CHAPTER ONEIntroduction1.1. Background of the studyAs the United Nations human trafficking protocol to prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, and known as the Palermo Protocol (2000) by Supplementing the United Nations Conventions against Transnational Organized Crime defines trafficking in persons, in Article 3 (a) as the following. According to them human trafficking were defined as, the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud of deception. In addition to this, they define human trafficking as of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, to exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
As human trafficking scholars suggest that, the available data on human trafficking were not based on concrete, reliable and comparable data. As Cwikel and Hoban, (2005b), Laczko (2005a), Laczko and Gramegna (2003), Lange (2011), Macklin (2003) there is high level of variability and unreliability in the global human trafficking data. It also explained in this definition, trafficking in persons is more than simply moving someone from one location to another against their will. In addition, it was forcing someone to work in poor conditions.
The complex phenomenon of human trafficking is often confused with other forms of people movement, such as irregular migration and smuggling of migrants. As a result, people who have been trafficked were treated as criminals rather than victims.Ethiopia has ratified major international instruments that criminalize trafficking in persons. The FDRE Constitution Article 18 (2) reads as; ‘No one shall be held in slavery or servitude’. ‘Trafficking in human beings for whatever purpose is prohibited.’ The revised Criminal Code of Ethiopia further incorporates the provisions that criminalize trafficking in persons, particularly of women and children (articles 596, 597, 598 and 635).
Despite the international, regional, and national human rights standards, thousands of Ethiopians young ages were trafficked to different countries of the world including to the Sudan, South Africa, and the Middle East. However, there were very little or no reliable information on the nature of human trafficking in Ethiopia because trafficking in human done secretly and little crime were reported for fear of retribution (ILO, 2011)As Wegayehu Tufa (2014) cited in Beyene, (2005) Traffickers can brainwashes young and productive age and make promises of glorious life as the result, they were engaged in human trafficking process. In addition to this, there are pressures from families, friends, and neighbors influences youth’s decision for trafficking. The victims of human trafficking can an easy prey to trafficking because of inappropriate information from peers and other nearby people. Peoples lent money to pay for the traffickers from their neighbors to send their young group. In addition to this the trafficked people also believe, that when he or she can go out they can make money in easy way at short time.
Even if there is a chance of getting opportunity of work in homeland country, he or she can compare and calculate the time of money they make big asset in and outside country. Hence, they can make money in two or three years outside country, but they believe, as it was, take lifetime process working inside the country Trafficked young ages were traumatized in many cases, they are beaten, the grill can be raped, and threatened, confined and/or deprived of food until they agree to the trafficker’s demands, and make them dependent on traffickers and as debt bondage to control and coerce them. Many are forced to have sex with multiple clients per day. They also suffer from a series of diseases associated with multiple rape and physical abuse. Worse still intimidation and violence are very common, and extreme, particularly in cases with “mafia” or organized crime connections (OSCE, 1999). Victims of trafficking person could hardly care for their elderly and their children. This leads to the breakdown of families and neglect of children (Danilova, 2010).
Human trafficking can also affect democracy and democratization in many developing nations in many ways. Among these the trafficked person can lose, his/her live during the trafficked process or has no health. Bellesa Jemal (2014) cited in Agrinet (2003) and PCI (2010) the ever-growing processes of human trafficking perpetuated by organized and sophisticated criminal enterprises.
These criminal activities and the official corruption linked to trafficking undermine democratic institutions and challenge of the principle of the rule of law. While the trafficked persons go distance area, and as the result, they may lose their liver due to hardship they face on their journey. This can challenge the activities of the government (Gabriel, 2012)1.
2. Statement of the problemHuman trafficking is a complex issue that affects every corner of the globe. There are not a single country that is unaffected by the effects of ‘modern day- slavery’. Slavery, as commonly supposed was not eradicated during the nineteenth century, it had only expanded over time to form an enormous global trade system of human beings into what was known as human trafficking or ‘modern day slavery’ (Emser, 2013)As Horwood (2009) cited in IOM (2009) human trafficking was defined as, the use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of abuse of power, or of a position of vulnerability. In addition to this human trafficking, giving or receiving of payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person to having control over another person, for exploiting the labour. Trafficked persons are thus, considered as victims of human rights and labour standards violation.
