centercenterGAONE SEKALE 201502629ASSESS THE MOTIVES FOR FOREIGN POWERS INTERVENTION ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT IN THE NEW MILLINIEUM AND ADVICE AFRICAN HEADS OF STATE AT THE AFRICAN UNION ON HOW AFRICA SHOULD DEAL WITH THE WEST AND CHINA. POL 406- AFRICAN WORLD POLITICS090900GAONE SEKALE 201502629ASSESS THE MOTIVES FOR FOREIGN POWERS INTERVENTION ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT IN THE NEW MILLINIEUM AND ADVICE AFRICAN HEADS OF STATE AT THE AFRICAN UNION ON HOW AFRICA SHOULD DEAL WITH THE WEST AND CHINA. POL 406- AFRICAN WORLD POLITICSContents TOC o “1-3” h z u IntroductionScramble for AfricaAfrica after colonialism (the challenges faced by African states)The African UnionMotives for foreign powers in Africa- Chinese and European intervention Perception of China and the West in AfricaAdvise to heads of states at the AUEssay standConclusion References.INTRODUCTIONFor many centuries there has been an interest of the foreign powers on the African continent.
This was more relevant in the 1800s to the 1900s, there however seems to still be an increasing interest by these foreign powers in the 21st century. The following essay therefore intends to assess the motives and intervention of foreign powers in the new millennium Africa. Firstly, the essay will define some terms which will be discussed. The essay will make attempts in discussing the topic at hand by firstly discussing the scramble for Africa to show what led to they having been interest of the African continent, the end of the colonial era will be discussed to indicate how much Africa has improved or not improved since the end of the colonialism era.
Other concepts to be discussed by this essay will be the African union in terms of its formulation and purpose, furthermore the motives of foreign powers in the new millennium Africa, the essay will look at both the European and Chinese intervention motives. The essay will also give perception of each foreign power, and lastly advice will be given to the African heads of state and the AU in terms of how to control the foreign powers. Lastly the essay will make an attempt in giving its stand of the issue.DEFINITION OF CONCEPTSIntervention: Coyne (2008), defines foreign intervention as the use of discretionary power of the government in a society to address the perceived problems faced by foreign societies. Foreign interventions aim to construct a much preferable state of affairs in the societies from the view of those intervening. Professor Robert C., defines intervention as being an illicit involvement of one sovereign state in the affairs of another.
CITATION Rob62 l 1033 (Good, 1962)SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA Linked to the Berlin Conference in 1884, the Scramble for Arica also known as the Race for Africa was essentially a process of occupation, colonization and annexation of the African continent by the European powers. The Berlin Conference led by Otto von Bismarck, was for the purpose of discussing how the European states would control and regulate the partitioning of Africa CITATION Mau18 l 1033 (Shisia, 2018). The scramble lasted from 1881 up until World War 1 in 1914 CITATION Ori12 l 1033 (Anon., 2012). By the year 1914 at least 90% of the African continent was under European rule, of which prior to the Conquest of Africa only 10% was controlled by the Europeans. Only 3 African countries were free of colonial rule, these included Ethiopia, Liberia and Somali.AFRICA AFTER COLONIALISM- THE CHALLENGES FACED BY AFRICAN COUNTRIESAfter the attainment of independence from European colonial rule, African states were faced with numerous challenges. The first challenge was the issue of there been a lack of infrastructure: the European imperialists had prided themselves as wanting to bring about civilization and development to the African states.
This however was not evident as the Europeans left the colonies with either little or no infrastructure. Despite they been roads and railway roads built, it was clear that they were built to facilitate the export of raw materials for the colonizers. The African countries were rich in cash crops and minerals however the lack of manufacturing infrastructure meant they were unable to process the goods for themselves ultimately growing their economy. Secondly there was inexperienced leadership: at independence there was a distinct lack of leadership and experience presented by the black African leaders. The colonial government had placed the black African leaders at lower positions. The white colonial governments were placed at the higher positions where there was sufficient use of power. The transition to black Africans to national offices at attainment of independence meant there were individuals at all levels of bureaucracy with little training prior to been in office.
There were challenges faced by many African leaders in terms of innovation due to a lack of experienced leadership. And lastly The Cold War which came after the decolonization of Africa, it posed to be another problem faced by the African leaders. The USA and the USSR were in an upheaval, and the African leaders were faced with the challenge in terms of which country they should align themselves to as well as the issue of factions. In Angola for example the factions contributed to a Civil war lasting for almost 30 years.The challenges faced by African leaders made it difficult for majority of the African leaders or states to establish a strong economic and political stability.
