CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE BY TEACHERS IN SCHOOLS IN WITSIESHOEK, MALUTI-A-PHOFUNG DISTRICT (WARD 16). By MOTLOUNG REFILOE THEONA(Student No: 215021061)A research proposal submitted to the Department of Post Graduate Studies (Education)Faculty of Humanities of theCENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, FREE STATEIn partial fulfilment of the requirement of thePostgraduate Certificate in Education (P.
G.C.E):Introduction to Research in Education Course (INR10AB)Supervisor: Prof. M.
K Mhlolo16 October 2018 Statement of independent workI, ____________________________________, confirm that the work for the following proposal with the title: “___________________________________________________” was solely undertaken by myself and that no help was provided from sources other than those allowed. All sections of the proposal that use quotes or describe an argument or concept developed by another author have been referenced, including all secondary literature used, to show that this material has been adopted to support my thesis.Signed __________________________ date ______________________________ AcknowledgementsList of tablesList of figuresTable of contentsChapter 1INTRODUCTIONBackground to the studyChild sexual abuse circumstances seem to be increasing every year. Child sexual abuse generally goes on for a while before other people recognise it; at times it might as well go on unknown. The predators devote a lot of time in planning his or her actions. Sometimes the victim may not be conscious that he/she is abused or may distress to reveal his / her fate and the abuser may not feel remorseful about his/her conduct.
In sexual abuse the victim is constantly quietened with tokens or gifts and not really by threats like in rape where the victim will be threatened to be killed CITATION Kai10 l 7177 (Kaima, 2010). According to CITATION Smi11 l 7177 (Smit & Du Plessis, 2011) a study lodged into accusations of the severe and persistent sexual harassment of learners in South African schools commanded by the Human Rights Commission in 2001 has discovered that sexual harassment in South African schools is common and poses a real danger to learners in particular. “According to Prinsloo, literature in South Africa shows that more than 30 percent of girls are raped at school” CITATION Smi111 l 7177 (Smit & Du Plessis, 2011). With HIV/AIDS occurrence measured at 22.
9 percent for young girls and boys, sexual harassment in education turns out to be even more serious. It has been discovered that a lot of girls experience violence at school, are raped, sexually abused, sexually harassed and attacked by male learners and educators CITATION Smi11 l 7177 (Smit & Du Plessis, 2011). CITATION Jew02 l 7177 (Jewkes, et al., 2002) Conclusions approve that rape of girls, particularly in school, is a considerable public-health problem in South Africa. Investigation is desirable to comprehend its wider societal circumstance, nature, and magnitude, and to develop interventions for primary prevention and prevention of its long-term health penalties. Operational action to address rape and sexual harassment of girls in schools is desired.
Amendments to the employment of Educators act (Act No. 76 of 1998) are intended to facilitate the authorities to fight child abuse in schools. The act provides for the dismissal of a teacher who has been found guilty of engaging in a sexual relationship with a learner, with or without the agreement of such learner. In addition, the South Africa council for educators act (act No.31 of 2000) allows for deregistration for a teacher who has been found guilty of the sexual abuse of a learner CITATION Ric05 l 7177 (Richrer, et al., 2005). The statement of the research problemAccording to CITATION Sak06 l 7177 (Sakkie, 2006) schools are supposed to be safe places where all learners have equal access to equal educational opportunities and are treated equally while teachers are obliged to perform a duty of care as if the educator is the father of the child at all times. Educators are obliged to protect learners from sexual harassment and violence at school.
however, according to the study made by CITATION Smi11 l 7177 (Smit & Du Plessis, 2011) male teachers take advantage of girl learners and sexually harass them.The purpose of the studyUnderstand the nature of sexual harassment as a form of unfair discrimination against female learners.Examine the current situation regarding sexual harassment in South African schoolsThis study set out to search the perceptions of learners, teachers and educational psychologists on child sexual abuse by teachers in schools.To determine ways in which this problem can be addressed or solved.Research questions/hypothesesHow is sexual harassment managed in the learning environment in South Africa?Which ways can be implemented to prevent child sexual abuse at schools?What are the perceptions of teachers, learners and educational psychologists on the prevention of child sexual abuse in schools?The significance of the studyLearners will benefit from the research in a way that the purpose of the study being fulfilled will definitely cover significant ways on how learners can avoid being sexually harassed by their teachers, ways in which the matter can be prevented and will help learners to speak out about the matter to accurate people.Teachers will benefit in a way that they will be able to know what to do in such matters, how to deal and spot children that are sexually harassed. They will also learn more from the research on how to motivate and support such learners, male teachers will also learn on ways in which they can avoid getting themselves into being the perpetrators.The department of education will also benefit in a way that they can use the researches made to conduct training at the schools on the researched matter, make teachers as well as learners aware and supervise them on a profitable way forward.
