Ed childhood education Semester 1 2018 Assignment 1:

Ed 206Creative arts in early childhood educationSemester 1 2018Assignment 1: JOURNAL REFLECTIONSCREATED ON: 19TH May 2018Name: Sharon KumariID : S11072754Coordinator: Ms. Kelesi WhippyMODULE 1ACTIVITY 1.

1Creative Arts and its Importance in Young ChildrenSunday, 11 February 2018, 10:35 PMby Sharon KumariAfter indulging myself into various literature regarding arts, creativity and early childhood, I have found out that “creativity is elusive precisely because like intelligence it has many different manifestations, conceptions, and interpretations” as put by (VanTassel-Baska, 2004; Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2010). (VanTassel-Baska, 2004), asserts that “the creativity literature has explored the home environments of eminent people as well as prodigies in an attempt to understand the role that early environments and parenting play in the process”.  She further suggests (2004) that “in general there appear to be strong advantages accruing from exposure to enriched home environments where intellectual pursuits are valued and early talent development may take place. Various research have exposed that high creativity lacked home environment attachment. In other words, not much encouragement was bequeathed to the person to carve the innate gift into talents.

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On the other hand, (Mills, 2014), believes that Piaget’s (1962) and Vygotsky’s (1978) theories of development bring out creativeness in children. She further states that ‘these theories are resourceful in an early childhood classroom for maximum potential of a child’. I have also come across notes that justify that to some extent historical theories discourage creativity. For instance take Bandura’s behaviourism theory where rewards are used for a good behaviour or outcome.

What about when a child tries its level best but fails and is not rewarded? No reward or no words of encouragement dissuades the child’s creativeness (VanTassel-Baska, 2004). Therefore, contemporary theories which have been worked on by later scholars are more productive. This statement is justified by (Zimmerman, 2009) in her research paper where she puts that ‘in the 21st century apparently students need to be prepared for new information age and that educational interventions in art education fostering cognitive skills, imagination and innovations, are important for generating solutions to real life problems for now  and the future’.On the same note, capitalization of historical and contemporary theories is a splendid method to integrate creativity into a child’s play. Creativity is a means to express one’s self, expands learning, strengthens confidence and builds self-identity as it engages children across all domains of child development. Creativity is not only seen in normal youngsters but in children with special needs as well.

Although they acquire disability of sorts, they are the owners of gifted and talented skills such as dancing, intellectuality, artists, story-telling and so forth. Gardner’s theory (Kaufman, Kaufman, Beghetto, ; Burgess, 2009) of Multiple Intelligence has proved so. My conclusion for Module 1 is that no matter what kind of a person one is, creativity is within him/her which has to be accurately manipulated through adapting developmental theories and integration with the curriculum to bring out the talent for learning and growth. Hence creative expression is important in the development of a child as a ‘whole’. REFERENCEKaufman, J.

C., Kaufman, B. S.

, Beghetto, R. A., ; Burgess, S.

A. (2009). Creative giftedness: beginnings, developments and future promises.Retrieved September 28, 2017, from https:///www.Mastropieri, M.

A., ; Scruggs, T. E. (2010). Gifted, creative and talented. Retrieved September 18, 2017, from Education.

com:https://www.education.com/reference/article/gifted-creative-talented-children/Mills, H. (2014). The importance of creative arts in early childhood classrooms. Texas Child Care Quarterly, 38 (1).VanTassel-Baska, V.

J. (2004). Hoagies’ Gifted Education Page: Creative as an elusive factor in giftedness. Retrieved September 20, 2017, from ERIC: http://www.davidsongifted.org>entryZimmerman, E. (2009). Reconceptualizing the role of creativity in art education theory and practice.

