Chelsea system. Therefore, bones are essential

Chelsea MosleyBIOL 2401: A&P 1OsteomalaciaMay 1, 2018Chelsea MosleyProfessor Madhu Dasaraju BIOL 2401: A&P 1 May 1, 2018Osteomalacia AbstractThe human body is supported almost entirely of bones or the skeletal system. Therefore, bones are essential to the body structure. Osteomalacia is a disease characterized by the softening of the bones due to not enough levels of certain minerals; especially calcium and Vitamin D.

The word can also be known as “soft bones.” Vitamin D deficiency is common and affects many serious diseases, yet often goes unrecognized. Vitamin D can sometimes be called the sunshine vitamin because it can be produced in your skin in response to sunlight. When exposed to sunlight, your body produces vitamin D naturally. Vitamin D can be gathered through You can also certain foods like tuna, salmon, orange juice, cheese and egg yolks. DiscussionA. CauseThere are numerous things that can cause osteomalacia.

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It can occur from a vitamin D deficiency, certain surgeries, celiac disease, kidney or liver disease, and drugs. The main cause, however, is improper nutrition as a result of a vitamin D deficiency. This medical disease involves a number of disorders in which the bones are poorly mineralized. Osteoid is produced, but calcium salts are not adequately deposited, so bones are soft and weak (Marieb 192). Osteomalacia is more frequently found in women during pregnancy.

Rickets is similar to osteomalacia, which affects the bones of children. Children need vitamin D and calcium in their diet to develop strong and healthy bones. Since young bones are still growing rapidly, rickets is much more severe than adult osteomalacia. Rickets and osteomalacia are caused by not enough calcium in the diet or by a vitamin D shortage. There are certain conditions that can interfere with the absorption of vitamin D like celiac disease, kidney and liver disease. B. Symptoms & Diagnostic testsSome of the most common symptoms that a patient who has osteomalacia may experience are pain in the bones and hips, frequent bone fractures, and muscle weakness.

A patient who has been diagnosed with osteomalacia may even have a hard time walking. When a patient is questioning whether or not they have osteomalacia, they need to seek a doctor for a diagnosis. There are three tests that the doctor can perform. One of the simple ways to determine this disease is a standard blood test. This test is performed to check the amount of vitamin D. Another way is to do a urine test which tracts the amounts of calcium in the bloodstream.

The last way is diagnosis through an x-ray or bone biopsy. An x-ray can see how the vitamin shortage has affected the bones by determining whether the patient has any bone cracks and a bone biopsy is a test in which they remove a small portion of your bone and use the sample to check your calcium and vitamin D levels. If any of these test results show low levels of vitamin D, low levels of calcium and low levels of phosphorus then the patient would be diagnosed with osteomalacia. Luckily, getting enough vitamin D through oral supplements for several weeks to months can cure osteomalacia. Maintaining normal blood levels of vitamin D usually requires continuing to take the supplements. C.

Effect on the bodyAlthough this disease is not fatal, it can lead to numerous complications in a person’s life. Osteomalacia is a disease that causes the bones to become soft, which can lead to pain and skeletal deformities. Human bones need calcium and phosphate to stay strong, and without proper levels of vitamin D in the body, bones are unable to absorb enough calcium and phosphate minerals to remain healthy.

When bones become weak, the bones are inclined to bow and breaks. Some of the more common bone fractures you’re more likely to see are fractures in the ribs, spine and legs region. Once osteomalacia progresses, a dull aching pain targets the lower back, pelvis, hips, legs and ribs region.D. Treatments & PreventionThis disease can be easily treated and prevented without trouble if diagnosed at an early phase. Increasing vitamin D intake and exposing the skin to sunlight can usually cure these diseases. Osteomalacia can be prevented best by proper diet and nutrition.

The patient must take daily dosages of vitamin D, calcium and phosphate. Calcium and phosphate can be consumed by foods such as milk and dairy products. Exercising and performing more outdoor activities under the sunlight is a good source for osteomalacia patients to get adequate amounts of vitamin D. It is very important to follow the treatment plan, as Osteomalacia is an illness that can lead to serious consequences. E. StatisticsOsteomalacia is recorded as a “rare disease” by the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

With this disease being classified as rare, it means that less than 200,000 people in the US population are affected. Because of that, statistics are hard to find. The only thing published was from Cure Research from England in 2002-2003. Below are their society statistics.”Hospitalization statistics for Osteomalacia: The following are statistics from various sources about hospitalizations and Osteomalacia: • 0.

001% (71) of hospital consultant episodes were for adult osteomalacia in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) • 90% of hospital consultant episodes for adult osteomalacia required hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) • 23% of hospital consultant episodes for adult osteomalacia were for men in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) • 77% of hospital consultant episodes for adult osteomalacia were for women in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) • 52% of hospital consultant episodes for adult osteomalacia required emergency hospital admission in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) • 11.5 days was the mean length of stay in hospitals for adult osteomalacia in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) • 6 days was the median length of stay in hospitals for adult osteomalacia in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) • 55 was the mean age of patients hospitalized for adult osteomalacia in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) • 65% of hospital consultant episodes for adult osteomalacia occurred in 15-59 year old’s in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) • 23% of hospital consultant episodes for adult osteomalacia occurred in people over 75 in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) • 18% of hospital consultant episodes for adult osteomalacia were single day episodes in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03) • 0.001% (607) of hospital bed days were for adult osteomalacia in England 2002-03 (Hospital Episode Statistics, Department of Health, England, 2002-03)”F. Illustrations ConclusionOsteomalacia is a bone condition that affects many Americans across the world. It is a disease that can be treated and prevented.

The best strategy is to catch and treat this disease in an early stage. With the consumption of foods high in vitamin D (salmon, sardines, egg yolks, milk, cereal, and yogurt) and taking supplements, anyone should be able to overcome and prevent this rare disease. If Americans continue their current path of fast-food binging and spending more time watching television, the number of osteomalacia diagnosis may rise. The key to prevention and treatment is to seek medical attention early on. Works CitedMarieb, Elaine N.

, R.N., Ph.D & Hoehn, Katja, M.

D., Ph. D.

Human Anatomy & Physiology Volume 1Bhan A, Rao AD, and Rao DS. Osteomalacia as a result of vitamin D deficiency. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America. June 2010; 39(2):321-331. http://www.ncbi.

nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20511054. Marc K Drezner, MD, Peter J Snyder, MD, Charles J Menkes, MD, and Jean E Mulder, MD. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of osteomalacia. UpToDate; April 28, 2016; http://www.uptodate.

com/contents/clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-osteomalacia. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteomalacia/symptoms-causes/syc-20355514. Accessed May 1, 2018.Prevalence and Incidence of Osteomalacia. (2015, August 13). Retrieved from http://www.

rightdiagnosis.com/o/osteomalacia/prevalence.htm. Accessed May 1, 2018Statistics about Osteomalacia. (2015, August 13). Retrieved from http://www.

rightdiagnosis.com/o/osteomalacia/stats.htm. Accessed May 1, 2018.