In addition to this, human trafficking refers to the organized, illegal entry of a person into a state of which the person is not a national or a permanent resident.Human trafficking can bring social, economical, and political crisis to the country in general and individual in particularly. Most of Ethiopian young age becomes victims of human trafficking to earn a better livelihood in Middle East; however, the result of trafficking leads to many problems. The traffickers receive a huge amount of money from potential victims of trafficking and families. To pay this money, the families sell their properties, such as cattle, house, and rent farmland even selling their land illegally. The family of victim had also taken credit from different financial institution such as, office of credit and saving and from their relatives.
Due to this, they get into long lasting trouble in their life by working for long hour. This can affect the country as a whole, and the trafficked person that get back empty hand, and their family in particularly (ILO, 2014). Human trafficking is increasing in alarmingly in the world in general and in developing countries with no exceptionality in the study area in particular. The rationale behind among others are, the Ethiopian young age becomes the victims of human trafficking by the process of trafficking to life a better live are an overriding factor for young’s group in general. The victims of trafficking do not have legal permit to live in host country and can be affected psychologically, socially and, morally and get anxiety due to unexpected situation they are face in destination as well in home country.
They live lonely and community with nothing almost only obeying order from the exploitative person. They rarely share their ideas with whom they are working together with their friends. In this way they were affected socially and politically (ILO, 2011).The key drivers of traffickers to engage in human trafficking activates were to accumulate wealth from human of trafficking process through giving false promise and information. Brokers use different methods to encourage the poor youth to migrate to another place. They often promise the victims that they were got them employed in hotels and other service offering industries. Such false promises of steady employment as house cleaners, car drivers, and hotel service positions or attendants, motivate individuals to migrate to those places. This has become a very common method of taking victims from their homeland to a place that they know nothing about (Gudetu, 2014).
Although the work of PEAs in Ethiopia officially considered as labor supply through legal recruitment means, there are cases in which the agencies engage in illicit recruitment and travel processes by receiving payments that prohibited in the proclamation 632/2009. The domestic workers fall under various kinds of exploitations in the destination countries by their employers.Oromia regional state is not an exceptional to these problems. In west Arsi zone Dodola woreda, the causes of human trafficking and the problem attached to is prevailed. The trafficked persons thought to respond to the economic crisis of their family and become a heavy burden and work the entire times in household activities. In addition to this, the extreme abuses of youngster in a destination whose hope to change their live, and their family’s lives were very sad, when what they supposed was opposite.
The family of victims were also faced the shortage of money to pay back they were borrowed for the process of sending their son or daughter. In addition to this, the families of victims were also not as such success from returnees (labour and social affair office of Dodola woreda, 2018)Apart from the economic one, the social side of human trafficking were abuse of human right and these were included beating, confinement, and starvation, thrown from building, rape and in the worst form death. There were also death reports from the labour and social affair of Dodola district by human trafficking abuse. It is not difficult to imagine how mad problems of these. At all its stage, it was violating human rights. However, the International human rights instruments always dictate that, human rights should not be violated. However, the violations of human rights shade the country’s good image and affect the foreign relation between sending and receiving countries.
Moreover, it affects the victims of trafficking and families of victims moral and psychological. Dodola woreda was selected because; it is one of the major areas of the woreda in west Arsi Zone where the problem of human trafficking were more prevalent. Secondly, from the 23 kebeles in the district, four kebeles, Edo, Heraro, Berisa, and Serofta were selected purposively based on the magnitude of the problem of human trafficking. Thirdly, according to data obtained from labour and social affair office of Dodola woreda, there were about 206 victims of human trafficking in 2007 E. C; from which 4 were died 2 were badly harmed. Therefore, if this condition were continuing in the same rate, the live of victims were put endangers and they were also affected economically, politically, socially and morally. If this problem were not solved, the community’s development might be endangered. With regard to the research gap, the researcher observed that, there had been relative researches done on the researcher’s title but what distinguish the researcher title from others is that it takes into consideration human trafficking were affecting more youth and productive age.
