EFFECTS the requirements for the

EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N I EFFECTS OF SUCCESSION PLANNING ON EMPLOYEE RETENTIN AND JOB SATISFACTION ??? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ? By: Abdul Hassan Mohsini Reg: K1P15MBA0029 Supervisor: Prof. Nadir Shah MBA in Management May 18, 2018 A thesis presented to Faculty of Management Sciences Bakhtar University, Kabul in partial fulfillme nt of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administratio n (Management) M ay 2018EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N II Conse nt Form for Supe rvisor (s) MBA/BBA Dissertatio n Department of Management Sciences Bakhter University, Kabul Student Name: _______Abdul Hassan Mohsini____________________________________ Enrolme nt Number: ___ K1P15MBA0029________________________________________ Permanent Address: _____ Khorbota, Pato, Jaghori, Ghazni, Afghanista n_______________ Postal Address: Behind Omarjan Mosque, Pol-e-Surkh, Karte (3), Kabul, Afghanista n. Contact Numbers: _____ (W) +93782612558 (Cell) +93744019646___ Email: [email protected] gma il.

co m_ Are a of Re se arch: ___ “Effects of Succession Planning on Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction” _______________________________________________________________ Discipline : _____MBA/ Management___________________________________________ Supe rvisory Pane l Princip le Supervisor Name: ____Prof: Nadir Shah______Title: “Effects of Succession Planning on Employee Retention and Job Satisfaction”. _Telephone : 0786827682 Email: [email protected] ya hoo.co m Address: Faculty of Management Sciences/Dept MBA/BBA Bakhter University_ _________ Co-Supervisor (if any) Name: _______________Title:_____________________ Telephone : _________________ Email: ___________________________________________________________________ Address:__________________________________________________________________ I am pleased to give my consent to act as the ?Princ ipa l Supervisor/Co-Supervisor? of Mr.

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Abdul Hassan Mohsini for the MBA/BBA Thesis. 1. Principa l Supervisor (s) Signature Student Signature ______________________ _______________ 2. Co-Supervisor ______________________ Note: The consent form must be submitted by the student after approval from the principal supervisor to the office of in-charge MBA and BBA Programs Department of Management Sciences.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N III BAKHTAR UNIVERSITY, KABUL APPROVAL SHEET SUBMISSION OF HIGHER RESEARCH DEGREE THESIS Candidate?s Name: Abdul Hassan Mohsini Discipline: Master of Business Administratio n (MBA) Management Faculty/Department: I hereby certify that the above candidate?s work, including the thesis, has been completed to my satisfaction and that the thesis is in a format and of an editorial standard recognized by the faculty/department as appropriate for examinatio n. Signature(s): In-Charge of Research & Development: Date: The undersigned certify that: 1. The candidate presented at a pre-completion seminar, an overview and synthesis of major findings of the thesis, and that the research is of a standard and extent appropriate for submissio n as a thesis. 2.

I have checked the candidate?s thesis and its scope, format; editoria l standards are recognized by the faculty/department as appropriate. Signature(s): Dean/Head of Faculty/Department: DatEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N IV DECLARATION I, Abdul Hassan Mohsini MBA, Student in the Department of Management Sciences, Bakhtar University, Kabul, certify that the research work presented in this thesis is to the best of my knowledge my own. All sources used and any help received in the preparation of this dissertation have been acknowledged. I hereby declare that I have not submitted this material, either in whole or in part, for any other degree at this or other institutio n. Signature: Name: Abdul Hassan MohsiniEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS All prays for almighty Allah, merciful to his mankind who created the universe his selected persons to all creatures. By the grace of Allah I become able to complete my research report I pay thanks to the prophet Muhammad (P.

B.U.H) and his ?Ahel-e-Bait? from the abysmal of my heart, as they provided guide line in every field of life and taught us the lesson of courage, struggle not to give up, no matter how difficult the task is. I owe an immense depth to the below noted patrons who paid full attention and provided extraordinary help, cooperation and able guidance, for which I feel expedient to pay tribute to all of them, with tremendous thanks made me competent to complete this difficult and curious task. Amongst these first of all I am highly indebted to my supervisor, Prof. N a dir S ha h, who was very kind and gracious to provide me all? Opportunities of guidance, direction and assistance whenever, required.

(Abdul Hassan Mohsini)EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N VI Dedication To my family, who supported me every step of the way in completing my Master of Business Administration degree, this would not have been possible without their patient and continues support and love. To my professors, my thesis supervisor, my class- fellows and friends who made it possible for my dream to come true.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N VII Table of Contents Chapter 1 .