Definition of key termsSchoolA school is a place where learners learn under the direction of teachers.Teacher/educatorA teacher is a person who is capable of imparting knowledge that will help learners to build, identify and to acquire skills that will be used to face the challenges in life CITATION Sen06 l 7177 (Senge, 2006). In the context of this study the teacher refers to the perpetrator. A childIn the South African context a child is any person who is below 18 years of age. In the context of this study a child is a learner in the school.
Child sexual abuse CITATION Lou07 l 7177 (Louw, et al., 2007) Define child sexual abuse as any illegal sexual act, which is committed against a child by an older person, where the older person uses their power over the child to involve that child in sexual activity. LearnerAccording to CITATION Hor95 l 7177 (Hornby, 1995) a learner is ‘a person who is gaining knowledge or skill’. For the purposes of this study, a learner is a child who is attending school, for the purpose of receiving effective, formal education.
A learner is a child who learns from a teacher or takes up knowledge or beliefs. Delimitation of the studyThis study will be carried out in the schools in Witsieshoek, Maluti-a-phofung district ward 16. Therefore the research will be based only on the schools around Maluti-a-phofung and specifically in ward 16.Figure 1.
1 Location of Maluti-a-phofung district in witsieshoek.Source:https://www.google.co.
za/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwiZt7U4_3dAhXxzIUKHXjZAHkQMwg_KA4wDg&url=http%3A%2F%2Ffreestatetourism.org%2Fthabo-mofutsanyana-district municipality%2F&psig=AOvVaw0UW59rnIlB0ET23ooRXmsO&ust=1539326353125156&ictx=3&uact=3Chapter 2REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE2.1 IntroductionOne of the foremost vital issues children face today is the threat of sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse may be an international development that’s thought to be one in all the greatest social issues of the twenty first century. It is recognised as a significant violation of human well-being and children’s rights. According to CITATION Dai13 l 7177 (Collin-Vezina Daigneaul & Herbert, 2013) child sexual abuse is not a replacement development; neither it is peculiar to any particular country or culture.
It’s a world drawback of great magnitude which will have an effect on children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic categories. The sole reason why sexual abuse of children appears to be a replacement development is that individuals historically never mentioned it. Child sexual abuse within the school context with teachers as abusers is an even more silent issue still today. Teachers who comprise the main adult population sexually abuse learners in the school situation despite having the mandate to protect children CITATION Rut09 l 7177 (Ruto, 2009).According to CITATION Mag15 l 7177 (Magwa, 2015)Teachers hold positions of trust and once they have interaction in sexual relationships with learners, they violate this trust. The connection between the teacher and learner is incredibly very like the parent and kid relationship. The betrayal of trust in each relationship is incredibly damaging to the children.
Schools ought to be safe places for the general development of learners thus this study focuses on associate degree understanding of kid sex crime by teachers with the aim of preventing or edge such abuse.2.2 Prevention of child sexual abuse in schools Child sexual abuse exploits and degrades children and might cause of despair, depression and culminate in anti-social behaviour. Sexual abuse of children is a difficulty of veritable concern worldwide related to harmful consequences in learners’ lives, thus the necessity for prevention. Due to potential harmful consequences of sexual abuse, warious intervention methods are projected, as an example giving school primarily based instructional programmes to show children the abilities to spot dangerous situations and the way to avoid these CITATION Fin09 l 7177 (Finkelhor, 2009). The programmes ought to cojointly aim at promoting disclosure, and reducing self-blame. Participating in research based prevention programmes, and contacting organisations already operating with children to supply support and prevent sexual abuse.
