each situation (Kelley, 1988 Chaleff, 2003 Riggio et al, 2008 Carsten Bligh, 2008 Andert et al, 2011 Tsai Yung, 2013 and, Langley et al, 2013) Supporting-Question (SQ1). Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars (Kelley, 1992, 1998, 2008 Chaleff, 2003 Blackshear, 2003 Bjugstad et al., 2006 Lanier, 2012 and, Tsai Yung, 2013) Supporting-Question 2 (SQ2). Can you provide examples of the difficulty or simplicity of followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars (Bjugstad et al., 2006 Riggio et al, 2008 Favara, 2009 Woods, 2009 Lanier, 2012 Copeland, 2015) Supporting-Question 3 (SQ3). Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars (Hersey Blanchard, 1977 Hersey, Carlos Randolph, 2001 Belknap, 2002 Hopper, 2008 Doty Doty, 2012 Castro et al, 2008, Gallo, 2012 and, Leonard, 2014) Supporting-Question 4 (SQ4). Did you identify or experience any leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Hersey Blanchard, 1977 Gronn, 2002 Carsten Bligh, 2008 Lipman-Blumen, 2009 Gallo, 2012 Mulder, 2013 Liebenstein, 2014 Gordan et al, 2014 and, Goh Jie, 2014) Supporting-Question 5 (S5). Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation (Hunt, 1991 Wong et al, 2003 Shinseki White, 2003 Stringer, 2009 Chaleff, 2009 Vane Toguchi, 2010 Leonard, 2012 Brumm Drury, 2013 Liebenstein, 2014 and, Powers, 2016) Appendix B Pre-Qualification Checklist (1 of 3 Phases) 1. Have you served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)___________________________________________________ 2. Have you experienced or perceived different followership styles by Army officers and noncommissioned officers while serving on combat missions in Afghanistan or Iraq Wars _________________________________ 3. Did you serve in the 3d Infantry Division during OEF or OIF ______________ 4. Are you willing to participate in a lengthy interview(s) ___________________ 5. Do you grant the researcher the right to record and publish the data in a Dissertation ______________________________________________________ 6. Are you interested in understanding the nature meaning of the phenomena ____ 7. Do you agree to participate free of charge ______________________________ 8. Have you been diagnosed with or suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) _________________________________________________________ 9. Were you honorably discharged from the military ________________________ 10. Are you willing to function as a participant/co-researcher involved in the study and reviews your individual interview transcript and provides member- checking feedback and validity for their individual related lived experiences ________________________________________________________________ 10. Will you sign an informed consent agreeing to participate in this study ______ Appendix C Participant Demographic Sheet (1 of 3 Phases) Name__________________________________________________________ Participant Control Number/Pseudonym______________________________ Age____ Gender___________ Ethnicity______________________ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veteran ___________________________________ Deployment Dates _______________________________________________ Rank While Deployed ____________________________________________ Position(s) While Serving in OIF____________________________________ What echelon Company, Battalion, Brigade___________________________ Military Occupational Skill (MOS)___________________________________ Operation Enduring Freedom Veteran ________________________________ Deployment Dates ________________________________________________ Rank While Deployed _____________________________________________ Position(s) While Serving in OIF_____________________________________ What echelon Company, Battalion, Brigade___________________________ Military Occupational Skill (MOS)____________________________________ Highest Education Completed GED High School College 2 Year 4 Year MastersDoctoralOther___________________________________________ Years of Leadership Experience_______________________________________ Years of Followership Experience______________________________________ Appendix D Informed Consent Document (1 of 3 Phases) PROJECT TITLE A Phenomenological Study of Different Followership Styles as Perceived or Experienced by United States Army Officers and Noncommissioned Officers While Serving on Combat Missions in Afghanistan or Iraq Wars INTRODUCTION The purposes of this form are to give you information that may affect your decision whether to say YES or NO to participation in this research and to record the consent of those who say YES. The research, A Phenomenological Study of Different Followership Styles as Perceived or Experienced by United States Army Officers and Noncommissioned Officers While Serving on Combat Missions in Afghanistan or Iraq Wars, will be conducted in a climate that the research participants were comfortable to promote comprehensive and honest responses. RESEARCHER Nestor Luis Colls-Senaha, Ph.D. student, Organizational Leadership, Regent University, School of Business and Leadership DESCRIPTION OF RESEARCH STUDY Several studies have been conducted looking into the subject of different followership styles in the military but, what is not evident were the different followership styles exhibited by United States Army officers and noncommissioned officers in different combat missions. The purpose of the research is to explore the followership styles in different situations as experienced and perceived by Army officers