Chapter 1THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDRationaleIn 2009, during the Society for Human Resource Management’s Annual Conference, Jack Welch, the former General Electric Chief Executive, said, “There’s no such thing as work-life balance, an individual was given a choice in terms of work-life balance and there are consequences.” He further said that employees especially women must make a choice between career advancement or family interests. According to him, an employee who takes time off to raise children or tend to family needs will likely get passed over for promotion or not be viewed as a team player. Is Welch’s rather blunt statement simply a harsh reality, or is there a little more to it than that?In a globalized world where business never stops, categorized by revolutionary innovations and faster growth and development in every field, on the other side of the coin relays to the work-life balance that affects the health and happiness of individual’s life.According to Thomas (1964), in his comparison between pre-industrial era and industrial society, the separation between work and leisure was a physical separation between workplace and home.
In today’s society, it becomes more difficult to separate the workplace and home because compounded to that are the technologies that enable workers to stay plugged in with work even if they are at their home and as a result, maintaining a balance between work and family is the most neglected area of an individualWork-life balance is an individual ability to create a balance between their personal and work lives. It is accomplished when an individual continues a sense of achievement and enjoyment in the key areas of their personal life and their paid occupation.A balanced life is one where a person increases his/her effort in intellectual, emotional, religious and physical aspects among key areas of life. The absence of one or more areas to this may cause an imbalanced work-life. Work-life balance refers to the effective management and synchronization between remunerative work and the other roles and responsibilities that are important to people as individualized human beings and as a part of the society.
The growing patterns of work and personal aspects of life offer greater challenges to the modern workforce. Many organizations and employees seek approaches to better manage the conflict and tensions between work and non-work activities.Work-life balance is often debated in modern Western society.
(Aburdene & Naisbitt, 1992; English, 2003; Goode, 1960; Stephens, 1994), Balance is a gendered concept that applies only to women. But recently, numerous researches have revealed that the construct applies to experts concerning each gender and at various degrees about their professional careers (Armour, 2003; Blair-loy, 2003; Byalick & Saslow, 1993). Men and female alike attempt an effort to balance work and private interests. Though, work-life balance is no longer simply vital for the well-being of individuals, but also reasonable and stability-enhancing for establishments and work-environments (Perrons, 2003).
Work-lifestyle stability has usually been a subject of people who involved inside the quality of working lifestyles and its relation to broader high-quality of existence (Guest, 2002). Handling work lifestyle balance enables an organization toward a high quality work lifestyle. It includes a clear and practical advice to engage employees and employers in the process of controlling the conflicts between the work and home.The balanced work-life score provides an organization with a productive and innovative employee (Greenhaus, 2003), whereas work-life imbalance tends to develop depressed and dissatisfied staff (Kofodimos, 1993). Hammig and Bauer (2009) investigated and determined that once work-life imbalance and intellectual health issues evolved in adult males as well as females, they have a tendency to similarly increase troubles together with negative feelings, despair, low power, pessimism, fatigue and sleep issues.
August and Waltman (2004) diagnosed that the job delight of female personnel is related to the environmental condition, departmental weather, and demographics of the organization where they work. Carlson, Derr, & Wadsworth (2003) investigated the results of inner career orientation on multiple dimensions of work-family conflicts. Their study recognized that the personnel who had vast experience operating in their careers tend to have had more work-family conflicts. The idea about employment lifestyles balance may be approached instantly including recommendations and guidelines to enhance multitasking or with references to reduce wanted minutes from often-mundane responsibilities (Blanchard, Blanchard, & Edington 1999).The rapid economic growth and development in the world has created new activities and opened new doors for all business organizations. The globalization trend has made it difficult for organizations to retain their competitive advantage. This trend has also affected the banking sector, which is becoming more and more competitive considering the number of financial intermediaries in the industry.
The changes in business activities bring change in culture and perception of employees. Organization changes due to downsizing, mergers/ acquisitions and radical changes in technology have changed work set-ups. The employees in the present are more involved in their jobs than in the last decade. The long working hours, work pressure, high demanding jobs, and use of technology made it difficult for employees to keep their work and personal commitments balance (Nadeem and Abbas, 2009).The banking segment has advanced radically. Banks are exceptionally competitive and this has come about in coming up with measures equipped towards drawing in modern clients and holding the existing ones in order to have a bigger advertising share.
Banks are presently bringing in more benefits by being client centered. In order to achieve this, they have expanded their opening hours, presented more items, opened up more branches ad have embraced the most recent innovation. This has driven their representatives to work for longer hours, to have a more noteworthy and more complex workload, and to move from one department to another.
Hence, encountering a lot of workload and having a poor workplace culture make workers become exceedingly disappointed with their occupations. That is why the main objective of this study was to determine the work-life balance and its relationship to job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees in rural banks.Statement of ObjectivesThis study sought to determine the work-life balance and its relationship to job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees of selected rural banks in the Province of Quirino.Specifically, the objectives of this study were:To identify the factors that contribute to work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees of rural banks in the province of Quirino along the following aspects:1.
1 Work-life balance1.1.1 Work-related factorsWorkloadWorkplace support1.1.2 Family-related factorsFamily supportChildcare/ dependent care responsibilities1.
2 Job satisfactionSalary and wagesJob securityReward systemWork environment1.3 Organizational commitmentEmployee turnoverEmployee retentionTo determine significant relationship among job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work-life balance of employees in rural banks.To determine issues and concerns along job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work-life balance of employees in rural banks.Statement of the Null HypothesesThere is no significant relationship among work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees in rural banks.Significance of the StudyWork-life balance has different benefits to the organization as well as to an individual.
Quirino is a labor-oriented developing province; many industries are enriching the economy of the province. Among those industries, banking industry is the most important because it has created many jobs for the Quirinian economy.It is anticipated that the results of this study will be of great value to the following:The bank administrators. This study will help the leaders of the organization to understand the broad elements that lead to employee satisfaction and commitment and help them to come up with powerful systems that will ensure that they promote a balanced work-life.The employees. This study helps the employees to achieve a healthy balance between work and personal life.
This will serve as a milestone for employees to improve productivity, reduce employee turnover, lower medical cost, and increase commitment to their work and the organization.The future researcher. This study will benefit and help future researchers in their research endeavours related to this study. It can serve as their guide and reference as well as open more forum of study on the topic and broaden ideas on the problem indicated.
Scope and DelimitationThe entire study focused on determining work-life balance and its relationship on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees in selected rural banks in the Province of Quirino. It focused specifically on three components: First, the work-life balance factors in terms of employee’s workload, workplace support, family support and childcare/ dependent care responsibilities; Second, the job satisfaction factors in terms of salary and wages, job security, reward system and work environment; and Lastly, the organizational commitment factors in terms of employee turnover and retention.There are six municipalities in the province but only five municipalities were considered due to the alleged presence of New People’s Army in the Municipality of Nagtipunan. For safety purposes, the researcher was not able to gather data in that municipality. Moreover, the study was limited to the management and rank and file personnel.
Rural banks were selected because they are more prominent in the Province of Quirino.Conceptual FrameworkWork-life balance refers to the separation of work and personal life of an individual. According to Clark (2000), satisfaction and good functioning at work defines work-life balance with a minimum of role conflict. Some employee-friendly working arrangements are regulated by legal entitlements to assure that every employee will be benefited and to promote a healthy working condition among employees. The Labor Code of the Philippines serves as protection to the rights of employees and to ensure equal work opportunities. The Department of Labor and Employment, together with other government agencies, covers the implementation. Under the provisions of Article 82 of the Labor Code of the Philippines, the normal working hours applied to employees must not exceed eight (8) hours a day with one (1) hour daily lunch break, but the no noon break policy prescribed under Republic Act No.
9485 makes the employees schedule their lunch break and continue working while waiting for their time to take a break. On the regulation of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas circular no. 500, series of 2005, amending the regulation on banking days and hours of all banks including their branches and offices, it states that banks shall observe the regular banking week of five (5) days with six (6) hours each day for business transactions. It is also important to promote health and safety of workers in the workplace. As stated in the provision of Labor Code Article 168, occupational safety and health are mandatory to eliminate or reduce workplace hazards. Companies with successful health and productivity management programs are linked to improved business outcomes and improved employee effectiveness (Yu & Bang, 2013).Work-life balance means that paid work and personal life should be seen as complementary elements of life as a whole.
The instrumental model of Zedeck & Mosier (1990) indicate that excellent outcomes at labor place lead to excellent personal lifestyle and vice versa.In the study, intervening variables are the issues and concerns along work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Work-life balance is treated as dependent variable whereas, different factors that contribute to work-life balance, job satisfaction factors and organizational commitment factors are taken as independent variable. Significant relationship between the dependent and independent variables was also sought.Definition of TermsWork life balance is defined as satisfaction and good functioning at work and at home, with a minimum of role conflict (Clark, 2000). In this study, it refers to the degree by which rural bank employees are able to balance work and personal life responsibilities to achieve the most satisfaction in all aspects of individual life.Work Related refers to the characterization of factors affecting work such as:Workload is described as the number of task and responsibilities that a worker needs to perform within a particular period of time.
Workplace support refers to the support coming from colleagues, supervisors and especially the organization where an employee belongs.Family Related refers to the characterization of factors affecting family such as:Family support pertains to financial, emotional, spiritual and psychological help and care coming from immediate family and relatives.Childcare responsibility is the act of looking after the welfare of children with ages 18 years younger.Dependent care responsibility is the act of taking care of elders in the family.Job satisfaction refers to employee’s general attitude and feelings towards his or her job. This includes positive and negative feelings toward the job that may lead to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Armstrong, 2006). In this study, job satisfaction is the level of contentment an employee feels regarding his or her job that is measured by the pay, job security, and rewards an individual receives, and also the environment of the workplace.Salary and wages are the remuneration received by employees in exchange for a work performed.
Job security refers to the assurance that an employee has the continuity of gainful employment for his or her work life.Reward system refers to procedures, rules, and standards associated with the allocation of benefits and compensation to employees. It also serves as a motivation for employees to perform well.Work environment is defined as the physical location where a work is completed and it involves the physical location as well as the immediate surroundings of the workplace.
This includes different factors such as the quality of the air, noise level, and additional perks and benefits of employment like free child care or unlimited coffee, or adequate parking.Organizational commitment is defined by Business Concepts (n.d.) as the psychological attachment that an employee feels towards the organization he/she belongs. In the study, it refers to an employee’s emotional attachment to the organization he/she is with to which an employee experiences a sense of oneness. It is measured by employee turnover and retention.Employee turnover refers to the number or percentage of workers who leave an organization and are replaced by new employees.Employee retention is an effort by an organization to enhance the working environment, in which it encourages employees to remain in the organization.
Additionally, organizations aim to address the various needs of workers to enhance employee job satisfaction and increase employee retention.Rural bank is a rural financial institution that provides modified financial services to rural communities. In the study, rural banks are financial organizations that operate at the rural level in the different municipalities of the Province of Quirino.Chapter IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIESWork-Life BalanceWork-life balance idea gained the interest of individuals and organizations due to its relevance and worth to all employees, Torun (2007) found in his study, that work-life balance is essential across all areas and industries. Organizations have turned out to be more aware of this rising need to establish work and life balance for their employees.