The researcher had also observed that no research have been conducted in the study area within this specific topic. Thus, the researcher; was initiated to conduct this study on the selected topic and area of the study to give possible suggestion on the effects of human trafficking through identifying the major causes of the human trafficking but, it may be difficult to total avoid this problem within this specific research.1.3.
Objectives of the Study 1.3.1. General objectiveThe overall objective of the study was tries to address the causes and effects of human trafficking on young group in Dodola Woreda with the following specific objectives. 1.3.2. Specific objective To analyze why youths were engaging in human trafficking in Dodola woreda.
To assess how human trafficking is affecting youths people politically, economically, and socially;To analyze the key drivers of the traffickers’ to engage in human trafficking process in Dodola; and To identify the main challenge of human trafficking on youths in Dodola woreda.1.4. Research questionUnder this topic, the following research questions were to address:1. Why youth groups are engaging in human trafficking in Dodola woreda?2. How human trafficking are affecting young group politically, economically, and socially in Dodola woreda? 3.
What are the key drivers of the traffickers’ to engage in human trafficking process in Dodola woreda? 4. What are the main challenges of human trafficking on young group in Dodola woreda? 1.5. Significance of the ResearchThe foremost purpose of this research is for completion of MA degree in Political science and International relation. It is a building stone for the researcher to continuing further education. It also affixes a significant element to the academic sphere; moreover, it adds knowledge to individuals who are interested in doing further research in this area of interest. It also expected to open a discussion and research interests in human trafficking and human security.In addition to this, it also helpful for the government, and nongovernmental organization as well the community, at large in solving the recurrent problem.
It also important to know the cause of problems of human trafficking; moreover, to recommend the possible strategies for better community development endeavors. It is also useful for the migrant is sending community, and their local administration to locate possible strategies for tracking and creating consciousness about human trafficking, specifically its cause and challenges.1.6. Scope of the studyThis research was used the term of ‘trafficking in human beings’ as defined in the Palermo Protocol.
The research mainly focuses on cross border trafficking. Although external trafficking may be committed for different purposes, the scope of this research study was limited to human trafficking for labour purposes, with particular emphasis on the young group. In addition to this, the scope of this study was also looks into the cause, and effects of human trafficking in Ethiopia: cases from Dodola woreda Oromia National regional state. The study was focus on trafficked young peoples, those who went Middle East for better living conditions but vulnerable to exploitation particularly in Saudi Arabia, Bruit, and Kuwait. It was also described the causes of trafficking, and its consequences on victims of human trafficking and their family.1.7.
Limitations of the studyBecause of the hidden and underground nature of human trafficking, it could be difficult to locate communities where trafficking exists. In addition to this, during the fieldwork, there were a shortage of statistical data on the total number of out trafficked and returnees. The researcher was to consult the Labour and Social Affairs offices but no significant statistical data on the number of returnees. Most of the trafficked were undocumented; hence, researcher faced inadequacy in statistical data on the district on the number of trafficked person; furthermore, victims of trafficking were a ‘hidden group’ and different factors such as cultural acceptability victims of trafficking, the clandestine and sensitive nature of trafficking in persons, as well negative attitudes towards failed trafficking experiences. This is true not only for victims still living in exploitative conditions but also for returnees who were victims of trafficking. Traffickers had not easily accessible and wisely provide information, since they resort to clandestine operation and due to fear of being reported to the police. Key informants on the operations of traffickers are also difficult to find.
They had limited information regarding the operations of brokers and other traffickers. In addition, the institutions involved in giving the data about human trafficking have no maintain easy-to-access, up-to-date, and organized data.1.
8. Organization of the paperThe researcher was organized this thesis into five main chapters. The first chapter of the research was deals with an introduction chapter. The introductory chapter was contained background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research question, the significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, and organization of the paper.
The second chapter of the study was focus on presentation of a literature review of the thesis. This chapter was constitutes the theoretical part of the research production. It also explained the cause and effects of human trafficking, and its consequences. It was very essential and supporting part of study.