and noncommissioned officers serving on combat missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. If you decide to participate, then you will join a study involving a three-phased interview process 1. Pre-interview, 2. Initial interview, and 3. Follow-up interview, to explore the different followership styles as you experienced or perceived while serving in combat situations in Afghanistan or Iraq wars. If you say YES, then your participation will last for approximately one month in duration at a location you feel comfortable and have limited to no distractions to express yourself honestly and openly. First, during phase one, well go over the screening questionnaire, consent form, and interview questions to ensure you meet the selection criteria, fully understand and agree to participate in the study, and seek clarification of any of the interview questions or any other concerns. Also, this is the time where we can rephrase or simplify questions that were not understood. Secondly, during phase two, this is your opportunity to reconstruct the details of your lived experience and perceptions. Lastly, phase three, you are encouraged to reflect on the meaning of the experience to fill in missing information or ensure the information was an accurate reflection of your lived experiences. Each interview will take approximately two to three hours and all interviews will be digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim along with notes I will be taking to help formulate new questions as the interview moves along. Also, approximately ten other 3d Infantry Division combat veterans who served in Afghanistan or Iraq Wars will be participating in this study. EXCLUSIONARY CRITERIA You should have completed the participant screening questionnaire. To the best of your knowledge, you meet the following criteria 1. the research participant had experienced the phenomenon, 2. was willing to participate in a lengthy interview(s), 3. granted the researcher the right to record and publish the data in a dissertation, 4. interested in understanding the natural meaning of the phenomena, and 5. agreed to participate free of charge that would keep you from participating in this study. If you do not meet the screening criteria you are not eligible to participate in this study. RISKS AND BENEFITS RISKS If you decide to participate in this study, then you may face a risk of discomfort or negative emotions by reliving your experiences or perceptions while serving in a combat zone. The researcher tried to reduce these risks by identifying upfront if you suffer or been diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and recommend not participating in this study. However, if you said YES, during any part of the interview process if the participant experiences distress well stop, re-group or terminate the interview depending on the circumstance. And, as with any research, there is some possibility that you may be subject to risks that have not yet been identified. BENEFITS The main benefit to you for participating in this study is developing the breadth and depth of literature about followership in the military. In particular, what is not evident were the different followership styles exhibited by officers and noncommissioned officers in different combat missions to allow researchers and practitioners to effectively understand or have a more informed understanding. Others may benefit by pursuing new strategies for practice or potential directions for new research. COSTS AND PAYMENTS The researcher wants your decision about participating in this study to be absolutely voluntary. The researcher is unable to give you any payment for participating in this study. NEW INFORMATION If the researcher finds new information during this study that would reasonably change your decision about participating, then they will give it to you. CONFIDENTIALITY All information obtained from you in this study is strictly confidential unless disclosure is required by law. The results of this study may be used in reports, presentations, and publications, but the researcher will not identify you. WITHDRAWAL PRIVILEGE It is OK for you to say NO. Even if you say YES now, you are free to say NO later, and walk away or withdraw from the study at any time. The researcher reserves the right to withdraw your participation in this study, at any time, if they observe potential problems with your continued participation. COMPENSATION FOR ILLNESS AND INJURY If you say YES, then your consent in this document does not waive any of your legal rights. However, in the event of distress or negative emotions arising from this study, neither Regent University nor the researchers are able to give you any money, insurance coverage, free medical care, or any other compensation for such injury. In the event that you experienced distress or negative emotions as a result of participation in this research project, you may contact Nestor L. Colls-Senaha, (912) 660-8225, HYPERLINK [email protected] [email protected] or Dr. Emilyn Cabanda current HSRC chair at HYPERLINK [email protected] [email protected] at Regent University, who will be glad to review the matter with you. VOLUNTARY CONSENT By signing this form, you are saying several things. You are saying that you have read this form or have had it read to you, that you are satisfied that you understand this form, the research study, and its risks and benefits. The researchers should have answered any questions you may have had about the research. If you have