Some researchers agree that scarcity of balance is caused by conflict among job and life responsibilities. According to Clark (2000), work existence stability is the phenomenon of striking a perfect stability between the professional life of individuals and their personal life including whole regarding their respective associations. Delecta (2011) described work-life balance as an individual ability to achieve employee’s commitment and other personal commitments. Several theories have been proposed by researchers to give an explanation of the unique factors about the relationship between work and personal life. Zedeck and Mosier (1990) identified five main models used to provide an explanation for the relationship between work and lifestyles concerning an individual.
The first model is recognized as segmentation model, which hypothesized that job or non-work are two wonderful domains of lifestyles that are lived pretty independently and have no effect on each other. In contrast, a spill over model advised that certain domain can influence the other domain in either a positive or negative way. In other words, some feelings, emotions, attitudes and behaviors generated into certain domain can be transferred and spilled over to the other domain. The third model, termed as compensation model, proposes that work and family are in the same sphere. Compensation model is viewed in two different categories, supplemental or reactive. Supplemental consideration takes place when humans exchange their hobbies from fairly lucrative experiences from the dissatisfying role to an extra pleasing one. While reactive compensation represents individual’s efforts to prevent bad experiences in one role, they perform through pursuing positive experiences within the other role such as engaging into leisure activities after a tiring period at work.
A fourth model, instrumental model, proposes that certain sphere can also facilitate success in the other sphere, which means excellent job results lead to proper life outcomes and vice versa. Last among the five main models is the conflict model which suggests that men and women encountering excessive degrees regarding demand of all spheres about life and compelled to fulfil tough alternatives may end up experiencing psychological conflicts together with substantial overload.Clark (2000) introduced a new theory known as work/family border theory.
The theory states that every person’s role differs with specific domains of life such as work/family domains, generally separated by physical and psychological borders. The theory describes individuals to be daily border crossers as they move between home and workplace with a minimum of role conflict. According to this theory, the flexibility and limit to switch over the boundaries between people’s work and family lives will affect the transitions between the two spheres, and the level of conflict between these domains are closely related.Morris and Madsen (2007) proposed a new point of view regarding stability between work and family roles in terms of resource drain theory and enrichment theory that supplement the current theories. Resources Drain Theory is the transfer of limited resources (e.g.
, time, energy, attention) out of a certain domain which is the family to another area which may be the work. Due to the fact that resources are limited, accessible resources of the unique domain are reduced. Example, when an employee invests large share of period at work, the available period for family or other non-work roles diminishes. Edwards & Rothbard (2000) observed that individuals also move resources in accordance with other domains that are no longer work and family related, such as community or private pursuits. In the contrary, enrichment theory is the degree in conformity with which experiences out of certain area complimenting the attribute on life within the other domain. This idea is linked in conformity with the instrumental model of Zedeck and Mosier (1990) which states that excellent outcomes at labor place lead to excellent personal lifestyle outcomes and excellent outcomes in personal lifestyle will also lead to excellent outcomes in labor place.
The work-life balance theories advise unique dimensions which are relevant although no longer universally but true with different human beings and situations. Subsequently, every concept has special degree about work-life balance.Developing and validating the degree of work-life balance is a critical element in mapping work environment prevailing in any organization, as finding a suitable balance between work and life is a challenge that all workers face and families are particularly affected.
According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Netherlands is a country with the best work-life balance as it has 9.3 index score in a scale of 0 to 10 based on indicators such as working hours, time for leisure and personal time. The country with the worst work-life balance is Turkey which gains 0.0 index score. It indicates that people in Turkey do not have work-life balance. According to the survey, almost 34% of Turkish work very long hours. The author of the Better Life Index, Loesche (2018) noted that the evidence suggests that long working hours may impair personal health, jeopardize safety and increases stress among employees. Warren (2004) identified different life domains such as domains of work, financial resources, dwelling and neighborhood, leisure, family, friends, social involvement and health.
These domains have been observed to be very closely interrelated implying that ignorance of any one domain may have significant impact on other areas of life and this will result an imbalance in the life of an individual.In the 2015 study of Microsoft in New World of Work Survey which involved 400 respondents from the Philippines, it was found that a majority or 85% of Filipinos said that their work does not end at 5:00 pm because they are still required to be contactable outside of work in order to complete their work effectively. At the same year, the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) reported that about 8.105 million Filipinos are working more than the required 48 hours per week of work.
According to the report, it has a growth of 41.2 percent from the last two decades. PSA noted that having more than the usual hours of work may interfere with the balance between personal life and work life of an individual and it may cause a threat to workers’ physical and mental capacity to work. It may also be connected in the reduction of the productivity of workers. Because of this, in 2017 senate resolution no.
316 was filed which calls for an investigation of the increase in the number of overworked Filipinos taking into account the state policy to afford full protection to labor by ensuring just and humane work conditions as provided in the Philippine constitution. Prior to this, the Labor Code of the Philippines, Book 3 covers the working conditions and rest periods of employees while the well-being and social welfare benefits of employees were included in Book 4 of the said Labor Code. Recently, Senate Bill 1305 or the “Extended Maternity Leave Law” is considered as a policy gift to Filipino families as it grants 120 days of maternity leave to expectant mothers. The law will provide more time for working mothers to take care of their new born especially if they are breast feeding, as well as attend to other chores/ activities of having a new addition to the family. Those benefits mandated by law are intended to promote work-life balance in the workplace and for every employee.Different studies in work-life balance have been underlined by the above theories and principles. Lockwood (2003) defines work-life balance as managing work and personal responsibilities. Lazar (2010) concluded that employee and employer will be benefited in a balance between work and non-work roles, and this balance within work and life domains enhances characteristic of personal relationship and organizational outcomes.
According to Susi ; Jawaharrani (2011), work-life balance will lead to the satisfaction of employees. Organizations identified the importance of work-life balance which includes retention of valuable employees, reduce conflict between work and personal role, and reduce employee stress which leads to job satisfaction and better work-life balance. Work-life balance practices need to stay supported and stimulated at workplace culture.
Strong and supportive organizational culture increases worker intention to stay in the organization. Work-life balance is a practice that is involved with providing scope for employees to balance their work together with the obligations and interest they have outside work this enables them to reconcile the competing claims of work and family by meeting their own needs as well as those of their employers (Swamy, 2007). Appiah (2013) concluded that work-life balance is important to enhance individual performance at work and home. Work-life balance is nothing but balancing of the different roles which are played by the employees. The balancing will be done through prioritizing the activities. The importance of managing an employee’s work-life balance has increased markedly over the past 20 years (De Bruin & Dupuis, 2004). There have been changes in several areas that directly impact on this issue.
Firstly, jobs have become more complex and employees have been put under pressure to produce quality results in shorter time frames and fewer resources (Hosie et al., 2004). Secondly, the demographic make-up of the labor force, and thirdly the nature of employment agreement that demands organizations effectively manage their employee’s well-being, stress and job satisfaction (Greenhaus ; Powell, 2006).In this study, there are numerous factors that can affect work-life balance of employees which is divided into two categories, the work-related factors and family-related factors.
Under work-related factor is employee’s workload. Elloy & Smith (2003) stated that work overload tends to happen when employees receives several work demands that are beyond their capabilities. Omar et al.
(2015) revealed that the most dominant factor affecting work-life balance is workload, followed by role conflict. Omar further explained that the higher workload and role conflict felt by employees leads to lesser work-life balance they enjoyed. Therefore, individuals work-life balance may be elevated via considering the volume of workload given in accordance with employees as well as their feeling of role conflict in performing the job. Another factor is workplace support.
The study of Warner and Hausdorf (2009) revealed the positive relationship exists between the organization and supervisor support for work life issues and reduction of work to family conflict. Tremblay et al. (2011) illustrated the importance of support of organizations to work-life balance in a demanding work environment. The findings substantiated the importance for organizations to offer formal and informal support to employees in the work environment to balance their work and family aspects.For the family-related factors, family support including spouse support was observed to have significance on work-life balance of employees. Grzywacz and Marks (2000) showed that family support has significantly negative correlation with family interfering with work.
Family serves like a haven for rest and recuperation, validating an individual’s identification and contributing to emotional supremacy (Caplan et al., 1975). King et al. (1996) found that family members can support employees in their efforts to manage work and life domains by providing emotional sustenance and instrumental assistance. Emotional sustenance prevents family domain interfere with work domain (Lapierre ; Allen, 2006).
Childcare and dependent care responsibility is another factor which may lead to work-life imbalance. Increased number of children will also cause additional stress between work and family conflict. Santos and Cabral-Cardoso (2008) discovered that female especially those with dependent children experience a greater tension and conflict of work and personal life. Elliot (2003) investigated on major difficulties faced by the employed parents of small children particularly of age six years and below, in providing adequate childcare. Additionally, childcare as well as care for elderly imposes more emotional burden on females compared to males and they are prone to experience high depression (Ross ; Mirowsky, 1988).For employee’s well-being, organization’s success and a functioning society it is important to consider work-life balance (Grady et al., 2008).
Clark (2000) suggested that work-life balance can be attained when individual is satisfied with their work and family responsibilities without role conflict. Therefore, organization must consider the effect of work-life balance it has on organizations’ productiveness and performance (Grady et al., 2008; Burke, 2000).Work-Related FactorsWorkloadIn a fast-changing world of advance technology, where organizations are more customer-oriented, this requires efficient and high-performance employees to compete in the global environment. These will result for the organizations to avail for optimal utilization of its human resources by increasing the task given to employees.Workload is the amount of work an individual has to do.
It is one of the indicators of work-life balance among employees. Referring to the intensity of job assignments, workload is also said to be the cause of mental stress for employees (Shah, Jaffari, Aziz, Ejaz, Ul-Haq, & Raza, 2011). As defined by Robbins and Judge (2014), change in workload tends to change the stress level of employees, which ultimately affects the performance of employees.
Stress is not necessarily bad but it also gives opportunity when it offers potential gain. In terms of workload and work-life balance, workload was the most dominant factor affecting work-life balance (Omar et al., 2015). It further explained that the higher the workload and role conflict felt by employees, the lesser the work-life balance.
Thus, employees’ work-life balance can be improved by considering the amount of workload given to employees. This result agrees with the study of Glaser et al. (2009) stating that managers may need to take into consideration the employee workloads when developing performance goals.Workplace SupportSupport that comes in many forms is a need for an individual. Employees spend their professional time in the organization working this means that workplace is where employees look for support. O’Donnell (2014) stated that to achieve higher productivity for employees, it is important to have internal workplace support that leads to positive nature of organization’s culture.Warner and Hausdorf (2009) conducted a study on work-life issues and they found that there is a positive relationship between support that comes from the organization and supervisor that leads to the reduction of work to family conflict.
Abendroth and Duk (2011) found that work-life balance has a direct and diminishing outcome to organizational support for employee’s satisfaction and emotional support and instrumental support in the workplace have a corresponding connection. Tremblay et al. (2011) illustrated in their study that organizational support to work-life balance is important in a demanding work environment. Furthermore, the findings of the study proved the need for organizations to offer formal and informal support to employees to balance their work and family aspect. In addition, Ruso et al. (2015) suggested that employees’ work-life balance will help in the development of psychological availability and augmenting employee positive energy if there is a support from work and non-work.Family-Related FactorsFamily SupportTo achieve individual goals and organizational goals, family support is very important to balance different roles played by an individual.