 Studies in Art Education; A Journal of Issues and Research. 50 (4), 382. MODULE 2ACTIVITY 2.1The Importance of Encouraging Visual Arts in Young ChildrenTuesday, 13 March 2018, 2:56 PMby Sharon KumariAs George Bernard Shaw quotes:          We don’t stop playing because we grow old;           we grow old because we stop playing.This simply states that a child needs to interact with his environment in order to develop holistically. For holistic development to take place, one’s creativity is at test. All areas of development are inter-related with creativity as suggested by Renzulli in his model of the Three Rings (Kaufman, Kaufman, Beghetto, & Burgess, 2009).For children to develop to maximum potential, visual arts is important.

Visual art not only empowers the ability to create crafts and do arts but helps children to understand concepts through the art of visuals socially, physically, emotionally, spiritually and intellectually. The power of imagination empowers children to expand their learning through inquisitiveness, exploration and experimentation. What they see, they will want to try out. What they try to perform integrates with areas of development crucial for human development.

Moreover, visual art is one of the strategies used for accommodating autistic children. Hence its facilitation is respected in both domains-general classroom and special education settings.  REFERENCESKaufman, J. C.

, Kaufman, B. S., Beghetto, R. A., & Burgess, S. A. (2009).

 Creative giftedness: beginnings, developments and future promises.Retrieved September 28, 2017, from https:///www.Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2010).

 Gifted, creative and talented. Retrieved September 18, 2017, from Education.com:https://www.education.com/reference/article/gifted-creative-talented-children/Mills, H. (2014). The importance of creative arts in early childhood classrooms. Texas Child Care Quarterly, 38 (1).

Sprunt, B., McAleer, J., Steele, M., Devata, M., & Qeleni, M. N. (2015). Disability- Inclusive education handbook for teachers.

In toolkit for disability-inclusive education. Suva: GMR International.VanTassel-Baska, V. J. (2004). Hoagies’ Gifted Education Page: Creative as an elusive factor in giftedness. Retrieved September 20, 2017, from ERIC: HYPERLINK “http://www.davidsongifted.

org/” http://www.davidsongifted.org;entryZimmerman, E.

(2009). Reconceptualizing the role of creativity in art education theory and practice. Studies in Art Education; A Journal of Issues and Research. 50 (4), 382.MODULE 3ACTIVITY 3.1Importance of Encouraging Music in Young Children.

Monday, 26 March 2018, 11:40 AMby Sharon KumariMusic involves pleasant sounds which are serene to human nature. For healthy growth and development, music is essential for children. Harman (2008) disclosed in her article that at 23 days of gestation a fetus can feel sound and at four months, can hear sound. She (Harman, 2008) quoted Dr. Carla Hannaford that ‘the ear is the most fully developed organ at birth and the last sense to stop at death’. Study has revealed that ‘at five months the fetus responds to sounds’ (Harman, 2008). Harman’s article also encloses the study done by Dr. Alfred Tomatis, known as the Tomatis Effect which describes how a foetus reacts to phonemes heard in the uterus.

 So we can see that music/ sound is the first element to which a foetus responds to hence sounds can be transmitted to them through songs and rhythms. It teaches language -responding to phonemes, spatial awareness- sounding out the phonemes individually, movement- before speaking words children learn to use body movements to express emotions.Overall, music is a tool which integrates all areas of development. Any activity involving music has a positive outcome as it captures children’s attention with the use of all the senses and areas of development.ReferencesHarman, M. (2008).

 Music and movement- Instrumental in language and development. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from Early Childhood News: HYPERLINK “http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.

aspx?ArticleID=601″ http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=601Levinowitz, M. L.

(1998). The importance of music in early childhood. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from Music Together: HYPERLINK “https://www.musictogether.com/about/research/research-based-program/importance-of-music-in-early-childhood” https://www.

musictogether.com/about/research/research-based-program/importance-of-music-in-early-childhoodMusikgarten. (2018). Introduction give your child a world of possibilities. Retrieved March 16, 2018, from Musikgarten: HYPERLINK “https://www.musikgarten.

org/introduction-parents.cfm” https://www.musikgarten.org/introduction-parents.cfm MODULE 4 ACTIVITY 4.1Importance of dramatic arts in young childrenThursday, 5 April 2018, 11:54 AMby Sharon KumariLiterature has disclosed that dramatic play is an ‘integral part of developmental learning process’ as encrypted by (Cechini, 2008) which enhances development in four major areas:·         Social/ emotional·         physical·         language·         cognitiveDramatic play engages children in enacting their observations of the real world, modifying it with their imagination to create a new idea. It also teaches them life-long skills such as understanding others, daily functional skills, everyday math skills and so forth. Carter, cited in (Morgan, 2014), suggest that ‘arts are a thinking tool which paves ways for children to communicate, understand and misunderstand and ways to confront them.