any questions later on, then the researcher should be able to answer them Nestor L. Colls-Senaha, (912) 660-8225 If at any time you feel pressured to participate, or if you have any questions about your rights or this form, then you should call Dr. Emilyn Cabanda current HSRC chair at HYPERLINK [email protected] [email protected] at Regent University. And importantly, by signing below, you are telling the researcher YES, that you agree to participate in this study. The researcher should give you a copy of this form for your records. Subjects Printed Name Signature Date INVESTIGATORS STATEMENT I certify that I have explained to this subject the nature and purpose of this research, including benefits, risks, costs, and any experimental procedures. I have described the rights and protections afforded to human subjects and have done nothing to pressure, coerce, or falsely entice this subject into participating. I am aware of my obligations under state and federal laws and promote compliance. I have answered the subjects questions and have encouraged him/her to ask additional questions at any time during the course of this study. I have witnessed the above signature(s) on this consent form. Investigators Printed Name Signature Date Appendix E Interview Phase (2 of 3 Phases) Time started Note record stop, restart, total break time, suspension, or termination of the interview, and not at the end of the post-interview phase. Question 1 (Central Question 1) Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one followership style that can be considered the best for each situation ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Prompts What other instances of can you recall Follow-up questions Time started Note record stop, restart, total break time, suspension, or termination of the interview, and not at the end of the post-interview phase. SQ1 (Sub-Question 1) Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Prompts What other instances of can you recall Follow-up questions Time started Note record stop, restart, total break time, suspension, or termination of the interview, and not at the end of the post-interview phase. SQ2 (Sub-Question 2) Describe your personal perceptions and lived experiences of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Prompts What other instances of can you recall Follow-up questions Time started Note record stop, restart, total break time, suspension, or termination of the interview, and not at the end of the post-interview phase. SQ3 (Sub-Question 3) Did you identify or experience any leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving on missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Prompts What other instances of can you recall Follow-up questions Time started Note record stop, restart, total break time, suspension, or termination of the interview, and not at the end of the post-interview phase. SQ4 (Sub-Question 4) Based on your personal perception and lived experience do you believe theres only one leadership style that can be considered the best for each situation ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Prompts What other instances of can you recall Follow-up questions Standard Post Interview Time started ________________________________________________________ 1. Review post-interview informed consent considerations a. Confidentiality and right to withdraw. b. Services available. 2. Answer any questions or address any issues. 3. Review follow-on co-researcher expectations including member checking and follow-on interviews and reflection of the meaning and essence of followership styles while serving on different combat missions. 4. Reiterate right to withdraw at any time prior to publication. 5. Provide back-brief throughout interview phases. Time completed _____________________________________________________ Pre-interview total time ______________________________________________ Interview total time _________________________________________________ Post Interview total time ______________________________________________ Appendix F NIH Certificate of Completion Appendix G Regent University Human Subjects Review Board Application Please submit one electronic copy of this form and any supporting documents to your dissertation chair or to the SBL IRB representative, Dr. Emilyn Cabanda at HYPERLINK [email protected] [email protected] . 1. PROJECT REVIEW ( New Project (The HSRB will assign an ID) _________________ ( Revised Project (Enter ID) ____________________________ ( Renewal (Enter ID)_________________________ 2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR Nestor L. Colls-Senaha Address 40 Lee Hall Drive, Savannah, GA 31419 Phone (912) 660-8225 E-Mail HYPERLINK [email protected] [email protected] Date 15 March 2018 List of all project personnel (including faculty, staff, outside individuals or agencies) Nestor L. Colls-Senaha, Interviewer, Regent University__ If you are a student, please provide the following additional information This research is for ( Dissertation ( Thesis ( Independent Study ( Other ___________________________________________ Faculty Advisors Name Dr. Bruce Winston 3. TRAINING The National Institutes of Health Office of Extramural Research offers free self-paced online training at HYPERLINK http//phrp.nihtraining.com phrp.nihtraining.com. ( I have completed human subjects research training. Training Date 5 February 2018 4. PROJECT TITLE Phenomenological Study of Different Followership Styles as Perceived or Experienced by United States Army