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…………………………………….. 17 1.2.1 Trait Theory and Leaders hip: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17 1.2.2 Behaviora l Theory of Leaders hip: ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17 1.2.3 Situational Theory and Leaders hip: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 18 1.2.4 Trans format ional Leaders hip Theory: ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19 1.2.5 Chaos Theory and Leaders hip:……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20 1.3 Emp loyee retention:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24 1.3.1 Motivation Theory: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26 1.4 Emp loyee Job Satis faction: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27 1.4.1 Motivation Theories :…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28 1.4.2 Motivation and Hygiene Two Factor Theory: ………………………………………………………………………………. 29 1.4.3 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y: ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32 1.4.4 Theory X: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32 1.4.5 Theory Y: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33 1.4.6 ERG Theory of Motivation:………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34 1.4.7 Expectancy Theory-Vroom: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35 1.5 Co mpany Prof ile of Shuhada Organization ………………………………………………………………………………………. 36 1.5.1 Organizational Bac kground:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36 1.5.2 Vis ion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37 1.5.3 Mis s ion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37 1.5.4 Progra m/P roject Activit ies……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38 1.5.5 Peace build ing and conflict res olution:…………………………………………………………………………………………. 40 1.5.6 Internal Evaluation: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42 1.5.7 External Evaluation by the Donors : ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 43 1.5.8 Organizational Long Ter m I mpact: ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43 9.5.1 Health: (Benef icia ries: 4, 968,831)………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44 1.5.10 Education: (Benef ic iar ies: 216, 073)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 45 1.5.11 Hu man Rights, wo men’s r ights and reproductive health trainings : (Benef ic iar ies : 1, 589, 754) .. 46 1.5.12 Orphanages : (Benef icia ries : 351) …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47 1.5.13 Shelter: (Benef icia r ies: 40) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48 1.5.14 Capacity Building: ( Benefic iar ies : 30, 061 individuals )……………………………………………………………. 49 1.5.15 Vocat ional Tra ining: ( Benef icia r ies : 6,214) …………………………………………………………………………….. 49 1.5.16 Livelihood: ( Benef icia ries : 736 Fa milies )………………………………………………………………………………… 50 1.5.17 Cons truction: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50 1.5.18 Agriculture: ( Benef icia ries : 2, 582 indiv iduals ) ………………………………………………………………………… 50 1.5.19 Environmental Protection: ( Benefic iar ies : 17, 045) ………………………………………………………………….. 51 1.5.20 Eme rgency Re lie f : ( Benef ic iar ies : 839, 945 indiv iduals (1994-2006)……………………………………… 51 1.5.21 Provis ion of Clean W ater: ( Benef ic iar ies : 16,600)…………………………………………………………………… 51EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N VIII 1.5.22 Res earch beneficia ries : 252 ( Fe ma le: 190; Male : 62)………………………………………………………………. 51 1.5.23 Gawhars had Ins titute of Higher Education: 2667 ( Fe ma le: 895; Male : 1772) …………………………. 52 1.5.24 Financia l Overvie w: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53 1.5.25 Awards : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54 1.6 Proble m State ment:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56 1.7 Null-hypothes is : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57 1.8 Theoretical F ra mewor k: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57 1.9 Res earch Objectives : …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59 1.10 Significance of the Study: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59 Chapter 2 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61 Literature Revie w …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61 Chapter 3 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80 Data and Methodology …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80 3.1 Res earch Des ign:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80 3.2 Population: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80 3.3 Sa mpling S ize: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81 3.4 Sa mpling Technique: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81 3.5 Source of Data : …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81 3.6 Pr imary Data Collection: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81 3.7 Secondary Data Collection: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81 3.8 Data Analys is :…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 82 Chapter 4 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83 Analys is and Findings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83 4.1 Dis cus s ion Part: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83 4.2 Re liab ility of the Ques tionnaire:……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83 4.3 Regres s ion Analys is : ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85 4.4 Trend Analys is………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 88 4.4.1 De mographic Info r mation of Res earch: ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 88 4.4.2 I mple mentation of Success ion Planning Pract ices : ………………………………………………………………………. 