Family support is a factor that shows significance on work-life balance of an individual. Adams et al., 1996 observed that lower levels of work and family imbalance was associated to emotional and instrumental support from family as well as society.
This was supported by the findings of Abendroth and Dulk (2011), stating that emotional support and instrumental support coming from the workplace has a complementary relationship. Whereas, emotional family support has a positive impact on work-life balance satisfaction but instrumental family support does not. Furthermore, the study suggests that organizations, society and the family must help employees deal with the demands placed on them in different life domains that contributes to employee satisfaction with the work-life balance.
Childcare/ Dependent Care ResponsibilitiesWork-life balance is one of the most difficult issues facing families in the twenty-first century (Walker et al., 2008). Balancing work and family issues has become increasingly important for both employees and employers, and a worldwide phenomenon (Haar, 2007). Raising children and caring for elders is a time-consuming activity, child/ elder care and working are two major commitments of individuals. These responsibilities can interfere with an individual’s ability to fulfil his/her commitments to work. These are reflective of Morris and Madsen’s (2007) enrichment theory which describes the degree to which experiences from one domain complimenting the quality of life in another domain. This theory is applied when involvement in work provides benefit or has positive effect on family domain and also, when involvement within the family helps an individual to cope better for role at work. The instrumental model of Zedeck and Mosier (1990) agreed that good outcomes in the workplace leads to good personal life outcomes and vice versa.
Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is a positive emotional state resulting to the appraisal over one’s job and job experience (Locke, 1976). The 1959 Herzberg’s theory emphasizing the motivation-hygiene factors sought to explain satisfaction and motivation in the organization. The two-factory theory indicated that motivators involve the content of job. The focus of this theory is the outcomes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The theory further found that satisfaction and motivation come from certain aspects of job but it may also cause dissatisfaction. Factors related to dissatisfaction are called hygiene factors and relate more to work environment such as salary, supervision, job security, working conditions, policies and relationships. Herzberg theory suggests that even if managers devise ways to meet the hygiene-factor needs of employees, it will still not lead to job satisfaction. Though, they must satisfy the second set of needs which is the motivation faction that concerns the personal growth and development in the job for employees to experience job satisfaction.
By addressing both satisfaction dimensions, the end result is theorized to be motivated and satisfied employees.Spector (1997) defined job satisfaction as the employee’s general attitude towards his/her job. Job satisfaction is used to describe how content an individual is with his/her job. Robbins and Coulter (2004) said that a person with a high level of job satisfaction has a positive attitude toward work, while a person who is dissatisfied with the job has a negative attitude. Many organizations develop training programs and benefit packages to develop loyal employees. The longer employees work for the organization, the more valuable the employees become. Job satisfaction is most important attitude in the field of organization behavior (Pandey & Khare, 2012).
Every organization tries to create satisfied work force to operate the well-being of the organization because satisfied worker extends more effort to job performance. Total organizational performance depends on efficient and effective performance of individual employees of the organization. Pushpakumari (2008) further added that if the worker is satisfied with the work, he/she is encouraged to do the work with tremendous effort.
A satisfied individual employee and his/her effort and commitment are necessary for the success of the organization.Many organizational managers consider that salaries and financial benefits are the pathway to increase labor satisfaction. According to Al-Zoubi (2012), employees also agree that salaries will increase job satisfaction, and as a result, levels of individual performance are raised. Job satisfaction also increases employee motivation at work. But researchers also found that salary can affect job satisfaction when other job characteristics are positive. Employee satisfaction is used to describe whether employees are happy and fulfilling their desire and needs. Employee satisfaction can help to build commitment of employees towards organization. Deshpande (2012) discovered that monetary benefits, worker relations, work environments and role clarity are the factors that are chronic to measure job satisfaction concerning employees at work.
Employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation and goal achievement. Naseem (2011) found that satisfied employees show excellent performance that leads to organizational success thus results in improved financial success. Employee satisfaction increases the quality of work. Employee satisfaction leads to customer satisfaction because customer service eventually depends on the community which provides that service.
The study further showed that employee satisfaction is a key factor of organizational success. Salary and WagesIn most societies, pay level is regarded as an important indicator for status, success and also happiness. Salary is a fixed regular compensation for worker that is paid monthly, while wages is a payment to worker for service rendered under contract.As cited in the study of Dugguh and Ayaga (2014), the Herzberg’s two-factor theory that emphasizes the motivator-hygiene factor explains the relationship between satisfaction and motivation. One of the determinants of job satisfaction is the pay or salary given by organization to employees. Accordingly, salary is not a motivator for them but they do want to be paid fairly and when due to avoid dissatisfaction. According to the Labor Code of the Philippines Article 103 on time of payment, wages shall be paid at least once each two weeks or twice a month at intervals not more than 16 days.
No company shall perform payment including less frequency than once a month.There is a positive relationship between employee job satisfaction with respect to pay package and its impact on employee job performance (Awan ; Asghar, 2014). Malik et al. (2012) and Sule et al. (2015) agreed that there is a significant relationship between wages/ salaries and workers’ performance and job satisfaction.Job SecuritySumitha and Padmaja (207) cited the different factors determining job satisfaction and one of those factors is job security which is defined as a chance that an employee will keep the job and in order to avoid unemployment, the job must have an elevated level of job satisfaction. Artz and Kaya (2014) stated that job security is often measured using the perceived risk of job loss in the near future.
This is a significant determinant of job satisfaction.Reward SystemIn any organization, the reward system and employee satisfaction are interrelated components. They boost the employees’ motivation level, but poor reward system creates dissatisfaction among workers. Wang (2004) states that to ensure high standard of performance, reward system must be visible in the organization as it builds and sustains the commitment among employees. Al-shaibah and Habtoor (2015) concluded that there is a positive relationship between reward system and job satisfaction. It further concludes that reward system is very important to achieve employee satisfaction whether extrinsic or intrinsic.Work EnvironmentWork environment is a working condition which includes the perspective on well-being of employees and the physical set up of the office in which the work is normally viewed and designed.
Raziq and Maulabakhsh (2015) indicates in their study the positive relationship between work environment and employee job satisfaction. The study further concluded that good working environment will maximize the level of job satisfaction of employees and it will further motivate them to work hard in achieving organizational goals and objectives. Robbins (2001) advocates that working conditions will influence job satisfaction, as employees are concerned with a comfortable physical work environment.Organizational Commitment According to Allen (2001), Work-life balance is often seen within terms of organization commitment. It is anticipated that work-life balance enhances an employee’s dedication towards the organization. Organizational dedication is the individual’ emotional affection to the organization.
The basis behind many studies has been to discover approaches to enhance workers’ experience about their jobs so that these employees would emerge as more committed to their organizations. Organizational commitment predicts employment variables such as organization citizenship behavior, turnover, and work performance.Batool (2013) claims that stress from work and commitment to organization are related, but no substantial negative affinity among sub variables (affective, continuance, and normative commitment). When stress is reduced, organizational and individual performance will be enhanced and personnel are more committed with the business enterprise which results to greater productivity. When stress degree is reduced, personnel are more excited and inspired towards their work. According to Bashir (2008), job life policies and career opportunities are correlated along organizational commitment. But work characteristics do not determine organizational commitment. Based on some researches, the position of employee is affected due to employment role conflict.
Organization can make use of different policies in work-life to encourage employees’ organizational commitment. Relationship between Work-Life Balance and Job Satisfaction In many organizations, human resource managers evaluate personnel practices to increase employee loyalty towards the organization. In addition, many organizations have begun to take a role in developing programs to enhance work-life quality. Sultan et al. (2016) concluded that in banking sector, positive impact is existed between work-life balance and job satisfaction of employees.
Rania (2011) found that work-life balance was related to employee’s recognition which leads to employee satisfaction and the effects of recognition for the employee contribution are reflected in their satisfaction. Work assignment and work life are positively related. Pay is a mediating factor for work-life balance as it leads to satisfaction of employees. Employee benefits are positively correlated with work life balance. Better programs lead to worker satisfaction. Human resource has concluded that there is intensive relationship between worker satisfaction and business. As a result, organizations focus on developing policies and programs on work-life issues.
Employees feel more satisfaction with their work and family when they enjoy the work-life balance programs and benefits provided by their employers. Ueda (2012) concluded that work-life stability programs have distinctive effects for male and female employees. Male personnel are comfortable including all the three measures such as job, work lifestyles stability program, and employer. But female personnel have a significant affinity only with employer satisfaction.
Work-life balance programs hold greater effects for employees regarding higher income, in contrast to lower income. Organizations continually relinquish the importance of productiveness, and this impact on employee stress level. Work stress affects both work life and personal life. Work-life balance gives balanced affinity between private and work life.
Results of researches showed that there is direct relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. Nonfinancial rewards frequently bear extra impact than financial rewards in reaching employment satisfaction. Because, the level of employees’ job satisfaction increases by many factors and when employees are satisfied with their work, they feel motivated (Noor, 2011).
The need of work-life balance to employees is increased by change in business trends such as change in organizational structure, diversity of work force, and female employees working in organizations. The study of Gregory and Milner (2009) found that when employees’ need of creating a work-life balance is met by different organizational programs, employees will show higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Job satisfaction is believed to be how comfortable an employee is with the nature of his/her job. According to Briggs (2005), dissatisfaction in employees, anger and inefficiency in organization is due to the ambiguous role definition of employees who have important influence in the entrepreneurial and personal aims. However, satisfied employees are found to be more hospitable and caring which fascinate clients (Kamal & Haniff, 2009). Wright and Davis (2003) stated that satisfaction of job primarily influenced the employee’s skill, competence and potential, hence the need for organizations to come up with policies that enhance job satisfaction to influence employees’ work-life balance.Relationship between Work-Life Balance and Organizational Commitment Porter, Steers, Mowday & Boulian, (1974, p. 603) defined organizational commitment as “the strength of an individual and involvement in a particular organization.
“Work-life balance and employees organizational commitment both are important because they play important roles in the organizational performance and well-being of personal life. Gulbahar et al. (2014) found a significant relationship between gender and marital status in terms of work-life balance and employees organizational commitment and this proved in the study of Sakthivel, Kamalanabhan & Selvarani (2011) that there is positive relationship between work-life balance and organizational commitment of employees. Nowadays, the competitive environment demands balanced personal and work-life to every individual. Organizations look for different ways to enhance job satisfaction of employees and organizational commitment as well as to reduce work stress using work-life balance policies (Noor, 2011). The study further found out that work-life balance is positively associated with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and negatively related with the employee’s desire to leave he organization. Noor (2001) found that employees are delighted to work in an organization that helps them to balance between personal desires and needs of work life.
Difficulty of balancing work or private life impacts labor satisfaction, organizational commitment and more, this leads to turnover. On the other side (Gulbahar et al., 2014), this indicates that top management employees are more committed to their work than the professionals and by comparing professionals with the sports staff the professionals show more commitment and this greater commitment might be due to seniority. Sakthivel and Jayakrishnan (2006) concluded in their study that to improve morale, commitment and job satisfaction of employees as well as aiming at reduced source of stress both at work and home through work life balance policies must be done.According to Allen (2000), work-life balance is frequently seen regarding organizational commitment. It is anticipated that work-life balance enhances an employee’s dedication to the organization.