Officers and Noncommissioned Officers While Serving on Combat Missions in Afghanistan or Iraq Wars 5. IS THIS RESEARCH BEING SUBMITTED AS PART OF A FUNDED RESEARCH PROPOSAL ( Yes ( No If yes, please identify the funding source _________________________________________________________________ 6. ANTICIPATED LENGTH OF HUMAN SUBJECTS CONTACT Beginning Date 25 March 2018 Ending Date 1 May 2018 7. DESCRIPTION OF PARTICIPANTS Number 10 Age Range 27 – 54 Briefly describe subject population The research study consisted of participants from the 3d Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. The 3d Infantry Division was selected because of its distinction of having one of the most successful combat records of any U.S. division by its participation in World War I, World War II, Korean, Persian Gulf, Iraq and Afghanistan wars (3d Infantry Division Home Page, 2016). Also, the 3d Infantry Division was selected because of its proximity and access to the Army veteran population. Research participants had to meet the following criteria 1. the research participant had experienced the phenomenon, 2. was willing to participate in a lengthy interview(s), 3. granted the researcher the right to record and publish the data in a dissertation, 4. interested in understanding the natural meaning of the phenomena, and 5. agreed to participate free of charge. 8. INDICATE THE REVIEW CATEGORY FOR WHICH YOU ARE APPLYING. I am applying for an exempt review, based on one or more of the following categories (check all that apply)Note Exempt review cannot be claimed for any research involving prisoners and most research involving children. Research conducted in established or commonly accepted educational settings and involving normal educational practices such as (i) research on regular and special education instructional strategies, or (ii) research on the effectiveness of or the comparison among instructional techniques, curricula, or classroom management methods Research involving the use of survey procedures, educational tests (cognitive, diagnostic, aptitude, achievement), interview procedures or observation of public behavior, if information from these sources is recorded in such a manner that participants cannot be identified, directly or through identifiers linked to the subjects and (ii) any disclosure of the human subjects responses outside the research could not reasonably place the subjects at risk of criminal or civil liability or be damaging to the subjects financial standing, employability, or reputation Note This category cannot be used for research involving children Research involving the use of survey procedures, educational tests (cognitive, diagnostic, aptitude, achievement), interview procedures, or observation of public behavior, if (i) the human subjects are elected or appointed public officials or candidates for public office or (ii) federal statute(s) require(s) without exception that the confidentiality of the personally identifiable information will be maintained throughout the research and thereafter Research involving the collection or study of existing data, documents, records, pathological specimens, or diagnostic specimens, if these sources are publicly available or if the information is recorded by the investigator in such a manner that subjects cannot be identified, directly or through identifiers linked to the subjects Research and demonstration projects which are conducted by or subject to the approval of federal department or agency heads, and which are designed to study, evaluate, or otherwise examine (i) Public benefit or service programs (ii) procedures for obtaining benefits or services under those programs (iii) possible changes in or alternatives to those programs or procedures or (iv) possible changes in methods or levels of payment for benefits or services under those programs (I am applying for an expedited review, based on meeting all of the following conditions (check all that apply)Note Expedited review cannot be claimed for research involving prisoners. (Research poses no more than minimal risk to subjects (defined as the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not greater in and of themselves than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests.) (Research limited to one or more of the following data collection procedures Research on individual or group characteristics or behavior (including, but not limited to, research on perception, cognition, motivation, identity, language, communication, cultural beliefs or practices, and social behavior) or research employing survey, interview, oral history, focus group, program evaluation, human factors evaluation, or quality assurance methodologies Note Some research in this category may be classified as exempt this listing refers only to research that is not exempt. Continuing review of research previously approved by the convened HSRB as follows (a) where (i) the research is permanently closed to the enrollment of new subjects (ii) all subjects have completed all research-related interventions and (iii) the research remains active only for long-term follow-up of subjects or (b) where no subjects have been enrolled and no additional risks have been identified or (c) where the remaining research activities are limited to data analysis. ( I am applying for full board review. 