According to Coon (2016) creative thinking means thinking out of the box and developing possibilities, with creative thinking individuals produce new and different ideas or answer in order to solve problems. PreparationPreparation stages involves thinking or learning about the mental elements thoughts to be relevant to the problem; it thus entails initial conscious work on the problem. In this process/stage the thinker formulates the problem and collects the facts and materials considered necessary for finding new solutions. Many times, the problem cannot be solved even after days, weeks or months of concentrated efforts. Failing to solve the problem, the thinker turns away from it initiating the next stage.
IncubationDuring this period some of the ideas that were interfering with the solution tend to fade, the invert activity and sometimes even thinking about the problem is absent in this stage. But the unconscious thought process involved in creative thinking is at work during this period. Apparently the thinker will be busy in other activities like reading literature or playing a game, inspite of these activities the contemplation about finding a solution to the problem will be going on in the mind.
IlluminationFollowing the period of incubation, the creative ideas occur suddenly, Consequently the obscure thing becomes clear. There appears a sudden flash of solution which is known as illumination and very similar to the ”Aha’ experience. VerificationThough the solution is found in illumination stage, it is very much necessary to verify whether that the solution is correct or not, hence in this last stage of creative thinking evaluation of the solution is done. If the solution is not satisfactory the thinker will go back to creative process from the beginning, if it is satisfactory the same will be accepted and if necessary minor modification may also be mad in the solutionMemory stores that differ in function, capacity and durationMemoryMemory refers to retaining and recalling information over a period of time, depending upon the nature of cognitive task you are required to perform. It might be necessary to hold an information for a few seconds. For example, you use your memory to retain an unfamiliar telephone number till you have reached the telephone instrument to dial, or for many years you still remember the techniques of addition and subtraction which you perhaps learned during your early schooling. Memory is conceptualized as a process consisting of three independent, though interrelated stages.
These are encoding, storage, and retrieval. Any information received by us necessarily goes through these stages. Encoding is the first stage which refers to a process by which information is recorded and registered for the first time so that it becomes usable by our memory system.
Storage is the second stage of memory. Information which was encoded must also be stored so that it can be put to use later. Storage, therefore, refers to the process through which information is retained and held over a period of time.
Lastly, retrieval is they last stage of memory, in here information can be used only when one is able to recover it from her/his memory. Retrieval refers to bringing the stored information to her/his awareness so that it can be used for performing various cognitive tasks such as problem solving or decision-makingSensory MemoryAmid each snapshot of a man’s life tangible data is taken in by tactile receptors and is being handled by the sensory system. The data that is in the tactile memory is sufficiently long to be exchanged to here and now memory and goes on for a couple of moments or for only a small amount of a moment. tactile memory enables a man to hold impressions of tangible data after the first boost has stopped. Tangible memory is generally thought to be outside of the subjective control and rather a programmed reaction. the data spoke to in the tangible memory is crude information and is a specific data. Tactile memory stores extremely concise data and keeps going a brief timeframe.
When data in the tangible memory has been supplanted by new memory data got to before new one is not any more available and at last lost.Short-term MemoryThe short-term memory encodes information from the sensory memory and can only hold this information for only 15 to 30mseconds. Is the limit with regards to holding a little measure of data as a primary concern in a dynamic, promptly accessible state for a brief timeframe. This memory is necessary to allow new information to be registered and newly received information to be stored. The short-term memory is basically the ‘Working memory’ and is concerned with information that is being currently being considered by a person in their minds. The capacity of a short-term memory is limited and short-lived and is concerned with the process called chunking, which is basically taking small pieces of information and putting them together to larger units. This process is an essential function of short-term memory because is enables a person to deal with larger pieces of information(Goldstein, 2005). If information in the short-term memory is somehow not transferred into the long-term memory, it will be forgotten unless rehearsed actively.
Long-term MemoryAccording to Landauer (1986) unlimited capacity store. Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information. Information in the long-term memory can be stored for long periods of time and has a limitless capacity for storing information. It is a permanent storehouse of all information. While information can only be stored fir a period of 15-30 seconds in the short-term memory, in here data can be stored indefinitely. According to Mazur (2006), long-term memory has also been called reference memory, because an individual must refer to the information in long-term memory when performing almost any task. Long term memory is commonly broken down into explicit memory (declarative), which includes episodic memory, semantic memory, and autobiographical memory, and implicit memory (procedural memory).
It encodes information semantically for storage, the information needs to enter working memory before it can be stored into long-term memory. This is evidenced by the fact that the speed with which information is stored into long-term memory is determined by the amount of information that can be fit, at each step, into visual working memory. In simple words, the larger the capacity of working memory for certain stimuli, the faster will these materials be learned.a) Explicit Memory- which refers to the conscious recollections of experiences or facts that a person has uncounted in the past. It is subdivided into Episodic memory which involves biographical details of our lives & semantic memory which involves general awareness & knowledge. b) Implicit Memory- refers to past experiences that influence a person’s behaviour but which a person does not consciously remember