A STUDY OF NOMOPHOBIC BEHAVIOUR AND INSOMNIAC PROBLEMS AMONG YOUTHS IN RELATION TO MULTIMEDIA ADDICTION: ITS IMPACT ON THEIR SCHOLASTIC AND CO-SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE.1.1.
0 INTRODUCTION: Today, technology has become an irreplaceable part of our lives. Especially mobile technologies and the use of smartphones are rapidly becoming widespread. Our lives have become easier and many daily activities can be performed more easily thanks to smartphones. According to Internet and Social Media User statistics prepared by We Are Social (2015), the number of internet users in 30 countries including Turkey has increased by 525 million people compared to last year and this result indicates that 3 billion people across the world have access the Internet. The same report also reported that there are approximately 69.6 million mobile users in Turkey. The smartphone industry in India is a growing market with around 36 percent of all Indian mobile users expected to own a smartphone by 2018. The global smartphone penetration forecast shows that around 50 percent of mobile users worldwide are projected to own a smart device by 2018.
However, the misuse and excessive use of the Internet bring about various physical, behavioral and psychological problems along with it. To give an example, individuals could be addicted to the Internet and consequently, they could have depression, low self-esteem, oversensitivity, guilt and despair. King et al. (2014) conducted a study in Brazil and examined the symptoms and emotional imbalances of the patients with panic attack due to the use of mobile phone.
In an experimental study in which 120 people participated, it was found that both the experiment group including patients with panic disorder and the control group including healthy people exhibit “addiction” to mobile phones. However, it was reported that people with panic disorder are likely to show more intense emotional changes and physical and psychological symptoms in case of not using or reaching mobile phones. King et al. (2014) attributed to the studies claiming that mobile phone addiction indicate the existence of a primary disorder such as social phobia and dependent personality disorder. 1.1.
1 Nomophobia Nomophobia (NO Mobile PHOBIA), which is considered as the modern phobia of the 21st century, is described as the irrational fear when individuals cannot reach their cell phones or smartphones, or they cannot communicate through these mobile devices (King et al., 2013; Yildirim & Correia, 2015). It is reported that psychological imbalances, which mobile device addicts suffer from, show similar symptoms with those who have psychosocial disorders such as anxiety disorder or mood swings. Individuals who have nomophobic behavior start to feel anxious when they forget their phones, run out of battery or have no network coverage. This anxiety affects individual negatively so they find it difficult to concentrate on their daily activities (Dixit et al., 2010). When the symptoms of nomophobia are examined, if the individual is worried about losing his/her mobile phone even if it is in a safe place, overanxious of losing the signal, never turns off his/her mobile phone or looks at it very often to check whether they have network coverage or low battery, this means that this addiction affects his/her daily life in a negative way (Yenilmez, 2013). Nomophobia, which is also described as the fear of being deprived of mobile phones, is thought to increase in parallel with the prevalence of smartphones.
1.1.2. Nomophobia and insomniac problems Nomophobic behaviors can affect our daily habits, family, work and school life. In a study carried out in Korea, 77.
4 % of smartphone users check their phones frequently without a reason and more than half of them (53.9 %) hit their phones before sleeping and the first thing in the morning (Korean Internet and Security Agency, 2012). In the latest research performed by Rosen et al. (2016) with the participation of over 700 university students about the impact of technology on sleep pattern. A Second adverse effect of Media addiction is on the relationships that people have, as it decreases real physical and social interactions, and people isolate themselves in real life.
Multimedia has become a way of life for most of the current young generations all over the world. Social media allows all kinds of nations to connect in ways that only a few years before seemed unthinkable to even the most advanced scientists. Yet now it has more influence on our lives than we could possibly imagine.
Children as young as three years old have their own iPads and can even manage iTunes accounts, whilst teenagers on average reportedly spend up to 7.5 hours on social media per day, according to a study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation (2013). Teenagers are even referred to nowadays as the ‘Facebook generation’, implying that they use this social media website excessively- it’s suggested that the average amount of time a person uses Facebook per month is 15 hours 33 minutes. However the damage this social media usage is having on our health is greater than we have thought. Many people are suffering more from both depression and insomnia due to abusing the use of social media.