Organizational commitment predicts job variables such as employee turnover, organizational behaviour, and job performance.SynthesisWork-life balance has different meanings to every individual and different matters at different degrees of life. Grady et al. (2008) stated that work-life balance is essential because of individuals’ wellbeing, organizations performance, and the society. Because work-life balance programs help in employee’s productivity and motivation. Personal and work life are the most important factor in everyone’s life. Any competing demands of work and family life may cause conflict and it will negatively affect the well-being of indiviual (Clark, 2000; Frone, 2000).Past studies have associated work-life balance to job satisfaction.
Work-life balance is the drive for satisfaction of employees (Susi, 2010). Appiah (2013) indicated that work-life balance is important in enhancing employee performance at work and home. Employees’ recognition was linked with work-life balance which leads to employee satisfaction (Rania, 2011).
For some studies, work-life balance is correlated with organizational commitment. Work-life balance and organizational commitment have a significant relationship (Gulbahar et al., 2014; Sakthivel, Kamalanabhan & Selvarani, 2011). Other studies found that organizational commitment is also interrelated with job stress (Batool & Ullah, 2013), job life policies, and career opportunities (Bashir & Ramay, 2008).
According to Allen (2001), it is also associated with organization citizenship behavior, turnover and work performance.This study is similar with Gregory and Milner (2009) and Noor (2011) stating that work-life balance is positively associated with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Work-life balance policies are utilized to improve employee morale, commitment and job satisfaction (Sakthivel & Jayakrishnan, 2006). The difference however lies in the context within which this study was conducted. While many of those previously cited studies were conducted in large industrial companies, this study was carried out with employees of rural banks in a setting that is not highly urbanized.Hence, the current study looked at the relationship of work life balance in job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
The literature review serves as the bases in crafting the research objectives and framework of the current study.Chapter IIIRESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch DesignThe study utilized a combination of quantitative and qualitative research approaches. The quantitative aspect of the study followed the descriptive type of research using the technique of survey to gather information on work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment of rural bank employees. It is descriptive since it involved describing, recording, analyzing and interpreting data. All figures were presented in tabular forms to simplify analysis and explanation. On the other hand, the qualitative part included the open-ended questions placed in the questionnaire and the conducted follow up interviews.Research RespondentsThe respondents of the study were 64 employees of rural banks in Quirino Province.
This is a total population study where all employees who belonged to the rank and file and higher levels served as respondents of this study. In this sampling method, each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of the sample. As all members of the population have an equal chance of becoming a research participant, this is said to be the most efficient sampling procedure. The researcher was able to retrieve 100% of the administered survey tool from the 64 total number of respondents. From this total respondent, 13 of them were managers.The profiles of the respondents are provided below. The profile includes the respondents’ location, number of employees belonging either to the rank and file or management, years in operation, vision and mission statements, and services provided. It can be seen that in terms of service provided, all the respondents offered mainly savings deposit and various types of loans.
Table 1. Profile of Rural Banks in the Province of QuirinoRural Bank Location Number of Employees Years in Operation Vision and Mission Services ProvidedRank ; File Management Rural Bank of Bayombong, Inc. (RBBI) Diffun, Quirino5 1 21 VisionTo be number one in the banking system in Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino and nearby provinces with the objective of expanding our markets thereby upgrading the status of RBBI Bank to Regional Bank.MissionWe are a banking institution providing quality service to our clients in terms of fast, accurate and courteous delivery and acting as an important instrument in the development of Cagayan Valley. Savings DepositGolden SavingsChecking AccountATM ServicesPayment ServicesSale, Rent InstallmentsLoansMaddela, Quirino4 1 21 PR Bank Diffun, Quirino10 2 21 VisionServing the needs of farmers and small entrepreneurs in the countryside through nationwide banking. Salary loanMotorcycle loanAgri-machinery loanPangkabuhayan loanSavings DepositTime DepositMallig Plains Rural Bank, Inc Gundaway, Cabarroguis, Quirino6 1 16 VisionThe MPRBI is a leading bank in terms of resources with high profitability ratio in the region, with highly trained, competent and committed officers and employees giving quality service to its clients.
It is strong financial institution of self-reliant, savings conscious and productive depositors and beneficiaries who are partners towards the improvement of the quality of life.MissionTo uplift the living condition of its borrowers in all eighteen branches where it operate so that they will contribute to the sustainable growth and development of the community and capable of sending their children to school preparing them to be assets to their community and become good citizens.To provide easy and timely credit to needy small farmers, fishermen, vendors, entrepreneurs and salaried people at all time to help improve their living conditions.
To maintain and foster public confidence in the rural banking system by accepting ordinary savings and time deposits.To maintain modest profit to the stockholders to give them incentives to increase their shares of stock and return of investments and to provide salary incentives and fringe benefits to employees. Agri-Agra LoanSmall and Medium Enterprises LoanHousing LoanSavings DepositTime DepositMoney transfer (thru Western Union)G-cash RemitInter-Branch DepositAglipay, Quirino3 1 17 Nagtipunan, QuirinoRB CauayanGundaway, Cabarroguis, Quirino3 1 6 VisionTo help improve quality of life by delivering superior services and operate with a high level of competence, integrity, honesty, professionalism, and community involvement.MissionTo be the best provider of financial services in the rural banking industry. Savings DepositStudents Savings DepositTime Certificate of DepositAgri-Masikap LoanAgri-Sagana LoanCrop LoanAgri- Asenso LoanInter-Branch DepositSSS PaymentGlobe G-cashBDO RemitATM ServiceBangko Magsaysay Saguday, Quirino10 1 13 VisionTo be an ideal rural bank in Cagayan Valley Region.Mission”Banking with Passion..
. to serve our clients with a personal touch..
. while keeping abreast with the industry’s innovationsas we surpass the industry’s standards.” Agricultural LoansCommercial LoansSalary LoansSavings DepositTime DepositATM ServiceBank to Bank online depositBayad CenterRural Bank of MaddelaMaddela, Quirino10 5 41 Time DepositSavings DepositHousing LoanAgricultural LoanPangkabuhayan LoanResearch EnvironmentThis study was conducted in rural banks located at Quirino Province. The Province is considered as a heartland because it is situated at the center of Cagayan Valley and it is the youngest province in the region. It has six municipalities, namely Diffun, Cabarroguis, Saguday, Aglipay, Maddela and Nagtipunan where agriculture is the main industry with rice and corn as major crops. As the youngest province, business industry is starting to bloom including the banking industry. Currently, there are commercial banks upon entering the province but it is dominated by rural banks. In the municipality of Diffun, there are 2 rural banks, namely RBBI Diffun with a branch in Maddela consisting of 11 employees, and PR Bank with 12 employees.
Cabarroguis is the capital town of Quirino which is composed of 2 rural banks – the Mallig Plains located in Cabarroguis has 7 employees with branch in Aglipay and Nagtipunan consisting 4 employees, and another one is Rural Bank of Cauayan with 4 employees also located in Cabarroguis. Bangko Magsaysay is the only rural bank situated in the municipality of Saguday with 11 employees. The municipality of Maddela has the Rural Bank of Maddela consisting of 15 employees. The rural banks offer loans and advances to small and marginal farmers and agricultural laborers as well as to small entrepreneurs because the objective of rural banks is to take the banking services to the doorstep of rural masses and make sure that available institutional credit to the weaker sections of the society. Lastly, rural banks are all over the Province to help the community.InstrumentationIn gathering the needed data, a researcher-made survey was crafted. This was validated to determine its reliability and validity to gather the necessary and relevant data needed.The formulated survey instrument was named “work-life balance survey”.
It has three main components: (1) First domain is Work-Life Balance Domains which consist of various domains of work-life balance divided into two parts with sub-factor namely (1.1) work related factors, such as (a) workload and (b) workplace support; (1.2) Family related factors, such as (a) family support and (b) childcare/ dependent care responsibilities. The second (2) part contains of Job Satisfaction Domains, namely (a) salary and wages; (b) job security; (c) reward system; and (d) work environment. Last component is (3) Organizational Commitment Domains with two factors, namely (a) employee turnover and (b) employee retention. In this part of the survey instrument, the respondent is asked to rate the items using a 4-point Likert scale, namely strongly agree (SA), agree (A), disagree (DA) and strongly disagree (SD).Open-ended questions were also included in the instrument crafted to gather direct experiential information from the respondents and to further validate their quantitative responses.
Since it was a modified survey, the instrument was pilot-tested to the banks located in Santiago City, Isabela which is the nearest pilot testing area for the researcher.Table 2 shows the results of the reliability test. In order to be accepted, the individual domain must pass the conventional .700 mark (Yeh, 2016; Tavakol ; Dennick, 2011; BrckasLorenz, Chiang, ; Nelson-Laird, 2013).
Based on the results, the overall alpha coefficient was .868, suggesting that the items have relatively high internal consistency.Table 2. Reliability Test ResultsDomains Reliability StatisticsCronbach’s Alpha Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of ItemsWorkload .767 .735 6Workplace support .870 .
871 7Family support .934 .938 7Childcare/dependent care responsibility .900 .
909 5Salary and wages .881 .880 3Job security .816 .
815 3Reward system .834 .853 3Work environment .903 .909 9Employee turnover .
884 .881 8Employee retention .880 .886 7TOTAL .867 .868 58*reliability coefficient of .
70 or higher is considered “acceptable”.Data Gathering ProcedureIn gathering the needed data, the following procedures were undertaken:As soon as the proposal paper was approved by the members of the examining panel, integration of comments particularly on the research title, rationale, data gathering tool, research environment and revision of questionnaire were finalized;Since the instrument was researcher-made, pilot testing was required. After the pilot testing, improvements in the survey were done using the results of the internal reliability test;Floating and retrieval of the survey tool commenced, making certain that the respondents were in their utmost convenient time so as not to disrupt their work activities and to emphasize concentration in providing the needed information;Follow-up interview was conducted to gather information that were not listed in the quantitative part of the questionnaire.
A cover letter was attached to the questionnaire for purpose of formality, likewise explaining the details and procedures on how the questionnaires should be answered. It was guaranteed that whatever information and answers acquired from the respondents were kept confidential in order to safeguard their personal dispositions.The researcher personally administered the distribution of questionnaire to ensure 100 percent retrieval.Upon the retrieval of questionnaires, the data gathered were collated, tallied and interpreted as the final stage.
Treatment of DataIn treating the gathered data, the following tools were used:Computation of means and standard deviations. To describe the work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the respondents, means and standard deviations were utilized.Table 3. Interpretation of ScaleSCALE RANGE DESCRIPTION INDICATORSA 1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree (SA) Always conforms to the statementA 1.50-2.49 Agree (A) Usually conforms to the statementD 2.
50-3.49 Disagree (D) Rarely supports the statementSD 3.50-4.00 Strongly Disagree (SD) Never agrees to the statementANOVA, T-test and Pearson r correlation were utilized to measure the correlation of work life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees in the banking sector.Open coding and thematic clustering techniques. These tools were used to treat the qualitative statements or responses gathered from the open-ended questions.Inductive reasoning technique.