91 4.4.3 I mple mentation of Emp loyee Retention Strategies : ……………………………………………………………………… 99 4.4.4 Job Satis faction:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107 Chapter 5 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112 Conclus ion and Recommendation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112 5.1 Conclus ion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112 5.1.1 Res ults of Regres s ion Analys is :………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112 5.1.2 Res ults of Graphica l Analys is : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112 5.2 Reco mmendation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114 5.3 Refe rences : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N IX Abstract The purpose of this research was to explore effects of succession planning on employee retention and job satisfaction in Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education. Case study, research design and deductive approach have been used in this research. Questionnaire has been developed to collect data from Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education in Kabul. Data sample has been selected from among both organizations, those who knew English to fill the questionnaires. Personally visited every respondent in their work place explained the research objectives. Distributed questionnaire to each person and illustrated clearly the whole questionnaire’s questions and then asked them to fill the forms. Collected data analyzed by SPSS and regression was run to find significance of the variable. Succession planning was significant for employee retention but in-signification for job satisfaction. From the graphic analysis found out that majority of the employees rejected implementation of succession planning by Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education in the organizations and also majority of the employee were neutral about effects of succession planning on employee retention and job satisfactio n in these two organiza tio ns. Keywords: Succession Planning, Employee Retention, Employee Job Satisfaction,EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 1 Chapte r 1 Introduction For sustainability, each organization needs to have a planning for its human resource’s future. Organizational resources will not be sustainable for long time specifically organizational human resources. By the passage of time human resource are changed due to retirement, promotion, illness, death, committing crime, firing by organizations and voluntary departure from the organization to follow a career somewhere else. To cover such changes and to avoid key staff leading gaps, organizations should have their replacement employees available to cover the managing and leading gaps of the organizations. Succession planning can help organizations to avoid employees’ turnover risk and it will be a suitable effort in this regards. For decades, the concern of succession planning was about the exact people, not skills and talents, who are needed for the organization’s future. During those times, the only purpose of succession planning was to tag and identify the needed successors to replace their ancestors for a specific job. The aim of succession planning in this old view was top leaders and business owners in the large organization. Traditionally, succession planning links with replacement planning. Replacement planning is a form of risk management which focus on the replacing the key executive, exactly before leaving the organizatio ns (Deshwal,2015). In today’s dynamic world where competition is high, work is fluid, environment is unpredictable, organizations are flatter, and the organizational configuration frequently changes, the old view of succession planning by defining specific people for The specific job does not work. Nowadays, organizations need a group of high potential people at all levels of their organizations. Developing general competencies, creatingEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 2 flexibility and creating the leadership potential at all organizational levels is a wisely action in today’s organizatio ns(Deshwa l,2015). 1.1 Succe ssion Planning William (2010) defined succession planning as a means of identifying critical management positions, starting at the levels of project manager and supervisor and extending up to the highest position in the organization and he also describes management positions to provide maximum ?exibility in lateral management moves and to ensure that as individuals achieve greater seniority, their management skills will broaden and become more generalized in relation to total organizational objectives rather than to purely departmental objectives. Cappelli (2011), Describes succession planning as a ?process of anticipating and then planning for the replacement of important employees in an organization? and the positions that are the subject of succession plans have traditionally been at the executive level, and the vacancies being planned for are predictable ones associated with retirement. But the processes of succession planning could be applied to virtually any job, even those that are not at senior levels. Virtually all succession planning is built on the notion that internal development and work-based learning will prepare candidates for more senior positions. ?Succession planning is a process ensuring organizations that their required personnel are employed, and they are trained and developed for filling key positions in the organization. The purpose of succession planning is to ensure that the key positions, which have been left by the related personnel, are filled using this planning effectively. Succession planning is not merely a promotion, rather a set of processes including experimenting, training, coaching, evaluation, testing, communication, understanding, and active achievement of the organization’s objectives. Succession planning is not a provisional process, rather an annual permanent one beginning from the employer of personnel, since the future managers of an organization are among the personnel employed today. The research literature of 1980s and 1990s discussed the principlesEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 3 of succession planning. The recent researches have defined the key items of succession planning and management system consisting of ten elements: organizational commitment with articulation of expectations, process transparency, assessment of organizational needs, identification of key positions, establishment of knowledge, skill, and ability, evaluation of talents, development of individual growth plans, individual feedback, accountability, process evaluation, and integrity of process throughout the organization? (Darvish ; N. Temelie, 2014). Good succession planning is not just looking at who is next in line for a slot, but looking at people early in their careers and determining what kind of training they need to become leaders. There was a time when organizations had many managerial