‘ Children learn from imitating then move on to role playing significant others and then on to socio-dramatic play (University of the South Pacific, 2016). These three stages helps a child develop his/her ability to make connections, memory recall and extend play to a complex level. Through dramatic play, children acquire cognitive benefits which involve children to recall events to enact the desired role play, to compose the whole drama with a desirable ending. Children also gain the affective benefits which described by Vygotsky in (University of the South Pacific, 2016) as the ‘dual affect’ in children. This is so because the child gains experiences of two worlds. In his imaginative world he gets opportunities to experience all the emotions possible where he won’t have to face the consequences of the real emotions because it’s an imaginary world.

Drama assists children to find self-identity, to understand own self as well as others and to build confidence. Overall, it integrates all areas of development where it is the responsibility of teachers to scaffold these activities more creatively for the children to develop as a whole child. Children need to engage in dramatic arts to learn about: connectedness, of how to express the inexpressible, about life, customs and beliefs, acclaimed by (Colorado Preschool Program Staff , 2012) as it is a life time necessity.ReferencesCechini, M. E. (2008). How dramatic play can enhance learning. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from Early Childhood News: HYPERLINK “http://www.

earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=751″ http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=751Colorado Preschool Program Staff . (2012).

 Prechool drama and theatre arts academic standards. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from cde improving academic achievements: HYPERLINK “https://www.cde.state.co.us/sites/default/files/documents/cpp/download/standards/prek_drama_in_high_quality_settings.pdf” https://www.cde.


pdfMorgan, L. (2014). Drama, music dance: It’s all good for the young brain! Retrieved March 31, 2018, from LindaMorgan.com: http://linda-morgan.

com/drama-music-dance-its-all-good-for-the-young-brainUniversity of the South Pacific. (2016). Topic 2: Links between dramatic arts and learning. Retrieved March 31, 2018, from University of the South Pacific: htps://www.usp.

ac.fj/  MODULE 5ACTIVITY 5.1importance of integrating Creativity across ECE Curriculum.Thursday, 17 May 2018, 2:55 PMby Sharon KumariCreativity is an art that is used by every being to express themselves. Either in an adult or a child, creativity is visible in many aspects for example, artistry, crafting, singing and composing, choreography, weaving, cooking, athletics and sports and so forth. Each child has an innate quality which needs to be harnessed and moulded into the correct path so that the creativity is exposed. In the ECE curriculum, creative expressions are extremely valued as it is the stepping stone for a child’s journey into life. Dibello and Ashelman (n.

d) inserted in their study that’ children are competent and autonomous learners, with the ability to create meaning and reach an understanding of their surrounding environment through frequent opportunities to work with open ended materials.’ The importance of integrating creativity encourages children to exchange differing views and ideas during group work. It also co-constructs children’s knowledge, develops higher order of thinking skills in a sociology- cultural context.

Dibello and Ashelman (n.d) further depicted that ‘children conveyed thoughts and feelings through visual media before developing more conventional ways of expressing ideas and emotions in words.’ Furthermore, Garrison (2013) quoted in her studies that teachers are faced with continuous challenges of developing strategies to simultaneously address children’s behaviour problems and promote positive self-expression.’ By integrating creative arts for instance music and movement and dance into the ECE Curriculum, it would be possible to teach children how to express themselves, promoting pro-social skills and creativity at the same time.In addition, Craft (n.d) acclaims that ‘fostering children’s possibility thinking can be seen as building their resilience and confidence and reinforcing their capabilities as confident explorers, meaning- makers and decision- makers’.