9. PROJECT DESCRIPTION Briefly describe (or attach) the methodology and objectives of your research (including hypotheses and/or research questions), the data collection procedures, and any features of the research design that involve procedures or special conditions for participants, including the frequency, duration, and location of their participation. The description should be no longer than 3 pages single space. Attach addendums for materials and detailed descriptions of the research if more space is needed. Please note that complete chapters of thesis/dissertation proposals will not be accepted. Briefly describe (or attach) the methodology and objectives of your research (including hypotheses and/or research questions), the data collection procedures, and any features of the research design that involve procedures or special conditions for participants, including the frequency, duration, and location of their participation. The description should be no longer than 3 pages single space. Attach addendums for materials and detailed descriptions of the research if more space is needed. Please note that complete chapters of thesis/dissertation proposals will not be accepted. Wong et al. (2003) concluded literature was fairly non-existent in reference to followership in the military. In particular, what is not evident were the different followership styles exhibited by U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers in different combat missions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the different followership styles as experienced and perceived by U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers serving in combat situations in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. The researcher reduced the study to one central overarching question (Q1) and several sub-questions (Creswell and Poth, 2018). Creswell and Poth (2018) posited the central research question (Q1) of the study was directly supported by the open-ended supporting questions. The open-ended sub-questions further analyzed the phenomenon and divided the central question into supportive parts (Creswell and Poth, 2018). Therefore, a qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological approach was selected to understand the following research questions Central Question 1. Did the officers and noncommissioned officers personal perceptions and lived experiences do you believe theres only one single followership style that can be considered the best for each situation Supporting-Question 1. What personal perceptions and lived experiences did you have of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers followership styles while serving in missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Supporting-Question 2. What personal perceptions and lived experiences did you have of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers leadership styles while serving in missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Supporting-Question 3. Did the officers and noncommissioned officers personal perceptions and lived experiences identify different leadership styles that influenced certain followership styles while serving in missions in Afghanistan and Iraq Wars Qualitative data was collected by conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews that were guided by the overarching central and corresponding supporting research questions (Creswell and Poth, 2018). A three-phased interview was conducted with each research participant 1. pre-interview, 2. initial interview, and 3. follow-up interview. The pre-interview ensured participants met the following selection criteria 1. the research participant had experienced the phenomenon, 2. was willing to participate in a lengthy interview(s), 3. granted the researcher the right to record and publish the data in a dissertation, 4. interested in understanding the natural meaning of the phenomena, and 5. agreed to participate free of charge (Moustakas, 1994 p. 107). Also, an interview guide, or protocol, was designed to detail the topics to be discussed and the questions to be asked during the interview. The goal of the first phase was to put the co-researchers lived experience related to the phenomenon of study into context (Seidman, 2013). Also, the pilot session refined the interview content and determined the feasibility and usefulness as a research instrument. Subsequently, phase two, initial interview, all interviews were conducted in a climate that the research participants were comfortable to promote comprehensive and honest responses. The second phase of the interview was an opportunity for the co-researcher to reconstruct the details of their lived experience. Co-researchers participated through digitally recorded in-depth face-to-face, telephonic, and follow-up activities that ensured their individual lived experiences and perceptions were fully transferred and understood for the benefit of the study (Moustakas, 1994). Notes were taken during the interview and helped formulate new questions as the interview moved along. Lastly, the third phase of the interview encouraged the co-researcher to reflect on the meaning of the experience and provided the researcher the opportunity to follow-up to fill in missing information and pursue leads from earlier interviews. Also, member checking sought the co-researchers feedback to ensure the information was an accurate reflection of their lived experiences. Also, each interview took approximately two to three hours and all interviews were digitally recorded with prior approval from the participants and transcribed verbatim. HSRB Project Description Checklist Is your data completely anonymous, where there are no possible identifications