In this article, we are going to explore the range of ways in which social media effects the risk of developing insomnia and depression, and how much of an influence it has on them. In addition, the majority of them wake up at least once during the night and checks the messages and notifications. The results of the study demonstrated that “the anxiety of losing contact with others” and “the feeling of dependence on technology” could affect their sleep negatively so the students could be unproductive the next day and have difficulty in learning at university. 1.1.3. Adolescents and technology Keeping in contact through multimedia and mobile phones in social life starts in childhood period in most parts of the world (Karaaslan ; Budak, 2012). Smartphones as a new mobile technology that change the patterns of social life eliminate social boundaries and existing forms.
Technology age has brought mobile phones into a state of significance and it has a great effect on the social and emotional development of adolescents. During the transition stages from childhood to adolescence, the use of media increases (Rideout et al., 2010). Most teenagers spend their time on electronic media platforms (Willemse et al., 2012). These technological devices, which are extremely popular among teenagers, also cause them to change their lifestyles and differ their way of establishing social relations; as a result, they restrict their lives within the borders of this technological world. However, teenagers think that the use of technology especially mobile phones improves their social status: Therefore, they feel more attached to them (Yilmaz, Sar ; Civan, 2015). Kim et al.
(2012) reported that adolescents have the tendency to concentrate while using media and can develop more habitual usage problems than adults when they are introduced to a new type of media. Besides, teenagers are more prone to smartphone addiction compared to adults (Kwon, ; Yang, 2013). It is seen that most of the studies in the literature were carried out over post graduate and doctoral students. However, the need for socializing in the youth stage when the personality is being developed has a priority and this need of communication is mostly achieved through smartphones and mobile internet in virtual platforms but not face-to-face.
Consequently, it is thought that this can increase smartphone attachment and dependence of adolescents in youths so this can have a negative result like nomophobia and insomniac problems. There are very few studies such as Spitzer’s (2015) focused on relationship on nomophobic behavior and insomniac problem with academic performance of the students, he stated that negative impact experiences was found on academic success and school life due to technology dependence and nomophobia. Therefore, investigator decided that it is necessary to examine the effects of nomophobia and insomniac problems of youths on scholastic and co- scholastic performance.1.
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE: Dixit et al.(2004) was found that the participants stated that they could not survive a single day without a cell phone. In another study conducted with a group of 200 medical students between the ages of 17-28 in Indore, India, it was found that 18.5 % of the students exhibited nomophobic behaviors. The 73 % of the students stated that they keep their mobile phones near them while sleeping and 20 % of them stated that they lose concentration and feel under pressure when they do not have their mobile phones or run out of battery.
Choy et al. (2007) explain that “specific phobia is characterized by an excessive, irrational fear of a specific object or situation, which is avoided at all cost or endured with great distress.” Situational phobias are experienced when a specific situation evokes an intense, irrational fear that leads to an intense reaction that can be both physical and emotional. King, Valença and Nardi (2010) reported in their study, they consider nomophobia as a 21st century disorder resulting from new technologies. In their definition, nomophobia “denotes discomfort or anxiety when out of mobile phone (MP) or computer contact. It is the fear of becoming technologically incommunicable, distant from the MP or not connected to the Web” King et al. (2010) nomophobia will be discussed in relation to smartphones and propose, nomophobia is considered a modern age phobia and a byproduct of the interaction between people and new technologies. As discussed in the previous chapter, smartphones have taken over the mobile phone market and have almost replaced the phrase “mobile phone” or “cell phone.
” With their numerous capabilities, smartphones facilitate instant communication, help people stay connected anywhere anytime, and provide people with constant access to information. Nomophobia received a great deal of attention by media, especially online media (CNW, 2012; Merz, 2013; The Telegraph, 2012). Research into nomophobia, however, has been scarce as evidenced by the results of searches on academic research databases, such as Web of Science, EBSCOHOST, PsychInfo, and ProQuest. reported the case of a patient with panic disorder and agoraphobia and examined the relationship between nomophobia and panic disorder. The patient, who was reported to demonstrate total dependence on his mobile phone, received a combination of psychiatric treatment, medication, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Karaaslan & Budak, (2012) reported that keeping in contact through mobile phones in social life starts in childhood period in most parts of the world and Smartphones as a new mobile technology that change the patterns of social life eliminate social boundaries and existing forms. Technology age has brought mobile phones into a state of significance and it has a great effect on the social and emotional development of adolescents. Kim et al.