levels, and the abundant leaders spent a substantial amount of time in strategic activities such as process improvement, training and mentoring. Employees had expectations of staying with an employer for decades and hoped that after a few years of distinguished service they might be invited to join the ranks of management trainees. With the luxury of time, supervisors had the opportunity to observe direct reports across many situations and guide employees with high potential toward future career opportunities (Avanesh, 2011). Ahmad et al (2015), defined succession planning is the process that helps to ensure the stability and tenure of personnel succession. McCauley and Wakefield (2006, as sited in Ahmad et al, 2015) defined succession planning as a process that leads management to define and address talent management strategies as they prepare the organization, and people for the future. Darvish ; N, Temelie (2014), have illustrated that succession planning is a process ensuring organizations that their required personnel are employed, and they are trained and developed for filling key positions in the organization. The purpose of succession planning is to ensure that the key positions, which have been left by their late personnel, are filled using this planning effectively. Succession planning is not merely a promotion, rather a set of processes including experimenting, training, coaching, evaluation, testing, communication,EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 4 understanding, and active achievement of the organization’s objectives. Succession planning is not a provisional process, rather an annual permanent one beginning from the employer of personnel, since the future managers of an organization are among the personnel employed today. Key items of succession planning and manageme nt system consisting of ten elements: 1. Organizatio na l commitme nt with articulatio n of expectations, 2. Process transparency, 3. Assessment of organizatio na l needs, 4. Identificatio n of key positions, 5. Establishment of knowledge, skill, and ability, 6. Evaluatio n of talents, 7. Development of individua l growth plans, 8. Individ ua l feedback, accountability, 9. Process evaluation and 10. Integrity of process throughout the organizatio n. Avanesh (2011), described that succession planning is the biggest challenge for the companies in India which are facing. Further, At the Tata group, the challenge is even more daunting. Not only does the board need to find and groom a successor to Chairman Ratan Tata, who retires in 2012, but also the CEOs of Tata Steel and Tata Motors, the two biggest companies by revenue. At Wipro, Chairman Azim Premji, 61 needs to get a successor in place too, although Wipro has no retirement age for the chairman. It would be unfortunate if India’s CEOs needed to stay on their jobs not because they wanted to, but because they were forced to. At this point, that’s the sort of leadership crisis in India Inc. seems to be staring. Baldwin (2005, as cited in Avanesh, 2011), in his article ?The Strategy of Succession Planning? he states that succession planning plays a major role in the companies’ strategic planning. Succession planning is not only for CEOs but also for all key positions. It furtherEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 5 illustrates the advantages and disadvantages associated with succession planning. The process of developing succession planning requires a long- term strategy for the company involving the key area that requires continuity and development and the key people that the organization wishes to develop. Weekley (2005, as cited in Avanesh, 2011), in his study ?Succession Planning: Issues and Answers?, he states that the HR professionals develop the succession planning with a mandate received from the CEO. However, the application of the process is not sure. To put the plan in the process, the organizations should follow a few techniques. That is the CEO must be an avid supporter and an active participant, the line management must own the process with HR playing a supportive role, gaps between the current and future skill requirements are to be identified, succession planning must be consistent with other programs, employees are to be held accountable for their own planning and should focus on the selection process, the planning process has to be reviewed quite often. Beck and Conchie (2012), defined that ?Succession planning is the process by which companies identify internal candidates who have the potential to fill leadership roles at a level of performance exceeding that of the incumbents. It is a process that includes elements of selection and development. The succession planning process doesn’t just apply to the top job; it is replicable across the entire company and is an essential part of building a ?Talent Machine.? This paper identifies what works in succession planning and what doesn’t, based on Gallup’s findings from more than 40 years of research on successful leaders and organiza tio ns?. The most popular framework for understanding succession planning is described by Rothwell (2005, as cited in Mariotti, 2014), said that succession planning as an effort designed to ensure the continued effective performance of an organization, division, department, or work group by making provision for the development, replacement andEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 6 strategic application of key people over time in efforts to preserve, maintain and communicate the institutional memory and unique experience over time. Succession planning is an evolving human resource model that cannot be a one-time activity. It is an ongoing examination of what the organization should stop, start and continue McWilliams (2005, as cited in Mariotti, 2014), organizations should examine themselves to identify potential leadership candidates Kesler (2002, as cited in Mariotti, 2014), calls this analyzing leadership ?bench strength? and consulted with 25 major companies observing various approaches to succession planning. He concluded that replacement planning was obsolete in today’s workforce and that succession planning includes a comprehensive set of assessment and development practices that support the entire workforce for identifying talent at all levels of the organization while nurturing talent and potential at all levels. He found that leadership development has been