of the participantsNNo( YYes FORMCHECKBOX Will you be using existing data or records If yes, describe in project description (9 above)NNo FORMCHECKBOX YYes(Will you be using surveys, questionnaires, interviews or focus groups with subjects If yes, describe in 9 and include copies of all in application.NNo FORMCHECKBOX YYes(Will you be using videotape, audiotape, film If yes, describe in 9NNo FORMCHECKBOX YYes(Do you plan to use any of the following populations Regent students, Regent employees, Non-English speaking, cognitively impaired, patients/clients, prisoners, pregnant women If yes, describe which ones in 9NNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX Do you plan to use minors (under 18) If yes, describe in 9 and give age rangesNNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX Are sites outside of Regent engaged in the research If yes, describe in 9 and give consent letter or their IRB informationNNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX Are you collecting sensitive information such as sexual behavior, HIV status, recreational drug use, illegal behaviors, child/elder/physical abuse, immigrations status, etc If yes, describe in 9.NNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX Are you using machines, software, internet devices If so describe in 9NNo FORMCHECKBOX YYes(Are you collecting any biological specimens If yes, describe in 9NNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX Will any of the following identifying information be collected names, telephone numbers, social security number, fax numbers, email addresses, medical records numbers, certificate/license numbers, Web universal resource locators (URLs), Internet protocol (IP) address numbers, fingerprint, voice recording, face photographic image, or any other unique identifying number, code or characteristic other than dummy identifiers If yes, describe in 9NNo FORMCHECKBOX YYes(Will there be data sharing with any entity outside your research team If so, describe who in 9NNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX Does any member of the research team or their family members have a personal financial interest in the project (for commercialization of product, process or technology, or stand to gain personal financial income from the project) If yes, describe in 9.NNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX As applicable, do you plan to provide a debriefing to your participants If written, include in application as addendumNNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX Will there be any inducement to participate, either monetary or nonmonetary If there is inducement, please describe how the amount is not coercive in 9.NNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX Will there be any costs that subjects will bear (travel expenses, parking fees, professional fees, etc. If no costs other than their time to participate, please indicate) If yes describe in 9NNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX Will subjects be studied on Regent University campus If yes, please describe where the study will be done in 9NNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX Will subjects be obtained by internet only If yes, please describe what internet forums or venues will be used to obtain participants in 9NNo(YYes FORMCHECKBOX Are you using the Regent University consent form template Whether using the template or requesting an alternate form, you must include a copy in your submission.NNo FORMCHECKBOX YYes( 10. PARTICIPANT RECRUITMENT Describe the sources of potential participants, how they will be selected and recruited, and how and where you will contact them. Describe all relevant characteristics of the participants with regard to age, ethnic background, sex, institutional status (e.g., patients or prisoners), and their general state of mental and physical health. Ten research participants were selected for this study with purposeful sampling from the population of U.S. Army officers and noncommissioned officers who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom (Patton, 2002). Creswell and Clark (2011) suggested purposeful sampling involved identifying individuals that were knowledgeable with a phenomenon of interest. Also, Padgett (2008) posited purposeful sampling was a deliberate process of selecting respondents based on their ability to provide the needed information (p. 53). All participants will have experienced combat either in Afghanistan or Iraq, diverse ethnicities (African American, Hispanic, White), ages between 27 54, mentally and physically competent, male and female, high school diploma to graduate degrees, commissioned, and non-commissioned officers. 