This technique was used to provide a cohesive and logical write up of the qualitative experiences.Chapter IVPRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATASection 1. Factors that Contribute to Work-Life Balance, Job Satisfaction and Organizational CommitmentWork-Life BalanceWork Related FactorsWorkloadTable 4 shows the rating of workload factors of the employees in general.
It is noticeable that the employees reported mean scores from 1.50-2.49 and 2.50-3.49, described as agree and disagree respectively.Table 4. Level of Agreement among Employees to Work-related factors in terms of WorkloadWorkload Mean SD QD1. My job keeps me away from my family too much thus contributing to an imbalance in my work and family life.
2.95 .744 Disagree2.
I feel I have more tasks to do than I can handle comfortably, which creates an imbalance in my work and family life. 2.87 .678 Disagree3. I feel more respected in my current work because of my responsibilities in job, hence I have a work-life balance.
1.72 .548 Agree4.
My responsibility at work increases my workload leading to a work-life imbalance. 2.70 .659 Disagree5. I often come home late in the evening thus sacrificing my attention to my family. 2.70 .
830 Disagree6. I miss out quality time with my family because of pressure of work. 2.87 .787 DisagreeOverall Mean 2.
64 .708 DisagreeN=64; Legend: 1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree; 1.50-2.
49 Agree; 2.50-3.49 Disagree; 3.
50-4.00 Strongly AgreeTable 4 reveals the respondents’ level of agreement to work-related factors in terms of workload. Based on the result, the employees agreed that they felt more respected in their current work because of their responsibilities in job. Hence, they have a work-life balance. Meanwhile, they disagreed to the following items: “My job keeps me away from my family too much thus contributing to an imbalance in my work and family life”; “I feel I have more tasks to do than I can handle comfortably, which creates an imbalance in my work and family life”; “My responsibility at work increases my workload leading to a work-life imbalance”; “I often come home late in the evening thus sacrificing my attention to my family”; and “I miss out quality time with my family because of pressure of work”.
The items above are reflective of the study of Omar, Mohd, & Ariffin (2015), stating that workload has the most dominant factor affecting work-life balance thus, employees’ work-life balance can be improved by considering the amount of workload given to them.The following are some verbatim responses gathered on this factor:Interviewer: How did you handle your work assignment or work task?Respondents: “in our work situation, we have our own work that is assigned to us… pero kapag madami talaga, at yung iba walang ginagawa.. nagtutulungan (but if there are lots of work, some employees who finish their task earlier, they help other employees) and mostly we are rendering overtime especially if we need to beat the deadline or the quota given to us.. but anyway, that is the reality of being an employee.”Generally, in the locale of this study, the employees are contented with the way the administration provides workload.
However, although all items show positive response towards workload, two items apparently have been rated the lowest with similar reported mean scores of 2.70. These were: “My responsibility at work increases my workload leading to a work-life imbalance” and “I often come home late in the evening thus sacrificing my attention to my family”. Perhaps these two items could be made priority for the administration to check or to improve. It is suggested that the employees should know their priorities in life. Nonetheless, the computed mean in this factor was 2.64, described as disagree.Workplace SupportWorkplace support in terms of work-related factors of employees is shown below. All the items in Table 5 had a qualitative description of agree with mean scores ranging from 1.50- 2.49.Table 5. Level of Agreement among Employees to Work-related factors in terms of Workplace SupportWorkplace support Mean SD QD1. All employees are treated equally thus contributing to work and family balance. 1.78 .603 Agree 2. The organization makes the employees very clear about the expectations to be fulfilled leading to a work-life balance. 1.87 .418 Agree3. My superior gives importance towards the well-being of the employees, which leads to a work-life balance. 1.89 .620 Agree4. I receive good quality of supervision thus work-life balance is achieved. 1.91 .660 Agree5. There is work-life balance because my colleagues assist me for successfully completing my work. 1.83 .490 Agree6. I have good relationship among the employees in my workplace, which creates a work-life balance. 1.67 .473 Agree7. The members of the team/unit or the group to which I belong understand each other, which yields to a work-life balance. 1.66 .479 AgreeOverall Mean 1.80 .535 AgreeN=64; Legend: 1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree; 1.50-2.49 Agree; 2.50-3.49 Disagree; 3.50-4.00 Strongly AgreeTable 5 presents the level of agreement among employees to work-related factors under workplace support. The respondents agreed that “All employees are treated equally thus contributing to work and family balance”; “The organization makes the employees very clear about the expectations to be fulfilled leading to a work-life balance”; “My superior gives importance towards the well-being of the employees, which leads to a work-life balance”; “I receive good quality of supervision thus work-life balance is achieved”; “There is work-life balance because my colleagues assist me for successfully completing my work”; “I have good relationship among the employees in my workplace, which creates a work-life balance”; and “The members of the team/unit or the group to which I belong understand each other, which yields to a work-life balance”. Warner ; Hausdorf (2009) conducted a study on work-life issues, which indicated that a positive relationship exists between the organization and supervisor support for work-life issues and reduction of work to family conflict. Trembaly et al. (2011) also illustrated in their study the importance of organizational support to work-life balance in demanding work environment. Furthermore, the findings of the study substantiated the need for organizations to offer formal and informal support to employees in the work environment to balance their work and family aspect.Shown below is an example of answers gathered from one respondent:Interviewer: What are the contribution of people around you (e.g. supervisor, colleagues) in terms of work-life balance?Respondent: “So far so good, all my colleagues are committed and very professional to their work; good work-life balance in the organization will be more effective and successful because of the company and to its family.”In general, employees are satisfied with the support coming from the administration and colleague thus, it contributes to the balance of employee work-life. As seen in the result, the respondents agreed to all the statements under workplace support with a grand mean of 1.80, defined as agree.Family-Related FactorsFamily SupportIn terms of family support relative to work-life balance, the employees strongly agreed on four statements while they agree on three statements. It shows that family support is positively related to work-life balance as evidenced by the reported mean score of 1.50, described as agree.Table 6. Level of Agreement among Employees to Family-related factors in terms of Family SupportFamily Support Mean SD QD1. I feel supported by my family in all the endeavors in my career, which I believe contributes to my work-life balance. 1.44 .560 Strongly Agree2. I have a work-life balance because I have a family that helps me in household matters or concerns. 1.58 .686 Agree3. I have a family that is always supportive of what I do at work thus contributing to work-life balance. 1.41 .526 Strongly Agree4. My family understands the nature of my job hence I have a work-life balance. 1.45 .532 Strongly Agree5. I have a work-life balance because of a family that inspires me in pursuing my career goals. 1.41 .555 Strongly Agree6. I have a work-life balance because of a family that supports me financially. 1.67 .736 Agree7. I have a work-life balance because of the emotional help coming from my family. 1.56 .560 AgreeOverall Mean 1.50 .594 AgreeN=64; Legend: 1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree; 1.50-2.49 Agree; 2.50-3.49 Disagree; 3.50-4.00 Strongly AgreeTable 6 shows the level of agreement of employees to family-related factors in terms of family support. The respondents strongly agreed to the following items: “I feel supported by my family in all the endeavors in my career, which I believe contributes to my work-life balance”; “I have a family that is always supportive of what I do at work thus contributing to work-life balance”; “My family understands the nature of my job hence I have a work-life balance”; and “I have a work-life balance because of a family that inspires me in pursuing my career goals.” Whereas, they agreed to the following items: “I have a work-life balance because I have a family that helps me in household matters or concerns”; “I have a work-life balance because of a family that supports me financially”; and “I have a work-life balance because of the emotional help coming from my family.” Family support is a societal factor that shows an impact on work-life balance of individuals. Adams et al. (1996) observed that emotional support and instrumental support from family as well as society were associated with lower levels of work-family imbalance. This result supports the findings of Abendroth and Dulk (2011), stating that emotional support and instrumental support in the workplace have a complementary relationship. Whereas, emotional family support has a positive impact on work-life balance satisfaction, while instrumental family support does not. Furthermore, the study suggests that the state, the employer, and the family all contribute to employee satisfaction with work-life balance, which helps employees deal with the demands placed on them in different life domains.Direct answer from a respondent is presented below:Interviewer: Did your family support you in any form? And what kind of support?Respondent: “My family supported me in a way that, they are doing chores in our house then sometimes sila na din nag-aalaga sa mga anak ko kasi nakatira kame sa family house namen (they are also taking care of my children because we are living in our family house) especially if we have lot of work…. And if I don’t have time to attend to school-related activity for my child, my mother attend to it instead of me… that’s why I can say that my family contributes a lot so that I can still achieve work-life balance… not 100 percent but still I can manage.”In this domain, although the respondents strongly agreed and agreed to the items, one item had the lowest rating, which could be a room for improvement. The item, “I have a work-life balance because of a family that supports me financially” had a 1.67 mean score. In the interview, the respondents said: Interviewer: Did your family support you financially?Respondent 1: “I’m single, so basically I gave some of my salary to my parents and if kinapos ako (I got short) on my budget, my mother gave me allowance.”Respondent 2: “In terms of financial support from family, nakakahiram naman kame sa both side namen ng asawa ko (we can borrow some money from our family) but we still need to give it back because they also have their own na pagkakagastusan (expenses)…Interviewer: Is a financial support be a factor to work-life balance?Respondent 3: “Yes, it is a factor…. Because we don’t need to have extra work to gain money and according to experts, we need to have an extra source of income, but if a person has extra work, paano pa ang (what will happen to) balance, we are working in a bank wherein we need to render overtime, eh kung my extra work pa, wala na talagang time for family (if we still have extra work, definitely there will be no time for family).”Nonetheless, it is evident that generally, the employees were very much contented with the support given by their family. The overall computed mean in this domain was 1.50, defined as agree.Childcare/Dependent Care ResponsibilityIn terms of childcare/ dependent care responsibility of employees, again the employees agreed to all the items as evidenced by the reported mean scores between 1.50 and 2.49.Table 7. Level of Agreement among Employees to Family-related factors in terms of Childcare/Dependent Care ResponsibilityChildcare/ Dependent Care Responsibility Mean SD QD1. I have a work-life balance because my responsibilities to my family do not conflict with my work. 1.91 .610 Agree2. My responsibilities in taking care of other members of the family do not pose any problem with my work hence there is work-life balance. 1.94 .560 Agree3. I can easily take time off/ leave when I have to give attention to any member of the family or dependent. 1.94 .794 Agree4. There is work-life balance because I have time helping my sibling/s or children or ward on school works like projects or assignments. 