observed for more than 25 years in Fortune 500 companies such as General Electric, Exxon and a few others as they developed best practices for developing future leaders. In 1973, Walter Mahler wrote Executive Continuity, one of the first reports detailing reports of how leading corporations planned for the replacement of key executives and found succession planning to be an important complement to executive leadership Kesler (2002, as cited in Mariotti, 2014). A recent literature search shows that while articles on succession in the private sector continue to proliferate, there continues to be a lack of strong public and nonprofit sector models. This has been the case for some time. Kesner and Sebora (1994, as cited Wilkerson, 2007), reviewed the literature on succession planning that had been published between 1960 and 1993 and drew several conclusions: While there was a sharp increase in the literature beginning in 1980, a lack of successful, proven strategies remained. Ambiguity about the results of many successions and succession planning methods still existed. Further exploration was necessary to determine the factors and strategies in successful transitions. InEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 7 addition, Kesner and Sebora noted that most of the studies had focused on the origin of the successor (internal or external) and the consequences of the succession (market response, fiscal performance and so on). They concluded that this period was only the beginning of a comprehensive study of succession planning. Schall (1997, as cited in Wilkerson, 2007), echoed their lament about the lack of literature, particularly in the public sector. She noted that serious study of succession planning in the public sector began in 1992 with a National Academy of Public Administration study in response to an anticipated turnover crisis in the SES. Since then, she said, most literature had focused on the transition of the chief executive officer. Finally, she noted an overall lack of focus on successful transition at the agency level, and suggested this was an area for future research. Santora and Sarros (1995, as cited in Wilkerson, 2007), also found little conclusive data about transition in the nonprofit sector, and said that much research was needed in that area. From these authors’ perspective, public and nonprofit literature was scant because many leaders in these sectors believed no one else was capable of leading the organization and because many public sector leaders had long tenures. Consequently, succession issues have only recently begun to come to the fore in these sectors. Working with organizations, we have seen the concern about pending retirements among senior public leaders trigger an interest in succession planning. Despite the overall lack of public sector literature on the subject, two case studies show how public sector organiza tio ns can address succession planning successfully (Wilkerson, 2007). Todd, & Stanley, (2011), explained that ?implementing a succession planning program is no different than the rollout of any other important corporate initiative, requiring a focus on change management, communication and cultural alignment that must be actively managed. While these may be customized depending on the organization, successfully implemented programs share five common elements:EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 8 First, they are integrated into the organization’s long-term business strategy. Successful companies think beyond hiring or promoting for today – they are interested in the skills and experience they will need to be competitive tomorrow. That means understanding where the industry is headed and how the company plans to move forward over the next five to 10 years. What areas of the business will grow? What areas will be scaled back? Is it likely the company will expand through acquisitions, which could bring new talent on board? How will technology change the way work is performed? And for companies involved internationally, what types of national content needs – and talents – will emerge? To be successful, succession planning teams must identify the core competencies required for a broad range of key positions, including those that may not even exist today. They must also evaluate the company’s current capabilities and develop or acquire the learning and training opportunities that are required to fill the gaps. In addition, they need to be aware of the functions and business units that will need an infusion of outside talent in the future, and begin working now to bring in new employees with the proper skill sets or at least the foundation in these skill areas. Second, successful programs are owned by the senior management team. As with any corporate initiative, buy-in and involvement from the C-suite is imperative. The company’s leaders must understand the value of succession planning, and they should be involved in coaching and development of talent – beyond just their immediate reports. The leadership team should have some level of accountability, too, with compensation tied in part to succession planning metrics. Third, the company must continually assess key talent to determine if pivotal talent has the proper competencies and experience needed to move beyond their current positions. Ongoing assessment is critically important for energy companies because of the technological nature of the business and the scope and scale of work projects. It’s a common fallacy that anEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 9 individual who is doing a good job in his or her current position is ready for promotion. The succession planning team needs to determine the leadership and management requirements for each critical position in the company, and then determine if there are high performing employees who meet that detailed criteria. If the identified candidates do not yet have the full range of required skills, the succession planning team must determine the training or work experience that will help fill the gaps. For example, some employees might be encouraged to return to school to earn an MBA. Others might benefit from leading a cross-functional project team or taking a specialized training class. Still others might require a short-term assignment in other business unit. The key to remember is that every employee is different, and thus every development path should be