(2012) reported that adolescents have the tendency to concentrate while using media and can develop more habitual usage problems than adults when they are introduced to a new type of media. Skolnick, Schare, Wyatt, & Tillman (2012) reported that People with nomophobia would strive to avoid flying as much as possible. If they had to fly for some reason, they would endure the experience with great anxiety and stress. Similarly, in the case of nomophobia, people with nomophobia or nomophobes would have an irrational fear of being out of smartphone contact or not being able to use their smartphones and try to eliminate the chances of not being able to use their smartphone King, Valença, Silva, Baczynski, Carvalho and Nardi (2013) define nomophobia as follows: Nomophobia is considered a disorder of the modern world, and has only recently been used to describe the discomfort or anxiety caused by the non availability of an MP, PC or any other virtual communication device in individuals who use them habitually Although their definition includes the unavailability of computers, they argue that computers are replaced by mobile phones, which presumably have smartphone capabilities, and tablets. Therefore, they state that their research focus is less on computers and more on the virtual communication environments, including mobile phones.
International Business Times’ definition (2013) seems to put an emphasis on the feelings of anxiety caused by the unavailability or inaccessibility of mobile phones: Nomophobia or no-mobile-phone-phobia is an anxiety which people face when they feel they could not get signal from a mobile tower, run out of battery, forget to take the phone with them or simply do not receive calls, texts or email notifications for a certain period of time. In short, it is a psychological fear of losing mobile or cell phone contact Merlo et al. (2013) developed and validated a measure of problematic mobile phone use. The items in the questionnaire were created based on informal interviews with several mobile phone users who described themselves as addicted to their phones, DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders, and a review of existing measures concerned with the excessive use of the Internet. Cheever, Rosen, Carrier ; Chavez (2014) a study carried out with the participation of 163 university students in the USA in 2014, almost half of the participants’ mobile phones were taken and the other half were asked to turn their phones off and put them away. During the period without phones, anxiety scale was administered and results revealed that the participants’ anxiety levels increased in this period. Forgays et al.
(2014) argue against the notion of mobile phone addiction, they seem to regard nomophobia as a term used to refer to mobile phone addiction. Nonetheless, the colloquial use of the term addiction seems to obscure the meaning of nomophobia. Rather, as its name implies, nomophobia, or no-mobile-phone phobia, may be better suited for classification as a phobia in general, and as a situational phobia in particular Sharma, Sharma, Sharma ; Wavare, (2015) examined the use of mobile phone and the prevalence of nomophobia among third year medical students. In this study in which 130 students between the ages of 22-24 participated, it was found that 73 % of the students were nomophobic and 83 % of the students had frequent and recurrent anxiety attacks or panic attacks when they could not find their mobile phones. Spitzer’s (2015) reported in his study and emphasis that there was the impact of negative experiences on academic success and school life due to technology dependence and nomophobia. Rosen et al. (2016) studied with the participation of over 700 university students about the impact of technology on sleep pattern, it was pointed out that at least half of the participants sleep with their mobile phones on.
In addition, the majority of them wake up at least once during the night and checks the messages and notifications. The results of the study demonstrated that “the anxiety of losing contact with others” and “the feeling of dependence on technology” could affect their sleep negatively so the students could be unproductive the next day and have difficulty in learning at university. Moreover, some studies in the literature suggested that there is a negative relationship between students’ academic performance and mobile phone use (Judd, 2014, Karpinski et al.
, 2013; Rosen et al., 2013, Samaha ; Hawi, 2016; Wentworth ; Middleton, 2014; Kibona ; Mgaya, 2015). The constant checking and/or use of smartphones have been linked to sleep disturbances, stress, anxiety, deterioration in health, a decrease in academic and physical performance (Hagberg, 2011).
A majority of adolescents from lower socioeconomic background in whole world; are not untouched by the effects by the widely available and cheaper Smartphone. Adolescents under 15 years old are also affected, in India and around the world. Moreover, little research has been conducted about smartphone use and its consequences. Considering the high rate of smartphone use among Indian adolescents, this area needs to be further explored, with a focus on what roles technology plays in fostering fantasies, acting out behaviors. Therefore, researcher decided to carry a research to examine the effects of nomophobia and insomniac problems of youths on scholastic and co-scholastic performance.