1.94 .669 Agree5. There is work-life balance because I have time attending to school-related activities of my sibling/s or children or ward (parent or guardian’s meeting, family day, etc.) 2.32 .758 AgreeOverall Mean 2.01 .678 AgreeN=64; Legend: 1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree; 1.50-2.49 Agree; 2.50-3.49 Disagree; 3.50-4.00 Strongly AgreeTable 7 presents the level of agreement of the employees to family-related factors under childcare/dependent care responsibility. The respondents again agreed to all the statements stated above, with an overall mean of 2.01. This means that the respondents have the same level of agreement on the following items under childcare/dependent care responsibilities: “I have a work-life balance because my responsibilities to my family do not conflict with my work”; “My responsibilities in taking care of other members of the family do not pose any problem with my work hence there is work-life balance”; “I can easily take time off/ leave when I have to give attention to any member of the family or dependent”; “There is work-life balance because I have time helping my sibling/s or children or ward on school works like projects or assignments”; and “There is work-life balance because I have time attending to school-related activities of my sibling/s or children or ward (parent or guardian’s meeting, family day, etc.).”The items above are reflective of Morris and Madsen’s (2007) enrichment theory which describes the degree to which experiences from one domain complimenting the quality of life in another domain. The theory advances that involvement in work provides benefit or has positive effect on family domain and also, involvement within the family helps an individual to cope better for role at work. The instrumental model of Zedeck and Mosier (1990) agreed that good outcomes at workplace lead to god personal life outcomes and vice versa.Examples of direct answers gathered from the employees are shown below:Interviewer: How do you manage your childcare or dependent care responsibility while working?Respondent 1: “Don’t bring your work at home… if it is Sunday; make it a family day, it means family day no work involve.”Respondent 2: “When I get home I’m making sure that I have time to help my kids on their school work but I’m guilty in terms of hindi ako regular na nakakasama sa school activities nila (not regularly attending school activities) especially if there is a meeting, I’m sending someone to attend or sometimes, I’m just texting the teacher of my son.”In the result of this domain, one statement had a mean score of 2.32 which is the highest. This is the statement: “There is work-life balance because I have time attending to school related activities of my siblings or children or ward (parent or guardian’s meeting, family day etc.).” Also, based on the respondents’ answers in the qualitative part, employees devoted their time to work instead of attending to some school-related activities for their children. The bank administration may provide programs to address this situation.Job SatisfactionSalary and WagesIn terms of salary and wages relative to job satisfaction, it is shown in Table 8 that employees were happy and contented, as attested by the overall computed mean score of 2.15, described as agree.Table 8. Level of Agreement among Employees to Job Satisfaction in terms of Salary and WagesSalary and Wages Mean SD QD1. I am satisfied with the pay I get. 2.09 .729 Agree2. I can buy everything I need using my salary/wages. 2.25 .642 Agree3. I can pay my monthly responsibility (electricity bill, water bill, etc.) using my salary/wages. 2.11 .758 AgreeOverall Mean 2.15 .710 AgreeN=64; Legend: 1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree; 1.50-2.49 Agree; 2.50-3.49 Disagree; 3.50-4.00 Strongly AgreeAs gleaned from Table 8, the respondents agreed that they were satisfied with the pay they get, could buy everything they needed, and could pay their monthly responsibilities like electric/water bill, and others with their salary/wages. The grand mean of 2.15, described as “agree”, implies that all the respondents had the same level of agreement that salary and wages were an important factor associated with job satisfaction.In the interview with respondents, the following statement were drawn:Interviewer: Are you contented with your salary?Respondent 1: “I’m contented with my salary because I can pay my bills and I can also give to my family but I still need to save kasi minsan (because sometimes) salary is delayed.”Respondent 2: “I still have savings, so I am contented.”Respondent 3: “With the salary I have, I need to budget it specially, I have 3 kids I need to prioritize the needs of my family than anything else.”As cited in the study of Dugguh ; Ayaga (2014), the Herzberg’s two-factor theory emphasized the motivator-hygiene factor that explains satisfaction and motivation. One of the determinants of job satisfaction is the pay or salary given by the organization to employees. Accordingly, salary is not a motivator for them but they want to be paid fairly and on time to avoid dissatisfaction. According to the Labor Code of the Philippines Article 103 on time of payment, wages shall be paid at least once each two weeks or twice a month at intervals not more than 16 days, and no company shall perform payment including less frequency than once a month.Sumitha and Padmaja (2017) cited that the success of any organization depends on the satisfaction of its work force. Furthermore, job satisfaction is a general attitude towards one’s job, the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive. There is a positive relationship between employee’s job satisfaction with respect to pay package and its further impact on their job performance (Awan & Asghar, 2014). Malik et al., (2012) and Sule et al. (2015) agreed that there is a significant relationship between wages/ salaries and workers’ performance on job satisfaction.Generally, in the locale of the study, the employees agreed that they were satisfied with the wages and salary that they have received and they could fulfill their financial obligations with their salary. The general mean in this category was 2.15 indicating that there was a relationship between salary and wages to employee’s job satisfaction.Job SecurityTable 9 shows that all employees agreed to all statements under job security factor, with an overall mean score of 2.04.Table 9. Level of Agreement among Employees to Job Satisfaction in terms of Job SecurityJob security Mean SD QD1. Opportunities for permanency are high in the organization, which make me satisfied. 1.94 .614 Agree2. I am satisfied with opportunity of personal growth and development in my job (seminars, trainings, etc.). 2.05 .628 Agree3. Educational opportunities and support available in my organization are very satisfying. 2.13 .577 AgreeOverall Mean 2.04 .606 AgreeN=64; Legend: 1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree; 1.50-2.49 Agree; 2.50-3.49 Disagree; 3.50-4.00 Strongly AgreeTable 9 reveals that the respondents agreed that the opportunities for permanency were high in their organization, which made them satisfied. They were satisfied with opportunity of personal growth and development (seminars, trainings, etc.), and the availability of educational opportunities and support in their organization. The result implies that the respondents in general agreed that job security was a factor that somehow affects job satisfaction.Sumitha and Padmaja (207) cited the different factors that determine job satisfaction and one of those factors is job security which is defined as a chance that an employee will keep the job and in order to avoid unemployment, and that the job must have an elevated level of job satisfaction.The following statements are examples of responses on this topic: Interviewer: Are you satisfied in terms of job security provided by the organization?Respondent 1: “I already reach 20 years in service but I’m still here in this company because I feel secured.”Respondent 2: “The company is providing lot of non-monetary rewards for employees, like recognizing the years of service of employees as a loyalty to the company, and honestly, that’s the best thing to do for employees.”Respondent 3: “Professional development in this company is okay… but the management still need to work on that aspect and be fair and just to everyone in giving professional development programs… the selection for development programs must be based on the needs of individual employee.”Generally, in this study, it can be said that the employees feel secured in their chosen job. However, although the respondents agreed to all the items, two items have been rated the highest with a reported mean score of 2.05 and 2.13. These were: “I am satisfied with opportunity of personal growth and development in my job (seminars, trainings, etc.)” and “Educational opportunities and support available in my organization are very satisfying.” Perhaps the bank administration could make these two items a priority in its professional development program so that the employees will feel that they are secured in their chosen job.As cited in the article of 2018 Journal Online, the Philippines has anew bill that seeks to ban shorter term labor contracts that preclude permanent or regular employment. With this bill, contractualization would be prohibited if the Security of Tenure Bill is passed into law. Pathak (2015) reveals in his study that job security is the most significant factor of job satisfaction to employees.Thus, in the study, it can be said that the employees agree with the way the administration handles job security for employees while achieving job satisfaction. The computed grand mean in this domain was 2.04, described as agree.Reward SystemIt is shown in Table 10 that employees agreed to the reward system given/ implemented by the organization.Table 10. Level of Agreement among Employees to Job Satisfaction in terms of Reward SystemReward System Mean SD QD1. I feel satisfied with the recognition I get for good performance of work. 1.91 .555 Agree2. I get proper feedback about my work performance from my superior thus I am satisfied along this aspect. 1.81 .500 Agree3. I am satisfied with the different benefits (health and insurance benefits, etc.) I get from the organization. 1.97 .689 AgreeOverall Mean 1.89 .581 AgreeN=64; Legend: 1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree; 1.50-2.49 Agree; 2.50-3.49 Disagree; 3.50-4.00 Strongly AgreeTable 10 shown the respondents’ level of agreement to the reward system as factor of their job satisfaction. Based on the result, the respondents agreed that they feel satisfied with the recognition they get for good performance in their work, that they get proper feedback about their work performance from their superior, and that they are satisfied with the different benefits (health and insurance benefits, etc.) they get from the organization. Generally, the employees agreed that reward system was a factor for their job satisfaction.In the interview, the respondents said: Interviewer: Are you contented with the rewards or benefits coming from the organization?Respondent: “I am contented but the administration must formulate more ways to reward their employees so that they can feel more motivated… not just in monetary reward but most specially is the non-monetary rewards like a simple verbal praise for a job well done or employee’s appreciation day wherein it’s just a small party at office to celebrate employees achievement.”Cherotich (2012) reveals that there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction of employees in the banking sector and benefits. In addition, he concludes that rewards can motivate, energize and direct behavior, attract and retain qualified workers, and can greatly influence an organization’s success. The study forwarded that organizations should assess the needs of employees and identify weaknesses in the present reward system in order to formulate an effective reward strategy and bears the greatest value to the organization and employees alike. Priya and Eshwar (2014) concluded that the degree of rewards, motivation and job satisfaction concerning personnel has a profound relationship with public and private banks. The result of this study indicates that the employees agree that reward system is a factor for job satisfaction. The result is consistent with previous results where it has been found that there is a positive relationship between rewards in employees, job satisfaction, motivation and job performance (Jehanzeb et al., 2012; Fareed et al., 2013; Gohari et al., 2013; Humayun et al., 2014). The grand mean for this domain was .89, described as agree.Work EnvironmentIn terms of work environment relative to job satisfaction of employees in general, Table 11 shows that all employees agreed that they were satisfied with their working environment as evidenced by the mean score ranging from 1.50-2.49, described as agree.Table 11. Level of Agreement among Employees to Job Satisfaction in terms of Work EnvironmentWork Environment Mean SD QD1. I feel satisfied with my working hours. 1.88 .549 Agree2. I am satisfied with the break time to have healthy food and talk to my colleague. 1.86 .560 Agree3. I am satisfied with the challenging opportunities I get in the organization. 1.84 .479 Agree4. I have an opportunity to utilize my skills and talents, which makes me satisfied. 1.77 .463 Agree5. I feel satisfactory with my relationship at work. 1.80 .477 Agree6. I am satisfied with the fair treatment and respect I get among the employees of the organization. 1.75 .504 Agree7. In my organization, communication of all rules, policies and procedures is very good, which make me satisfied along these aspects. 1.75 .504 Agree8. The culture and emotional climate of the organization is generally positive and are very satisfying. 1.91 .495 Agree9. I am satisfied with my job because the organization provides an environment in which honesty and openness are valued. 1.83 .521 AgreeOverall Mean 1.82 .506 AgreeN=64; Legend: 1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree; 1.50-2.49 Agree; 2.50-3.49 Disagree; 3.50-4.00 Strongly AgreeThe respondents agreed that they were satisfied with their working hours, break time, challenging opportunities, opportunity to utilize their skills and talents, relationship at work, fair treatment and respect they get among the employees of the organization, communication of all rules, policies and procedures are very good, culture and emotional climate of the organization is generally positive, and the organization provides an environment in which honesty and openness are valued. As cited in the study of Sumitha and Padmaja (2017), they identified working environment as one of the factors that determines job satisfaction and further defines working environment as an aspect which act and react to the body and mind of an employee and if working environment is good for an employee, then employee’s productivity level automatically goes up.As an excerpt interview supports this result:Interviewer: How are you managing the work environment in your organization?Manager: “In this industry where you can find the busiest employees I think… as you can see clients are always pile on the line. And as a manager, managing the environment needed a good strategy… because I need to make sure that my employees are still in their composure or focus on work to serve the clients and make their work effectively and also the employees must be in good terms with everyone… of course a gap or wall between employees cannot be avoided and if neglected, it will affect their performance. So, managing the working environment is not just physically but also boosting the employees psychologically.”In this domain, although respondents agreed to all the items, two items had the highest rating, which could be improved by the administration. The items were: “The culture and emotional climate of the organization is generally positive and are very satisfying” with mean score of 1.91 and “I feel satisfied with my working hours” got 1.88 mean score. This means that the employees were not satisfied with the organizational culture of the company. It is possible that the organizational culture is not strictly valued. With this, it is recommended that the administration provides program that can increase the impact of organization culture on employees. Nonetheless, the result reveals that work environment is one factor for the respondents’ job satisfaction. The result is also consistent with the study of Raziq and Maulabakhsh (2015) which indicates a positive relationship between working environment and employee job satisfaction. The grand mean for this category was 1.82, described as agree.Organizational CommitmentEmployee TurnoverIn terms of employee turnover relative to organizational commitment, the respondents agreed to two statements while they disagreed to six statements. The overall mean score was 2.71, described as disagree.Table 12. Level of Agreement among Employees to Organizational Commitment in terms of Employee TurnoverEmployee Turnover Mean SD QD1. There is low organizational commitment due to lack of promotional opportunities. 