different, too. Communication with high performers is critical to ensure that employees understand what the company is working to accomplish through these recommendations, and that they see assignments and training as part of a tailored plan designed to improve their value, not random suggestio ns. Assessing talent regularly is also important because, as we mentioned earlier, filling one position typically creates a cascading effect that involves a number of employee moves. The company must be ready to act in order to keep positions filled and employees moving properly on their development path. In some cases, an employee may need a horizontal move to fill gaps in their skill set, or a diagonal move to help round out experience for two positions down the line. For this reason, it is important that the company’s culture recognize the fact that development often occurs via a ?career lattice? rather than a ?career ladder.? In other words, climbing straight up quickly is no longer considered an ideal approach for career development because it eliminates the opportunity to gain valuable experience in different functions – experience that can help the individual obtain a broader, more complete view of the company and how it works.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 10 One caveat: Because the energy industry is an international business, many companies strive to give high-potential employees experience in overseas operations. It is crucial that these moves be made with care, because studies show that ex-pat employees are more likely to seek employment outside the company upon their return than those who remain in domestic positions. Screening for overseas assignments should be done very carefully, and every attempt should be made to communicate with potential candidates to ensure that they – and their families – can adjust to such a move. Sending an employee who has school-aged children or an elderly dependent to a remote location might create undue hardship and negative feelings, which could ultima te ly drive the individ ua l to leave the company. Leaders involved in the succession planning process should not be afraid to talk with candidates to gain an understanding of their unique personal situations before recommending ex-pat assignments or other key rotational assignments outside of the normal work location. Remember that succession planning is really about developing individuals, not just filling positions. In addition, sending a top performer to a remote location without ensuring they remain connected to the home organization can sometimes make the employee feel forgotten or abandoned. Regular interaction with managers back home is critical, and all ex-pat employees should have combined home country-host country evaluations, at least annually, to ensure that they are obtaining the desired skills for development and not just marking time in a position that has no future. Fourth, companies must ensure that succession planning is linked to other talent management processes and practices, including job titling, training, compensation, learning and development and rewards and recognition. For example, as mentioned earlier, a successful succession planning program will often require employees to accept lateral orEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 11 diagonal career moves to round out their experience. Ensuring that employees’ job titles and compensation opportunities are not diminished by such moves is critical to employee acceptance and job satisfactio n. Finally, companies must monitor and evaluate the performance of their succession planning efforts, and make adjustments as necessary. Some key metrics used by successful companies include measurement of the reduction in the cost of turnover, percentage of key vacancies filled by internal candidates and number of successful promotions. Also, some companies use employee surveys to identify the engagement levels of high performers as well as others to gauge how they feel about the company’s career developme nt efforts.? Business, (n.d.), brought that succession plans are important because they make sure you’ve thought about the future of your business. They also ensure a smooth transfer of ownership of your business, so when you’re finally ready to leave, you can rest easy knowing that you’ve ?handed over the reins? to the right person. 10-step process can help us develop a plan that will, at the very least, get us thinking about succession planning. We’ll cover: identifying a successor, establishing a timeline, creating an exit strategy, developing a written succession plan, beginning the observation period, selecting the chosen successor, assembling a Board of Advisors, announcing the official transfer date, transferring leadership/appoint Board of Directors, starting the exit strategy. Francis (2000), explains that succession planning is essential for every organization. One might say that succession planning is leadership. But surprisingly few approach this important responsibility with the focus and commitme nt that gives board members and CEOs real peace of mind. Importance, Capex, Page, and Edge (2012), Succession planning is one of those things that business owners sometimes put on their back burner, but never get around to really focusing on until succession is literally staring them in the face. However, failing to planEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 12 early and adequately for business succession can have serious implications—for both the business entity and the owner. For starters, it can harm a company’s prospects for long-term survival after the owner leaves the business. It can also make it more difficult for the owner to exit the business on his or her terms and with the financial resources needed for the next stage of life—whether this is retirement, a new business venture or perhaps a charitable or philanthrop ic endeavor. John’s (2008), discussing that essentially, succession planning is a conscious decision by an organization to foster and promote the continual development of employees, and ensure that key positions maintain some measure of stability, thus enabling an organization to achieve business objectives. Traditionally, succession planning has sometimes taken a replacement approach, often focusing on executive-level positions. One or two successors might be identified and selected, probably based on the exclusive input