Hence integrating creativity across the ECE curriculum has many benefits for children to develop their developmental skills.REFERENCE Dibello, A. ; Ashelman, P. (n.d).

Integrating the arts in early childhood settings: The role of materials. Retrieved onlinehttps://www.newjerseyreggionetwork.orgGarrison, B. (2013).

Integrating music and movement into an early childhood education curriculum. Retrieved online: cardinalscholar.bsu.edu.pdfCraft, A. (n.d). Creativity and possibility in the early years.

Retrieved online: tactyc.org.uk MODULE 6ACTIVITY 6.

1Importance of Creative Arts and Inclusion of Children with Special NeedsSunday, 20 May 2018, 7:45 PMby Sharon KumariReflecting on this module, literature has confirmed that children with disabilities also harness gifts and talents. The general schools hesitate to include these children in their classrooms (Piske, Stoltz, ; Machado, 2014) thinking that teaching and learning will be disrupted by including them. The Convention on the Rights of the Persons with Disabilities states that “States Parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to education” (United Nations, n.d).

 Never the less, child care centres include children with disabilities whereas early intervention centres cater for children with developmental delays to help them make a difference in their growth and improve. As children with disabilities differ by the type of impairment from each other, creativity is the only learning experience that can motivate these children to attend school as canvassed by (Piske, Stoltz, ; Machado, 2014). Piske et al (2014) indicated that ‘if there is no development of creativity there is no inclusion.’ (Cruse, 2017) justifies Piske et al by stating that:                …if inclusion is the goal for students with disabilities, as has been                described in the Individuas with Disabilities Education Act,                then art classes should be a high priority. The arts can level the                playing field, because children with difficulties in academic subjects               might excel in drawing, painting, acting or dancing and singing.Literature (Bailey, 2015) has provided evidence of children with special needs who have been successful, for instance Tom Cruise and Orlando Bloom (actors) (Sprunt, McAleer, Steele, Daveta, Qeleni, ; Naliva, The disability-inclusive education handbook for teachers, 2015), Walt Disney (owner of Disney Land) and the list goes on. These people had indulged themselves into arts and had acquired fame. Moreover, creative arts assists children by building fine motor skills, problem solving skills, enhancing communication and expression, promoting self-esteem and motivation to succeed (Cruse, 2017).

By including children with special needs into the creative arts field, educators can help them find jobs in the art industry to earn a living and be independent. Furthermore, our module readings depict that it is the role of the teacher to identify the strengths and weaknesses of an individual through observation (University of the South Pacific, n.d), do further research on the type of disability so that appropriate planning can be done for the child’s unique needs. In contrast Vantassel-Baska (2004) points out in her research that the right amount of education is facilitative but too much may prove to be detrimental. Hence developmentally appropriate planning is of high priority.From my point of view, I think inclusion of children with disabilities into the creative arts provides them with a platform where they can socialise with other children, learn about others, make friends, develop their motor and cognitive skills and enhance their innate talents. REFERENCESBailey, N. (2015).

 The importance of arts to students with disabilities. Retrieved May 19, 2018, from Living in Dialogue: HYPERLINK “http://www.livingindialogue.com/the-importance-of-the-arts-to-students-with-disabilities/” http://www.

livingindialogue.com/the-importance-of-the-arts-to-students-with-disabilities/Cruse, C. (2017). The benefits of art for students with special needs.

 Retrieved May 19, 2018, from School Speciality Inc: HYPERLINK “https://blog.schoolspeciality.com/benefits-art-students-special-needs/” https://blog.schoolspeciality.com/benefits-art-students-special-needs/Piske, F. H.

, Stoltz, T., & Machado, J. (2014). Creative educational practices for inclusion of gifted children. Retrieved May 20, 2018, from Scientific Research Publishing Inc: http://file.scirp.org/Html/10-6302196_46997.

htmSprunt, B., McAleer, J., Steele, M., Daveta, M.