2.78 .701 Disagree2. There is insufficient career development (trainings and educational advancement) in my organization thus organizational commitment is low. 2.67 .778 Disagree3. Difficulty travelling to and from work often leads to low organizational commitment among employees. 2.94 .732 Disagree4. Absence of flexibility of working hour often leads to low organizational commitment among employees. 2.58 .793 Disagree5. Lot of workload and stress often leads to low organizational commitment among employees. 2.41 .729 Agree6. The kind of management style in my organization often leads to organizational commitment among employees. 2.17 .521 Agree7. I do not feel emotionally attached to the organization, thus organizational commitment is low. 3.06 .664 Disagree8. There is low organizational commitment because I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to my organization. 3.05 .628 DisagreeOverall Mean 2.71 .693 DisagreeN=64; Legend: 1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree; 1.50-2.49 Agree; 2.50-3.49 Disagree; 3.50-4.00 Strongly AgreeTable 12 shows the respondents’ level of agreement to the organizational commitment as to employee turnover. Based on the results above, the employees agreed that a lot of workload and stress often leads to low organizational commitment among employees, and the kind of management style in their organization often leads to organizational commitment among employees. They disagreed that there is low organizational commitment due to lack of promotional opportunities, that there is an insufficient career development (trainings and educational advancement) in the organization, that there is difficulty of travelling to and from work, that there is an absence of flexibility of working hour, that they do not feel emotionally attached to the organization, and that they do not feel a strong sense of belonging to the organization. Examples of direct answers gathered from the respondents are shown below:Interviewer: What can you say about the management or leadership style of your manager? And, how do you feel about your work assignment?Respondent: “The organization is okay especially the leadership style of managers… the work/ task is okay because we have our own task or role to fulfill and perform efficiently but, sometimes work is very stressful especially if we have hectic deadlines to beat… honestly, lot of work can make an employee feel burn-out and it makes an employee decide to look for a more relaxing and less stress job.”In the study, the respondents agreed that lot of workload and stress often leads to low organizational commitment among employees. This result support the study of Qureshi et al., (2012) that shows positive relationship between employee turnover in job stressor and workload. Work environment and job stress are correlated with employee turnover (Sattar ; Ahmed, 2014).This domain had a grand mean of 2.71, described as “disagree”. This means that the respondents in general disagree with the situations under employee turnover. This is consistent with other researches showing negative relationship between organizational commitment and turnover intentions (Jehanzeb et al., 2013; Ahmed ; Nawaz, 2015).Employee RetentionIt is evident in Table 13 that the respondents agreed that employee retention was a factor in organizational commitment. This is shown in the overall mean score of 1.96, described as agree.Table 13. Level of Agreement among Employees to Organizational Commitment in terms of Employee RetentionEmployee Retention Mean SD QD1. I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization. 2.19 .710 Agree2. I was taught to believe in the value of remaining loyal to one organization. 1.94 .432 Agree3. The organization has a strong work ethic. 1.84 .407 Agree4. The organization is highly reliable. 1.88 .454 Agree5. The organization encourages formation of self-managing teams. 1.92 .482 Agree6. The organization has strong management style. 1.98 .519 Agree7. The organization encourages retention of its employees. 1.98 .604 AgreeOverall Mean 1.96 .515 AgreeN=64; Legend: 1.00-1.49 Strongly Agree; 1.50-2.49 Agree; 2.50-3.49 Disagree; 3.50-4.00 Strongly AgreeTable 13 shows that there is no variation in the respondents’ level of agreement in organizational commitment under situations on employee retention. Based on the result, the employees agreed that they would be very happy to spend the rest of their career with the organization they are working with, that they were taught to believe in the value of remaining loyal to one organization, that the organization has a strong work ethic, that the organization is highly reliable, that the organization encourages formation of self-managing teams, that the organization has strong management style, and that the organization encourages retention of its employees. Based on the interview, the respondents had this to say: Interviewer: Do you have plan t sty in the company for the rest of your career? Why?Respondent 1: “I’m going to stay in this company hanggat nararamdaman kong satisfied pa ako dito at kelangan pa ako dito (until I still feel satisfied and valued in this company).”Respondent 2: “I will try to spend my career here but the administration must also make their employees feel that they also need us or else some will look not just for a greener opportunity but also for organization that values employees.”Although the respondents agreed to all the items, one item had been given the highest rating which could be an area for improvement. The statement was: “I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization” with a mean score of 2.19. Based on the direct answer of respondents above, it is recommended that to keep their employees, the administration needs to exert more effort to boost or help employees improve their morale. As Beudean (2009) cited in her study, organizational commitment can be built and managed by the organization, as long as leaders invest time and resources in this process. At the same time, they have to know their employees and their organizations very well and have the proper knowledge on how to build commitment and relationships that last. This domain had an overall mean of 1.96, described as agree.Section 2. Correlation analysis among work life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees in banking sectorTable 14. Correlation between Work-Life Balance and Job SatisfactionWork-Life Balance Job SatisfactionSalary and Wages Job Security Reward System Work EnvironmentWorkload Pearson r .037 .103 .056 -.063Sig. .773 .416 .662 .623Workplace Support Pearson r .297 .360 .334 .477Sig. .017* .003* .007* .000*Family Support Pearson r .154 .140 .337 .168Sig. .224 .269 .007* .184Childcare/ Dependent Care Pearson r .105 .238 .417 .370Sig. .407 .059 .001* .003** significant relationship at 5% level of significanceBased on Table 14, workplace support showed a positive significant relationship with salary and wages, job security, reward system and work environment. It also showed a positive correlation between childcare/ dependent care responsibilities with reward system and work environment. This leads to the rejection of the null hypothesis. However, low positive correlation was noted between workplace support and salary and wages, workplace support and job security, and workplace support and reward system. Further, family support and reward system had slight correlation. The same is true for childcare/ dependent care responsibilities and work environment. This means that workplace support slightly influences satisfaction of employees on salary and wages, job security and reward system. The support of family members to employees influences in low degree the satisfaction of the individuals to reward system at work. Balance on childcare/ dependent care responsibilities slightly influence employee’s satisfaction about work environment. Moderate positive correlation was noted between workplace support and work environment, and childcare/ dependent care responsibilities and reward system. This implies that when employees receive support from their workplace including their supervisors and colleagues, they are likely to be satisfied with their working environment. But when one is supported by co-employees, he/ she is likely to be displeased or disappointed of the work atmosphere. Thus, one’s support to colleague is an important factor to one’s satisfaction of the work environment. The result also entails that when childcare/ dependent care responsibilities are addressed or carried out, then it is likely that the individual is satisfied with the benefit or rewards they receive from work. However, when one fails to perform responsibilities in their own families, the dissatisfaction to children and dependents are fulfilled so that one becomes satisfied with the benefits received from work.As cited by Muindi and K’ Obonyo (2015), the success of any organization depends on its strategy on how to attract, recruit, motivate and retain a high performing employee. On the other hand, successful organizations consider job satisfaction to be important for work efficiency and effectiveness. However, job satisfaction alone cannot lead to efficiency and effectiveness of employees because competence is important. Ezra and Deckman (1991) revealed that satisfaction with work/life balance is a major component of employee’s job satisfaction. Some studies proved this by finding out that work-life balance is positively significant with job satisfaction (Mukhtar, 2012; Al Sumaiti, n.d.; Sultan et al., 2016; Adikaram & Jayatilake, 2016).Agha et al. (2017) found in their study that there is a negative relationship between work to personal life and personal life to work but personal life and work enhancement have positive relationship with job satisfaction. The study further conclude that a balance or imbalance will affect the overall performance of organizations thus, personal life must be integrated in a smooth manner and should not forget to impact on each other in a negative way. Work-life balance can be achieved by the factors responsible for job satisfaction such as supportive colleagues, supportive working conditions, mentally challenging work, equitable rewards and employee-oriented policies (Yadav & Dabhade, 2014). It is further found in the study that employees in the banking sector agree that they are physically stressed in their job compared to education sector employees. Thus, there is a need for organizations to create work-life balance among employees. The study of Mukuri and Ngari (2014) emphasized that each work-life balance policy on its own is a predictor of job satisfaction.Table 15. Correlation between Work-Life Balance and Organizational CommitmentWork-Life Balance Organizational CommitmentEmployee Turnover Employee RetentionWorkload Pearson r .148 .053Sig. .242 .678Workplace Support Pearson r -.103 .319Sig. .416 .010*Family Support Pearson r -.069 .079Sig. .588 .533Childcare/ Dependent Care Pearson r -.102 .322Sig. .425 .010* * significant relationship at 5% level of significanceWorkplace support shows a positive significant relationship with employee retention as revealed in Table 15. This leads to the rejection of the null hypothesis. Thus, as the employees “agree” to workplace support factors, they tend to “agree” on employee retention. Likewise, childcare/dependent care has a positive correlation with employee retention. Thus, as the employees “agree” on childcare/dependent care, they also tend to “agree on employees’ retention” factor.Allen (2001) indicated that work-life balance is often seen within terms of organizational commitment. It is anticipated that work-life balance enhances an employee’s dedication towards the organization. Organizational dedication is the individual’ emotional affection to the organization. Gulbahar et al.’s (2014) study found significant relationship of work life balance and organizational commitment across gender and marital status. Sakthivel (n.d.) agreed too that there is positive relationship between work-life balance and organizational commitment. Today, competitive environment demands balanced personal and work life. Organizations actively seek to enhance job satisfaction and organizational commitment as well as to reduce stress via work-life balance policies.Table 16. Correlation between Job Satisfaction and Organizational CommitmentJob Satisfaction Organizational CommitmentEmployee Turnover Employee RetentionSalary and Wages Pearson r -.221 .399Sig. .079 .001*Job Security Pearson r -.232 .319Sig. .065 .010*Reward System Pearson r -.369 .453Sig. .003* .000*Work Environment Pearson r -.330 .519Sig. .008* .000* * significant relationship at 5% level of significanceTable 16 shows that salary and wages have a positive significant relationship to employee retention. Thus, as the employees “agree” on salary and wages factor, they tend to “agree” also on employees’ retention. Furthermore, as the employees “agree” on job security factor, they also tend to “agree” on employees’ retention factors. Reward system shows a positive significant relationship to employee turnover and retention. Thus, as the employees “agree” on reward system factor, they tend to “disagree” on employee turnover factor while they “agree” on employees’ retention factor. Lastly, work environment shows a positive significant relationship to employee turnover and retention. Thus, when employees “agree” on work environment factor, they also tend to “disagree” on employee turnover factor while they “agree” on employee retention factor.Job satisfaction is a key element of work motivation, which is a fundamental determinant of one’s behavior in an organization. Organizational commitment, on the other hand, represents the degree to which the employees identify with the organization in which they work, how engaged they are in the organization, and whether they are ready to leave it (Greenberg and Baron, 2008). Several studies