of their immediate supervisor, and then placed on the fast-track into a senior position. However, succession planning has evolved into a process that can be used to: 1. Replenish an organiza tio n’s HR at a broad or specific level; 2. Identify, assess and develop employee knowledge, skills and abilities to meet the current and future staffing needs of the organizatio n; and 3. Ensure a continuous supply of talent by helping employees develop their potential, as successors for key departmenta l positions. Hor, et all (2010), define succession planning is different from replacement planning, because it focuses on forecasting organizational needs. It isn’t based upon reactions to an unforeseen event, but rather it is based upon proactively securing the human resources needed to ensure the continuity and prosperity of an organization. Succession planning is about the identification and development of future leaders. Therefore, an organization needs to identify,EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 13 develop, and select successors who are the right candidates with the right skills at the right time for leadership positions. Carniege (2009, as cited in Pandey ; Sharma, 2014), suggests “succession planning as a systematic way to ensure that employees in a particular organization are competent enough to develop and then replace strategic roles in organiza tio n hierarchy”. Rothwell (2005, as cited in Pandey ; Sharma, 2014), throughout his book explains that an organization which does not have a succession planning system in place i.e. they lack a formal succession plan find trouble in various areas such as: key positions are not filled in an timely manner, key positions are filled by external candidates, constant horror of turnover at key positions, potential replacements are never ready and lack essential skills, most qualified talent is not retained. These are some problem areas which organizations face and never realize. It’s just due to lack of formal planning. Pernick (2002, as cited in Pandey & Sharma, 2014), obviously good management will never happen by itself and succession planning is continuation of that. Pernick goes on to discuss some disadvantages if succession planning is not provided in an organization such as: chaos, poor image, and bad publicity to stakeholders and finally spirals to bad revenues and loss of customers. Sukayri (2016), define that succession planning is important for all organizations across the system irrespective of size and complexity. Taking into consideration that the ?one-size-fits-all? approach cannot be applied to the United Nations system organizations, given the diversity of their size and mandates, the Inspector suggests the application of the following primary benchmarks based on leading practices in the private and public sectors. Chlebikova et al (2015), suggested uniform model for succession planning, which could be applied in any business, doesn´t exist. Each company may develop its own model whileEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 14 taking into account the size of the company, future development of the company and related future needs of employees with the required qualification requirements and the development of knowledge in the company. Succession planning is the process associated with the future, therefore, should be based on the strategic plans and goals of the company. Strategic plans should help current owners to identify a set of criteria for their successors, so that the company will grow and develop. Sukalova, Ceniga, (2013, as cited in Chlebikova, Misankova, & Kramarova, 2015), explaining that while creating a succession plan is essential to identify the key employees with high – potential so the company has always a suitable candidate to fill the free job. Succession plans require two forms of effort: ? Identification and development of key employees – the goal is to narrow the selection process and also to examine potential employees, ? Conduct of formal successor tables – information about the current manager and also about the successors respectively. The process of succession planning should be a dynamic process on the formation of which should be involved team of people who have an idea about the future development of the company, they are associated with strategic goals of the company and have an idea about their implementation. Succession plan itself may have different forms. The simplest plan is a chain type plan that usually mentions only one alternate to the appropriate position in the company and is used for succession planning in one department of the company. 1. Developme nt needs 2. Identifica tio n of potential successor 3. Developing and training of successor 4. Remuneratio n and benefits 5. Shift in positionsEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 15 For the succession planning in the whole company are used pyramid – type of succession plans or plans in the form of a grid, which cover all leading or key positions in the company and for each position specifies more than one successor (usually three) and it is possible also to determine their order. An important feature of the succession plans is their dynamics, which means that proposals for functions are not fixed, so in case is someone more suitable for a function the succession plan or order of successor may change. Succession plans thus offer alternatives for future occupancy of certain functions, respectively they highlight currently non – existent successor and on the risks connected with that. Into the succession plan can be placed employees based on seniority (age, length of service, length of service in the company), but it is more often on the basis of competence. When succession planning there is an important question if to plan succession ?inside the company? therefore from the own human resources of the company and whether to create a plan for everyone from the moment he stepped into the company or to focus on individuals with high potential. The advantage of focusing on the talent is that the company can pay more attention to them, coach them, mentor them and provide training aimed to develop skills and experience reflecting to the current and future needs of the company. The risk is that you might have overlooked the other great people who have been ?doomed? and defeated their progress. The second option is to get successors from ?outside?. This option