11. INFORMED CONSENT Describe how you will inform participants of the nature of the study. Attach a copy of your cover letter, script, informed consent form and other information provided to potential participants. The consent form will be reviewed and signed by the participant during phase one of the interview process. Phase One, the Pre-interview, will be used to establish trust and build rapport. During this phase, the consent form will be reviewed and discussed so the participant is comfortable and understands the purpose of the study and interview protocol. Also, the participant will be able to review the interview questions and ask any clarifying questions. Additionally, this phase ensures the participant fully understands the information and that it will be kept confidential, participation is fully voluntary and they can stop the interview process at any time, address and mitigate any risks, select a location that is comfortable to them, agree to record and publish the data in a dissertation, agree to participate free of charge, and they can member-check the raw data, interview, and coded transcripts to ensure the information accurately reflects their perceptions and experiences of the phenomenon. EXEMPT APPLICATIONS SKIP TO QUESTION 17 ATTACHMENTS 12. WRITTEN CONSENT ( I am requesting permission to waive written consent, based on one or more of the following categories (check all that apply) ( The only record linking the subject and the research would be the consent document, and the principal risk would be potential harm resulting from a breach of confidentiality. ( The research presents no more than minimal risk of harm to subjects and involves no procedures for which written consent is normally required outside of the research context. ( I will be using a written consent form. Attach a copy of the written consent form with this application. 13. CONFIDENTIALITY OF DATA What procedures will be used to safeguard identifiable records of individuals and protect the confidentiality of participants All individual identifiable records will be stored in a locked filing cabinet that can only be accessed by the researcher to protect the confidentiality of participants. Also, identifiable data will be digitally stored and encrypted with a password protected device such as a computer hard drive and stored in a secured, separate location to avoid potential loss. Lastly, the research participant will be identified by a number only known to them and the researcher to protect the confidentiality of the individual. EXPEDITED APPLICATIONS SKIP TO QUESTION 17 ATTACHMENTS 14. RISKS AND BENEFITS Describe in detail the immediate or long-range risks, if any, to participants that may arise from the procedures used in this study. Indicate any precautions that will be taken to minimize these risks. Also describe the anticipated benefits to participants and to society from the knowledge that may be reasonably expected to result from this study. 15. DEBRIEFING STATEMENT The two major goals of debriefing are dehoaxing and desensitizing. Participants should be debriefed about any deception that was used in the study. Participants also should be debriefed about their behavioral response(s) to the study. Please describe your debriefing plans and include any statements that you will be providing to the participants. 16. DISSEMINATION STORAGE OF RESULTS How and where do you plan on disseminating the results of your study For electronic data stored on a computer, how will it be stored and secured (password, encryption, another comparable safeguard) For hardcopy data, how will it be stored (locked office or suite, locked cabinet, data coded by team with master list secured separately, other) What are your plans for disposing of data once the study is ended (give method and time) d) What are your plans for disposing of data once the study is ended (give method and time) 17. ATTACHMENTS Attach copies of all relevant project materials and documents, including (check all that apply) (A copy of your training certificate (required for principal investigator) (Surveys, questionnaires, and/or interview instruments (Informed consent forms or statements (Letters of approval from cooperative agencies, schools, or education boards (Debriefing statements or explanation sheet 18. AFFIRMATION OF COMPLIANCE By submitting this application, I attest that I am aware of the applicable principles, policies, regulations, and laws governing the protection of human subjects in research and that I will be guided by them in the conduct of this research. I agree to follow the university policy as outlined in the Faculty Academic Policy Handbook (available online at HYPERLINK http//www.regent.edu/academics/academic_affairs/handbook.cfm http//www.regent.edu/academics/academic_affairs/handbook.cfm) to ensure that the rights and welfare of human participants in my project are properly protected. I understand that the study will not commence until I have received approval of these procedures from the Human Subjects Review Board. I further understand that if data collection continues for more than one year from the approval date, a renewal application must be submitted. I understand that failure to comply with Federal Regulations (45 CFR 46, available online at HYPERLINK http//www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.htm http//www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.htm) can result in confiscation and possible destruction of data, suspension of all current and future research involving human subjects, or other institutional sanctions, until compliance is assured. Appendix B Human Subject Research Review Form Remember, your last appendix should be the Human Subject Research Review Form after it has been approved by the current SBL Institutional Review Board Chair following the Proposal Defense. PAGE Followership Styles of Army Officers and NCOs While Serving on Different Combat Missions PAGE xii PAGE PAGE Followership Styles of Army Officers and NCOs While Serving on Different Combat Missions PAGE 117 Developmental Leadership Approach Adaptive (4) Close Relationship (5) Mentorship (2) Participative (3) Leading Change in Organizations Leadership Approach U.S. Army Institution Followership Perception Training Doctrine Culture Followership . 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