have demonstrated that there is a strong connection among organizational commitment, job satisfaction and fluctuation (Porter et al., 1974), as well as that people who are more committed to an organization are less likely to leave their job. Organizational commitment can be thought of as an extension of job satisfaction, as it deals with the positive attitude that an employee has, not toward her own job, but toward the organization. The emotions, however, are much stronger in the case of organizational commitment and it is characterized by the attachment of the employee to the organization and readiness to make sacrifices for the organization. Leite et al. (2014) stated that satisfaction is an antecedent of commitment which mediates its relationship to work and personal characteristics. Srivastava (2013) and Mosadeghrad et al. (2008) found that job satisfaction was positively correlated to organizational commitment.Table 17. Summary Table on the Correlation among Work-Life Balance, Job Satisfaction and Organizational CommitmentVariable JOB SATISFACTION ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENTWORKLIFE BALANCE Salary and wages Job security Reward system Work environment Employee turnover Employee retentionWorkload Pearson r .037 .103 .056 -.063 .148 .053p-value .773 .416 .662 .623 .242 .678Workplace support Pearson r .297 .360 .334 .477 -.103 .319p-value .017* .003* .007* .000* .416 .010*Family support Pearson r .154 .140 .337 .168 -.069 .079p-value .224 .269 .007* .184 .588 .533Childcare/dependent care responsibilities Pearson r .105 .238 .417 .370 -.102 .322p-value .407 .059 .001* .003* .425 .010** significant relationship at 5% level of significanceTable 17 shows the Pearson’s product moment correlation used to assess the relationship between work-life balance and the factors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees in rural banks. Based on the result, there is a marked/moderate positive correlation between workplace support and work environment, and childcare/dependent responsibilities and reward system. This implies that when employees receive support from their workplace including their supervisors and colleagues, they are likely to be satisfied with their working environment. But when one is not supported by co-employees, he/she is likely to be displeased or disappointed of the work atmosphere. Thus, one’s support to colleague is an important factor to one’s satisfaction of the work environment. The result also entails that when childcare/dependent responsibilities are addressed or carried out, then it is likely that the individual is satisfied with the benefits or rewards they receive from work. However, when one fails to perform responsibilities in their own families then dissatisfaction about the reward system at work is noted. Thus, it is necessary that responsibilities to children and dependents are fulfilled so that one becomes satisfied with the benefits received from work.However, low positive correlation is noted between workplace support and salary and wages, workplace support and job security, workplace support and reward system, and workplace support and employee retention. Further, family support and reward system have slight correlation. Also, childcare/dependent care responsibilities and work environment, and childcare/dependent care responsibilities and employee’s retention are slightly correlated. This means that workplace support slightly influences satisfaction of employees with salary and wages, job security, reward system and employee retention. The support of family members to employees influences in low degree the satisfaction of the individuals to the reward system at work. Balance on childcare/dependent care responsibilities slightly influences employee’s satisfaction with work environment and employee’s retention.Work-life balance is important in enhancing employee performance at work and home (Appiah, 2013). Grady et al., (2008) stated that work-life balance is vital for individual’s well-being, organization’s performance, and a functioning society. Several studies advanced the idea that organizations need to understand the importance of work-life balance, its impact on employee’s well-being, and effect it has on organization’s productivity and performance (Grady et al., 2008; Burke, 2000). Gregory and Milner (2009) found that when a work-life balance is met by different organizational programs, employees will have higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Moreover, Azeem and Akhtar (2014) predicted that perceived work-life balance fosters job satisfaction which leads to the organizational commitment among employees in the long run. Thus, significant relationship is found among work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Section 3. Issues and Concerns along Work-Life Balance, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment.Table 18 shows the issues and concerns involved in work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees in rural banks. These are from the answers of employees in the qualitative part of the study.Table 18. Issues and ConcernsAREA ISSUES AND CONCERNSWork-Life Balance Lot of work taskIrregular working hoursLack of time spent to familyJob Satisfaction Lack of professional development or advancementLack of motivationLack of employee involvement in building an organizational cultureOrganizational Commitment Job stressLow retention planIn terms of issues that affect work-life balance of employees, there were respondents who cited work overload as a concern. A follow-up interview with them bore that they had difficulty balancing their usually heavy workload with the various demands at home. Another concern was the irregular working hours, which could affect their regular life as an employee and as a member of their respective families. The unforeseen requirements of their work that demand them to report to work rendering irregular working hours have taken a toll on their family life, according to some respondents. These concerns normally result to lack of quality time spent with their own families. On job satisfaction, the issues and concerns raised have something to do with the lack of professional development or advancement. Some employees felt that they are not growing professionally in the current work that they are performing. It is possible that these were brought about by the nature of their work, which is, most of the time, done in a routine manner. Coupled with this concern is the problem on motivation, i.e., some employees believed that they are not properly motivated to perform well. Asked about this concern, some respondents said that economic factor or salary is one of the concerns that may contribute to motivating them to work harder. This statement is supported by an earlier finding in Table 8, which showed that the item on pay obtained the lowest mean rating. These problems may have contributed to the third concern, which is the lack of employee involvement to building an organizational culture.Along organizational commitment, some respondents cited job stress and low retention plan as problems regarding work-life balance. These findings corroborate the earlier-cited concerns, which speak of factors that may have contributed to a high level of job stress. These are too taxing workloads, working on irregular number of hours, and lack of motivation, among others. With these, it is most likely that organizational commitment may be in question such that employees become most likely too to leave the organization. Chapter VSUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSSummaryThe study utilized the combination of quantitative and qualitative research approaches. The quantitative aspect of the study follows the descriptive type of research using the technique of survey to gather information on work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment of rural bank employees. The qualitative part consisted of open-ended questions to gather direct answers and opinions from respondents which were not included in the check list questions of quantitative part. From the results, pertinent work-life balance activities were crafted and recommended to deal with the imbalance work-life to satisfy employees and motivate them to be committed in the organization.This is a total population study of all employees belongs to rank and file and higher levels of Rural Banks in Quirino Province. The work-life balance survey consisted of three domains namely: (1) the work-life balance domains; (2) job satisfaction domains; and (3) organizational commitment domains. The survey also gathered the employee’s perspectives on work-life balance in their organization.Findings:The study found the following:In the four factors on work-life balance domain, the respondents rated the family support factor as lowest with a general mean of 1.50, described as agree, while workload factor was rated the highest with 2.64 grand mean which means that the respondents disagree to the statements under this factor. Whereas, the respondents also agreed to the last two factors, workplace support and childcare and dependent care responsibility. In job satisfaction domain when compared the four factors, significant differences were noted. Accordingly, the work environment factor was rated as the lowest with 1.82 grand mean and qualitatively described as agree. On the other hand, the factor on security and wages was the highest with 2.15 grand mean, described as agree. The reward system factor has a grand mean of 1.89 and job security factor with 2.04 grand mean. Significant differences were noted when the two organizational commitment factors were correlated. The highest rated factor was the employee turnover with 2.71 grand mean, which means that the respondents disagreed to the statements under this factor. The lowest rated factor was employee retention with 1.96 grand mean, and qualitatively described as agree.Work-life balance, job satisfaction factors, and workplace support had a positive significant relationship with salary and wages, job security, reward system and work environment. There was positive correlation between childcare/ dependent care responsibilities with reward system and work environment. Further, family support and reward system had slight correlation. Under work-life balance and organizational commitment factors, workplace support and childcare/dependent care responsibility showed a positive significant relationship with employee retention. In terms of the relationship of factors in job satisfaction and organizational commitment, salary and wages as well as job security had a positive significant relationship to employee retention. Furthermore, reward system and work environment factors showed a positive significant relationship to both organizational commitment factors which included employee turnover and retention. In general, the study found the significant relationship among work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment to employees in rural banks.Issues and concerns determined by the employees of the banking sector pointed mostly to work overload, irregular working hours, lack of time spent with the family, lack of professional development campaign, lack of motivation, lack of employee involvement to organizational culture, job stress, and low retention plan.ConclusionsBased on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn:Family support, work environment, employee’s pay, and professional or career development strongly contribute to work-life balance of individuals working in rural banks. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are strongly related with work-life balance. The rural bank employees are bothered by work overload, irregular working hours, lack of time spent with the family, lack of professional development or advancement, lack of motivation, lack of employee involvement in building an organizational culture, job stress and low retention plan.RecommendationsBased on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are suggested:In enhancing the effect of work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment, the following are suggested:The administration must encourage and support employees in attending regularly different seminars and trainings on time management and priority management to shed light on how they perform effectively on their work role while efficiently managing their personal life responsibilities.The administration is encouraged to inculcate to their employees the organizational culture by providing team building that can help employees align their personal values to the organization. The employees should take every opportunity to develop and imbibe the organization’s values/ culture through their work activities.This also encourages the administration to recognize the accomplishments of employees and provide a reward for that accomplishment. With this, they will feel that they are appreciated.The administrators must encourage and support their employees in their bid to continue their masters or doctorate degree for educational advancement and job security.It is recommended that the administrators need to exert more effort to boost or help employees increase their worth in the organization by treating them with dignity, respect and build relationship.Furthermore, it is recommended to expose them to new responsibilities that will expand their knowledge. That way, they will feel that they really belong to the organization and this will lead to satisfaction and commitment among employees, and they will hopefully achieve work-life balance.This is to recommend further that to attain work-life balance, it is important to realize and accomplish first the needs under job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Future researches should include the number of children and position of the employee as a factor in identifying work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, it is recommended to conduct a comparative study on work-life balance of employees in rural banks and commercial banks.It is recommended that the issues and concerns along work-life balance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment must be addressed in order to gain a higher level of satisfaction and organizational commitment among its employees.This is to recommend to bank administrators to implement the various work-life balance incentives that may assist employees to better balance their work and family responsibilities, gain improvements in well-being and provide organizational benefits. The following are the recommended incentives/ activities:Job sharingPart-time workerProfit sharingFlexible working hoursCompressed work week TelecommutingParental leaveOn-site childcare facilityEmployee development programHealth fitness activities