, Qeleni, M., & Naliva, L. (2015). The disability-inclusiveUnited Nations. (n.d). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities.

 Retrieved February 20, 2018, from United Nations Enable Newsletters: HYPERLINK “https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities.html” https://www.

un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities.htmlUniversity of the South Pacific. (n.d). Topic 5: The role of teachers in working with children with special needs. Retrieved May 14, 2018, from Moodle Shell: https://elearn.usp.

ac.fj/mod/page/view.php?id=22532VanTassel-Baska, V. J. (2004).

 Hoagies’ Gifted Education Page: Creative as an elusive factor in giftedness. Retrieved September 20, 2017, from ERIC: http://www.davidsongifted.org;entryMODULE 7ACTIVITY : 7.1Importance of Assessment for Learning in Creative ArtsSunday, 20 May 2018, 7:48 PMby Sharon KumariThis module discusses assessment for learning in creative arts.

Reading and researching disclosed that assessment is a tool that is an essential for planning or re-planning based on the developmental needs of an individual (Huffman, 2008). Huffman (2008) and (Aistear, n.d) asserted that assessment is a process of finding out what a child can do, what they know, and what they are interested in .

 Assessments are of many types and certain methods work better with young children. Bredekamp cited in (Huffman, 2008) proposed that testing can only be achieved with reliable and valid instruments for young children which are extremely rare; thus assessment should be relied upon observation and descriptive data, that is portfolios.According to Early Years Learning Framework and  (Beatie, 1997)assessment is an ongoing cycle of planning, documenting and evaluating children’s learning (Connor, 2011). The principles as stated below guide the appropriate assessment of young children:·        bring about the benefits for children with both; appropriate assessing and method of data collection for younger children·        including parents in their child’s education as valued source of assessment information about the child as well as audience for assessment (reports and interviews).·        Assessment policies should be designed recognizing the reliability and validity of assessments increase with children’s age.

·        Assessment should be age appropriate·        Assessment should be linguistically appropriate- taking into account the first and second language development of the child.·        Assessment should be tailored to a specific purpose and should be reliable, valid and fair for that purpose (Morrison, 2010)Morrison  (2010) further suggested that the purpose of assessment is to identify what children know, their special needs, determining appropriate placement, selecting appropriate curricula meeting the children’s individual needs and most importantly conduct referals for children as appropriate and if need be, their families as well to certain programmes and services. The purpose of assessment also encourages educators to communicate with families and provide information about their child’s progress and learning. The larger responsibility about conducting age appropriate assessment lies upon ECE teachers where they need to·        identify children’s skills, abilities and needs·        make lesson and activity plans, set goals·        select materials·        make decisions on how to implement learning activities·        conduct parent interviews and inform parents on their child’s progress·        monitor and improve the teaching-learning process·        meet individual needs of children·        Encourage group discussion (Morrison, 2010)Beatie (1997), however instigated that “formative assessment and evaluation during the program helps to modify and maximise student’s learning experiences  while summative assessment and evaluation monitors students’ attainment of the expectations and provides for program improvements in future.”Therefore, the method of assessment should be aligned to the age appropriate teaching-learning experience and include the families, public, the educator and the centre for successful results.

 REFERENCES Aistear. (n.d). Supporting learning and development through assessment.

 Retrieved May 12, 2018, from Aistear: the Early Childhood Curriculum Framework: ncca.bizBeatie, D. K. (1997). Assessment in visual arts. Retrieved May 12, 2018, from Davis Publications: HYPERLINK “http://home.


htm” http://home.oise.utoronto.ca/art~hinwood/art_assessment.

htmConnor, J. (2011). Tracking learning. Retrieved May 10, 2018, from Early Childhood Australia: earlychildhoodaustralia.org.auHuffman, P. D.

(2008). “Look what I did!” Why portfolio-based assessment works. Retrieved May 10, 2018, from Earlychildhood News: http://www.earlychildhoodnews.comMorrison, G.

S. (2010). Why is assessment important? Retrieved May 11, 2018, from education.com: https://www.education.com/reference/article/