1.3.0 TITLE OF THE RESEARCH:A STUDY OF NOMOPHOBIC BEHAVIOUR AND INSOMNIAC PROBLEMS AMONG YOUTHS IN RELATION TO MULTIMEDIA ADDICTION: ITS IMPACT ON THEIR SCHOLASTIC AND CO-SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE.1.4.0 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE VARIABLES 1.4.
1 NOMOPHOBIC BEHAVIOUR Nomophobia (NO Mobile PHOBIA), which is considered as the modern phobia of the 21st century, is described as the irrational fear when individuals cannot reach their cell phones or smartphones, or they cannot communicate through these mobile devices (King et al., 2013; Yildirim ; Correia, 2015). It is reported that psychological imbalances, which mobile device addicts suffer from, show similar symptoms with those who have psychosocial disorders such as anxiety disorder or mood swings. Individuals who have nomophobic behavior start to feel anxious when they forget their phones, run out of battery or have no network coverage. 1.
4.2 INSOMNIAC PROBLEMS Insomnia (Sharma, Sharma, Sharma ; Wavare, 2015) includes a wide range of sleeping disorders, from lack of sleep quality to lack of sleep quantity. Insomnia is commonly separated into three types:? Transient insomnia – occurs when symptoms last from a few days to a few weeks.? Acute insomnia – also called short-term insomnia. Symptoms persist for several weeks.
? Chronic insomnia – this type lasts for months, and sometimes years. According to the National Institutes of Health, the majority of chronic insomnia cases are secondary, meaning they are side effects or symptoms resulting from another primary problem. Although insomnia can affect people of any age, it is more common in adult females than adult males. The sleeping disorder can undermine school and work performance, as well as contributing to obesity, anxiety, depression, irritability, concentration problems, memory problems, poor immune system function, and reduced reaction time.1.4.
3 MULTIMEDIA ADDICTION Addiction usually refers to compulsive behavior that leads to negative effects. In most addictions, people feel compelled to do certain activities so often that they become a harmful habit, which then interferes with other important activities such as work or school. In that context, a multimedia addiction could be considered someone with a compulsion to use social media, smart phone, vedio chat, messaging, songs etc to excess for hours on end.1.4.4 SCHOLASTIC AND CO-SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE The scholastic areas are more concerned with cognitive or knowledge aspects.
This can be accessed directly by observing their reactions to various learning experiences. i.e. How well have they learnt what was taught to them.
All the intelligence or mental ability tests come under this category. For example-the memory test, Speed, verbal Reasoning, Space word ability etc. which measure the cognitive ability of the learner. In the present study The co-scholastic areas are concerned with the learner’s attitudes, interests, values, feelings, habits, social interaction, discipline, participation and cooperation etc. which cannot be assessed directly. It is assessed indirectly by merely observing the behavior of the learner and his experiences and also through biographies, self reports, checklists and teacher’s report etc.1.5.
0 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1. To explore and differentiate the levels of multimedia addictive behavior in male and female youths at university level. 2.
To explore and differentiate the levels of nomophobic behavior in male and female youths at university level. 3. To explore and differentiate the insomniac problems of male and female youths at university level. 4. To study the nomophobic behaviour in male and female youths in relation to their multimedia addiction at university level. 5. To study the insomniac problems of male and female youths in relation to their multimedia addiction at university level.
6. To study the effect of nomophobic behavior of youths on scholastic performance in relation to their multimedia addiction. 7. To study the effect of nomophobic behavior of youths on co-scholastic performance in relation to their multimedia addiction. 8. To study the effect of insomniac problems of youths on scholastic performance in relation to their multimedia addiction.
9. To study the effect of insomniac problems of youths on co-scholastic performance in relation to their multimedia addiction.1.6.
0 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY: 1. There will be no significant difference between male and female youths in relation to their multimedia addictive behavior at university level. 2.
There will be no significant difference between male and female youths in relation to their nomophobic behavior at university level. 3. There will be no significant difference between male and female youths in relation to their insomniac problems at university level.
4. There will be no significant difference in nomophobic behaviour of male and female youths in relation to their multimedia addiction at university level.5.
There will be no significant difference in insomniac problems of male and female youths in relation to their multimedia addiction at university level 6. There will be no significant effect of nomophobic behavior of youths on scholastic performance in relation to their multimedia addiction. 7. There will be no significant effect of nomophobic behavior of youths on co-scholastic performance in relation to their multimedia addiction. 8. There will be no significant effect of insomniac problems of youths on scholastic performance in relation to their multimedia addiction.9.