It also contributed to the upheaval faced by states between the late 1960s and the 1990s. It is also important to take note that some of the African states are still faced by numerous challenges even after so many years of independence.THE AFRICAN UNION Being one of the world’s most important intergovernmental organization. The African Union (AU) is composed of 53 African states and is based on the European Union (EU). The African countries work diplomatically with one another despite there being challenges in terms of language, religion and race. The main aims are to improve the economic, social and political situations for all the citizens of the African continent. The formation of the AU was following the dissolution of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 2002. The OAU was initially formed in 1963 as a way to accelerate the process that of the European decolonization and gain independence for a number of the African nations.
The aim was essentially to promote peaceful solutions for conflict, ensure sovereignty and raise the standard of living for the citizens. Criticism of the OAU was that it could not eliminate the poverty is said it would, the leaders were corrupt and seemed to be unconcerned with the welfare of the citizens. Furthermore it was unable to intervene in the civil war when they occurred. Since the development of the AU in 2002 however, there has been to a certain extent improved stability and welfare.
There are also however challenges which the AU has faced, for instance poverty is still a large problem, the organization is in deep debt and like the OAU there are issues of corruption by a bulk of the leaders. CITATION Ric17 l 1033 (Richards, 2017)MOTIVES OF FOREIGN INTERVENTION IN AFRICADespite majority of the African continent having attained independence from their colonial masters. There appears to still be a high interest shown by foreign countries to intervene in the African continent. (Counselman, 2014), states that many countries face intervention from the foreign countries which stand to benefit from them, either from economic aid and military assistance. Intervention by these Western countries or charities in Africa to some extend can lead to there been a political instability, stifling enterprises and making the developing countries less accountable for their citizens, this is according to research by Blairite thinktank the Foreign Policy Centre (FPC).
The FPC report showed that although there is some positive assistance provided it only goes insofar as a short term basis and leads to the weakening of the state’s accountability to their citizens. CITATION Lia03 l 1033 (Katz, 2003)Firstly the intervention of European states will be discussed. When there is conflict in African countries, European countries usually do not take action. This inaction by European countries can be explained on the basis of; 1) there been an absence of strategic and economic interest; 2) the unwillingness of the European leaders to be involved in issues pertaining to their former colonies and 3) the assumption of African conflicts being a normal event that does not require any form of intervention. There however will be European intervention in cases that involve security and the prestige rather than economic and humanitarian reasons. Ultimately the relations between Europe and Africa is on the basis of their having been some form of relation. This relation has become the basis on which there has or is European intervention in Africa.
CITATION Cat17 l 1033 (Gegout, 2017). From the above analysis of the European intervention in the African continent. One can determine that intervention by the European state is mostly on the basis of the military intervention. To some extent it has to do with the economy as there are some investments the Europeans make into the African countries. It is also clear that this intervention has to do with the Europeans gaining from Africa and not on the basis of infrastructure and development. In the instance of China, since 2002 China has shown increased involvement and investment in the African continent surpassing the USA as the biggest investor in 2009. The Chinese investment have bought about significant political and economic consequences. There has been an increase in foreign aid, debt cancellations and a boom in the China-Africa trade relation.
The strategic Chinese interest in oil has proven that there is a mutually beneficial relationship for both China and African states. Aid without conditions has proven to be of a more alternative compared to the conditions placed by the Western powers CITATION Tul06 l 1033 (Tull, 2006). China has been able to boost the African states oil and the mining sectors in exchange for advantageous trade deals.
The Chinese companies are diversifying their business pursuits in Africa in infrastructure, manufacturing and telecommunications. On analysis of the China- Africa relation it is evident that intervention is mostly on the basis of a tit for tat as both colonies or countries stand to benefit from this intervention.In essence foreign interventions are mostly done, because of that foreign country standing to benefit somehow from the other country. Had there been nothing to benefit from then the foreign states would not take interest in African affairs.PERCEPTIONS OF FOREIGN INTERVENTION IN AFRICA –CHINESE INTERVENTION AND EUROPEAN INTERVENTIONThe 20th century saw for the re-emergence of China in Africa has raised numerous questions and created issues of concern by the Western countries. The re-emergence has been centered on two core issues; 1) what motives are behind the present engagement? And 2) what implications are there for Africa’s development? Many argue that the engagement is to repeat what occurred with the Western countries when they exploited African countries of their resources. However it has ben evident that through the establishment of the Forum on the China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in 2002, more than $300 billon has been invested in the African continent mostly for the improvement of infrastructure, which has been a major problem for African countries.