CITATION Fin09 l 7177 (Finkelhor, 2009) suggests that prevention methods ought to cover efforts to minimise hurt as well as to reduce occurrence. One way to stop sexual abuse in schools is to minimise the opportunity for it to occur. CITATION Mit10 l 7177 (Mitchel, 2010) says that more than 80% of sexual abuse cases occur in situations with one adult and one child in a closed setting. This implies that sexual abuse happens mostly between two people, the offender and the abused. An abuser sometimes abuses one victim at a time so as to keep the abuse behind closed doors. Though the general public believes that one-on-one relationships between teachers and learners is educationally and socially advantageous; the danger concerned during this practice may outweigh the advantages. The child will profit academically however, the teacher can take advantage of the situation and sexually abuse the learner. CITATION Tas02 l 7177 (Tassoni & Beith, 2002) Assert that everybody operating with children have a responsibility to keep children from being abused.
When dealing with sexual violence in schools, it is vital to involve a wide range of stakeholders like information specialists, parents, instructional psychologists, and learners. The school policy and practice should not restate the gender politics evident in society. All of the on top of methods will facilitate within the fight against child sexual abuse by teachers among schools.
Specializing in perceptions is therefore, an acceptable support tool for effecting the required changes to handle the scourge of sexual assault of learners in schools.2.3 Effects of child sexual abuse on learners Child sexual abuse is a social drawback with devastating effects on victims. The implications of child sexual abuse on victims as a result of their experiences and their reminiscences of those experiences are varied and several CITATION Spi06 l 7177 (Spies, 2006).
Usually, all survivors of child sexual abuse will experience various difficulties and issues. The character and brutality of such difficulties and glitches will vary from person to person and can be influenced by the developmental phase, as well as the context of upbringing. Being sexually abused, however, impacts upon the life world of a child on educational, psychological and physical health levels.
2.4 Psychological impact of sexual abuse on children CITATION Spi06 l 7177 (Spies, 2006) offer some psychological impacts of sexual abuse on children that embrace low self-esteem, where the abused children tend to feel unworthy and guilty. Sexually abused children find problems of trust problematic from the onset of the abuse, right into adulthood. Children experience the surprising truth that the terrible people that ought to shield them from hurt, are people that betray their trust by violating and robbing them of their innocence. These sexually abused children grieve over the loss of traditional childhood, and of trust in others. It may lead to issues like dangerous tendencies, poor ingestion patterns, and disturbed sleeping patterns.
2.5 Management of sexual harassment at schools.According to the study made by CITATION Smi111 l 7177 (Smit & Du Plessis, 2011)several acts protect learners against the misuse of power by educators but seem to be unproductive or inadequate to defend victims.
Sexual harassment in the classroom is managed in terms of section 9 of the Constitution. In education, it denotes to the opportunity girls/boys must be afforded to be treated equally in schools, free from sexual harassment in any of the ways it can present itself. All learners have the right to equal education, the right not to be unfairly discriminated against the right of protection of dignity and integrity, the right to freedom, the right to privacy and the right to a safe environment.
CITATION Smi111 l 7177 (Smit & Du Plessis, 2011) added that Section 3 of the South African Schools Act makes endowment for obligatory school attendance. Section 5 of the same act assurances equal access to public schools. Section 8 provides for a code of conduct to be implemented that must be intended at establishing a well-organised and determined school environment, devoted to the development and conservation of the quality of the learning process. In ensuring discipline and safeguarding the interests of learners, the code should clarify the standards for learner and educator behaviour and allow disciplinary action to be taken in instances of misconduct, thereby protecting learners and staff against dangers such as sexual harassment.
A disciplined and purposeful school environment may be defined as one that is free of violence and danger, inclusive of sexual harassment as a form of violence.The Children’s Act protects children’s rights and Regulations to the South African Schools Act further place an obligation on educators to report any form of maltreatment of children to social welfare or the police, which in itself prohibits the sexual harassment of children at school either by educators or by other learners CITATION Smi11 l 7177 (Smit & Du Plessis, 2011). CITATION Smi111 l 7177 (Smit & Du Plessis, 2011) also mentioned that the common law further protects learners from misconduct by those in senior positions through the in loco parentis principle, as educators are legally obliged to ensure the physical and psychological safety of learners in their care. A National Child Protection Register must be kept by the Director-general of the national department responsible for the provision of social development services, as provided for in the Children’s Act. Chapter 3METHODOLOGY3.
1 Research designQuantitative According to CITATION DeF11 l 7177 (DeFranzo, 2011) Quantitative Research is used to quantify the problem by means of making mathematical data or data that can be converted into functional figures. It is used to quantify outlooks, views, behaviours, and other distinct variables and simplify results from a larger sample population. Quantitative Research uses quantifiable data to articulate truths and expose outlines in research. Quantitative data gathering methods are far more structured than Qualitative data gathering methods. Quantitative data collection methods comprise many customs of surveys, online surveys, paper surveys, mobile surveys and kiosk surveys, face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, longitudinal studies, website interceptors, online polls, and systematic observations.3.2 The research instruments According to CITATION Tan13 l 7177 (Tan Kok Eng, 2013)A research instrument is anything that can be used to gather information data (for example, questionnaires or scales) to answer the research question.