There will be no significant effect of insomniac problems of youths on co-scholastic performance in relation to their multimedia addiction.1.7.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:1.7.1 METHOD OF RESEARCH: Descriptive research method will be followed to achieve the aims and objectives of the present investigation.1.
7.2 SAMPLE DESIGN In the present study, following design to select the sample will be adopted given as under-Sample units: Final year under graduate male and female students from government, government – aided and private colleges affiliated to Panjab University, Chandigarh. . Sample size: 300 male and 300 female undergraduate students will be selected from the two border area districts of State Punjab i.e. Ferozepur and Fazilka will be taken for the data collection and different government, government – aided and private colleges affiliated to Panjab University .Sample: As it was not possible to cover all the prospective under graduate students different universities of Punjab, The sample will be drawn from border Belt two districts of Punjab i.e.
Fazilka and Ferozepur. There are 19 under graduate and post graduate colleges are situated and affiliated to Panjab University, Chandigarh. Total Sample of 600 under graduate students (females and males) of session 2018-2019 will be selected randomly from few colleges out of 19 colleges affiliated to Panjab University Chandigarh.Sampling technique: Stratified random sampling method will be used.
Geographical area: Border belt districts and educational backward area of Punjab State.1.7.3 RESEARCH TOOLS: All tools will be made by researcher.1. Nomophobic Behavioral Identification Scale (NBIS): Researcher will develop five point rating scale to examine the irrational fear or anxiety when individuals cannot reach their cell phones or smartphones or they cannot communicate through these mobile devices.
This rating scale will be constructed though standardized steps of test construction such as piling of items, refinement of items, items analysis and ascertain of reliability and validity. 2. Insomniac Problems Rating Scale (IPRS): Researcher will report the sleep disturbance problems of youths through self constructed rating scale. This rating scale will be constructed though standardized steps of test construction such as piling of items, refinement of items, items analysis and ascertain of reliability and validity.3. Multimedia Addictive Rating Scale (MARS): Researcher will report time spent in the use of multimedia by youths though questionnaire in which time spent in the use of multimedia related questions and such rating based questions reflects addiction of multimedia will be put in the questionnaire. This questionnaire will be also constructed though standardized steps of test construction such as piling of items, refinement of items, items analysis and ascertain of reliability and validity.
4. Scholastic Achievement Scale (SAS): Researcher will report the CGPA points achieved by students in the academic subjects during the session and will treat as scholastic achievement of the students. 5. Co-scholastic Performance Scale (CSPS): Researcher will report the co-scholastic areas such as participation in college activities, cooperation, attitudes, interests, values, feelings, habits, social interaction, discipline, attendance, sports, leadership etc through teacher’s observations and college records1.7.4 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES: Descriptive and Inferential statistical methods will be applied as per nature of data.1.7.
5. DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: The study will be delimited in the following manner;1. The present study will be delimited with number of observed variables such as nomophobic behavior, insomniac problems, multimedia addiction, scholastic and co-scholastic achievement of the students.2. The present study will be delimited with locality and colleges; Sample units will be delimited to border district’s government, Aided and private colleges affiliated to Panjab University, Chandigarh.3. The present study will be delimited with the number of the responders (sample units).
Only 600 under graduate students will be taken as sample in the present study. 4. The study will be delimited to under graduate final year students.5.
The study will be delimited to 300 male and 300 female under graduate students.6. The present study will be delimited with its scope. The results can be generalized on youths of graduate level.
7. The present study will be delimited with nature of the study. The present study is descriptive study. 1.8.
0 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Nomophobic behaviors can affect our daily habits, family, work and school life. It is reported that psychological imbalances, which mobile device addicts suffer from, show similar symptoms with those who have psychosocial disorders such as anxiety disorder or mood swings. Individuals who have nomophobic behavior start to feel anxious when they forget their phones, run out of battery or have no network coverage. This anxiety affects individual negatively so they find it difficult to concentrate on their daily activities. Although insomnia can affect people of any age, it is more common in adult females than adult males. The sleeping disorder can undermine school and work performance, as well as contributing to obesity, anxiety, depression, irritability, concentration problems, memory problems, poor immune system function, and reduced reaction time.
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