The praise of the China- Africa relation is in that there is free interest loans and the criticism is in terms of there being fear of there been a repeat of what the west did.The EU on the other hand remains in the past through its defining developmental assistance in the liberal and idealist terms. There is a tendency to muddle developmental issues with its desire to advance liberal democracy, which was a concept which worked in the cold war. There however aren’t clear in terms of if it will work in the new juncture for global order.The Africans view the European Union as being the home of the former colonial masters and the greatest promoter of free trade and the liberal democracy. China on the other hand is seen as a new strategic partner in the economic and infrastructural arena.
It however is important to take note that the perceptions are not the same amongst all African states. The Chinese have been able to adapt to the African continent at a faster rate than the European countries as it brings about quicker development compared to the West. CITATION Mon16 l 1033 (Monyae, 2016)ADVISE TO AFRICAN STATES AT THE AUFollowing a case in which the heads of the African Union accused China of having hacked their headquarters computer system for five years and downloading confidential data. This was one way which proved that African leaders need to take precautions when it comes to allowing foreign countries to partake in buildings that have to do with continental security.
The hack is proof of the risk African states took in allowing Chinese technology companies to take part in developing African telecoms. CITATION Joh18 l 1033 (Aglionby & Yng, 2018). Following this the first advice the essay gives to African state leaders at the AU is to get together and find ways to develop they own telecommunication networks without help from these foreign countries. This would help in keeping continental affairs safe from foreign intervention. Despite the Chinese denying this, this has been a lesson that shows that African states need to limit how much help they get from these foreign countries, more especially in issues of security. Furthermore there have been disagreements between the European Union (EU) and the African Union (AU) in 2016, over the European payments to the AU peacekeepers in Somalia. Despite their having been talks to strengthen collaboration there still remains frustrations over the financing and there still remains deficiencies between the two organizations.
This goes to show that the AU leaders need to develop on a relationship that is less based on what financial gains they can get from the EU. The African leaders need to learn to develop a relationship with foreign states that is less based on them putting money into them but rather one that is based on mutual respect for fair trading deals and security relations. It should do a reassessment of its relations with the regional economic communities, central element of the continents security architecture, clarifying which organisations should take the lead in when faced with issues of conflict. The EU being the AU’s most significant peace and security partner, the AU state leaders need to find a way to make their own cash injections to avoid too much reliance on the EU. CITATION Tim17 l 1033 (Anon., 2017)The African state leaders at the AU should rather focus on creating a relationship based more on strategy and development of each of the states involved. For instance with their relations with China they should keep it a tit for tat relationship whereby there will be an economic for both continents.
The African leaders need to come up with implementation plans in which they are able to create they own infrastructure without depending on the Chinese to do so. Furthermore, the relations between that of the West and African countries should be less based on what financial injections the African states are left to gain from the EU. AU leaders should rather aim at developing a much rather beneficial which can improve the economic and political stability of their countries at the same time creating stronger bondages with their foreign investors.When it comes to foreign intervention, the African leaders are advised to accept this intervention however they should put a limit in terms of how much intervention there will be. Furthermore they should keep in mind that they should avoid cases whereby they are on the receiving end of the deal as this will sooner or later lead to the foreign state feeling that they can control the African continent as they are the major investors.
This will also be of benefit as the AU leaders won’t feel that the EU is imposing its own ideas onto them but rather they too can take part in the decision making process as an equal partner.OWN STAND ON FOREIGN INTERVENTIONThis essay is of the view that foreign intervention is a necessary factor however it should be limited. Intervention should be placed upon a tit for tat relation in which both parties are able to benefit from the intervention.CONCLUSIONDespite having gained independence there appears to still be an increased interest by foreign countries to intervene in some policies of the AU and some African states. The essay has been successful in discussing the scramble for Africa and how it became the basis for there been foreign intervention, secondly the essay was able to briefly discuss the end of the colonial era and what challenges the African states were faced with after decolonization. The African Union as the leading policy in Africa was also discussed by the essay, furthermore the reasons for there having been foreign intervention by China and Europe was looked into. The perceptions held on foreign intervention held by Africans and the rest of the world has also been discussed. Lastly the essay attempted in giving the African states at the AU advise in terms of how they should deal with these interventions.
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