It relates to both qualitative and quantitative methods. It can create quantitative and qualitative data.In this study he researcher will use a questionnaire method. The researcher will develop a list of questions directed to the teachers as well as the learners at the schools.
The list of questionnaire will be based on the hypothesis of the study so that the aim of the research will be conquered.3.3 Pilot testingAccording to CITATION Wri18 l 7177 (Wright, 2018) Pilot testing is a preparation of the research study, allowing the researcher to test the research method with a minor amount of test participants before the main study is conducted.
Just like proper experimentation, design is a requirement, it is significant to take the time to examine, check, and iteratively recover the design, before the research implementation phase. By doing so, the researcher can ensure that the research goes efficiently, and dramatically improve the production from the study CITATION Wri18 l 7177 (Wright, 2018). In order to remove the noise from the questions set or rather to polish some of the questions that are not clear, the researcher will make copies of the questions that are to be researched on and distribute them amongst the friends in order to test the instrument.3.4 The populationA research population is commonly a great group of people or items that is the key focus of a scientific query. It is for the advantage of the population that researches are done. However, due to the large sizes of populations, researchers often cannot test every person in the population because it is too costly and inefficient.
This is the reason why researchers depend on sampling techniquesCITATION Ban10 l 7177 (Banerjee, 2010).A research population can also be refered to as a definite collection of people or items known to have similar features. All people or items within a certain population typically have a mutual, compulsory characteristic or trait CITATION Ban10 l 7177 (Banerjee, 2010).
The population of teachers and learners at Tshibollo Secondary School:Teachers: 19Learners: 4473.5 The sample CITATION Oli10 l 7177 (Oliver, 2010) says purposive sampling is a sampling technique in which the researcher identifies certain participants as being potentially able to provide important data on the research study.The researcher will use stratified sampling with 35% sample size for each population of both teachers and learners at each school.
Therefore learners = 35100×447=156 learners Teachers = 35100×19=6 teachers3.6 The sampling techniques CITATION Fei15 l 7177 (Shi, 2015) Defines Stratified sampling as a kind of sampling method in which the total population is separated into minor clusters or strata to complete the sampling process. The stratum is formed based on some mutual features in the population data. After separating the population into strata, the researcher randomly selects the sample proportionally. Stratified sampling is a common sampling technique used by researchers when trying to draw assumptions from diverse sub-groups or strata. The strata or sub-groups should be diverse and the data should not intersect. While using stratified sampling, the researcher should use simple probability sampling.
The population is divided into various subgroups such as phase, femininity, ethnic group, job profile, educational level etc. CITATION Fei15 l 7177 (Shi, 2015). The researcher will use probability-sampling technique: Stratified SamplingWith stratified sampling, the researcher will divide the population into separate groups, called strata. Then, a probability sample will be drawn from each group.3.7 Data collection proceduresThe researcher will walk to the nearby schools or take a taxi in instances whereby the schools are a few kilometres away.
The researcher will then ask for permission from the principal to put the forms for questionnaire of teachers in a place where every teacher who wants to participate will access them, alongside the forms there will be a box whereby every teacher who has completed a questionnaire can drop the form in. As well as for the learners a box with forms alongside will be put where every learner who wants to fill the form will access it, fill the questionnaire and drop in the box. The researcher will then notify the principal that she will come after a week to collect the boxes.3.8 Data analysisQuantitative data may be presented in tables and graphs, therefore I will use such things to make sense and gain insight out of the collected data.
3.9 Ethical considerationsFirst of all the researcher will ask for permission to do the research at the above mentioned schools from the department of education. And when the researcher arrives at the schools, she will first go to the principal to make the principal aware of the situation which is about to take place, which is basically placing the questionnaires where they will be accessible to the targeted sample size of the population.
3.10 Limitations of the studySince the study will be carried out in the schools in Witsieshoek, Maluti-a-phofung district ward 16 only, it means the study will not be generalised to all the schools in South Africa. However, the researcher recommends that further studies be done to other parts of SA in other districts and wards.