is preferred if the company wants to go in completely different direction in the future and current leaders are not identified with these changes. They want to leave and the new generation inside the company is not sufficiently prepared yet (Chlebikova et al, 2015). Succession planning is the process of systematically identifying, assessing, and developing employee talents to meet the future staffing needs of an organization Richard Shore, City of North Vancouver, presentation to BC Recreation and Parks Association annual symposium (Dec 06, 2002, as cited in Francis, 2004 ).EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 16 Francis (2004), points out that succession planning requires more than just a basic organizational chart showing the various departments and providing an outline of who is in what job. Succession planning is an ongoing, dynamic process which can provide a methodology for developing and maintaining a strong and capable workforce with employees that possess the skills and competencies necessary to meet the future needs of municipal government. A succession plan can aid in aligning an organization’s goals with current employees, and help identify the skills and competencie s required to achieve those goals. In the past it was a rather simple process where the CAO or Council would decide who should be slotted into senior management positions. Those decisions were often based on hunches, instinct, or intuition. In most instances, the person slotted to be next in line knew in advance that he or she was being groomed for the job. Sometimes they even felt that the job was theirs by right because they were next in line. Undertaking a succession planning program can offer a number of benefits to the municipality. In addition to the development of a pool of skilled workers, it can also provide a coordinated strategy for identifying key personnel who can be helped to maximize their potential by means of a well thought out career planning process (Francis, 2004). In addition to making the municipality a more attractive employer to prospective and current employees, the introduction of such an initiative can have the added benefit of keeping valuable, skilled and ambitious, career oriented individuals in municipal government by providing opportunities for growth and advancement. Succession planning programs offer the opportunity for challenging and rewarding career possibilities, and provides an opportunity for empowering current employees by offering a venue for them to develop the skills and qualifications they might need to develop which may allow them to move into more senior administrative positions (Francis, 2004).EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 17 1.2 The ore tical background of le ade rship in succe ssion planning: There seems to be no major theoretical ideologies that play a dominant part in succession planning and management development organizations. For this research, the following theories are thought to be of great importance: trait theory, behavioral theory, situatio na l theory, transformatio na l leadership theory and chaos theory. According to Holdford (2003), the following questions are the utmost importance: What do you look for if you want to select an effective leader? What behaviors should you try to improve if you want to improve your own leadership effectiveness and under what conditions do differe nt leadership behaviors work best? 1.2.1 Trait The ory and Le ade rship: Trait theory is an overarching term that refers to theories based on desirable traits for leaders. This theory proposes that the greatest predictors of effectiveness and success of leaders are the traits with which these individuals are endowed at birth or develop early in life (Holdford, 2003). In an extensive review of the literature regarding trait theory, the most important traits are identified as drive, motivation integrity, self-confidence, intelligence and knowledge (Holdford, 2003). Ultimately, studies of trait theory have shown that the relationship between these traits and ultimate abilities and success of leaders is weak and inconsistent. In spite of the weak link between these traits and success in leadership, they should not be completely discounted. Trait theory itself may not offer explanations to all facets of succession planning and management, but this theory is most certainly a piece of the theoretica l puzzle. 1.2.2 Be havioral The ory of Le ade rship: The question that many organizations struggle with is ?what behaviors should our leaders possess and develop to be most effective?? Behavioral theory attempts to answer theseEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 18 questions. When a person exhibits potential leadership behavior, he or she is assessed for distinctiveness regarding that behavior-if it distinguishable from behaviors of others in the group, then leadership may be attributed to that person (Kenney, Blascovish ; Shaver, 1994). Behavioral theory specifically identifies two primary examples of behavior that leaders adopt: these are task orientation and follower orientation (Holdford, 2003). In those leaders who exhibit a task-oriented style, the focus is on accomplishing the assigned job, while concerns about followers take a back seat (Holdford, 2003). These leaders bring structure and direction to followers by setting goals, providing training, defining expectations and limits on behavior and establishing rules and procedures (Holdford, 2003). While this behavior can lead to structure, there comes a point where it is no longer useful as it becomes restrictive to subordinates. Follow oriented leaders focus less on the job at hand and express a greater concern for the follower as a human being and not a cog in the machine (Holdford, 2003). Leaders with this orientation demonstrate behaviors such as showing respect, gaining trust, demonstrating consideration and being friendly and approachable (Holdford, 2003). The ultimate goal should be to develop and promote leaders with a balance of these behaviors. 1.2.3 Situational The ory and Le ade rship: Situatio na l theory attempts to develop an understanding regarding how leaders can and should adapt to the changing dynamics of leadership situatio ns. According to this theory, the greatest predictor of leadership effective ness and success is the situatio n in which a leader finds themselves (Holdford, 2003). The traits and the behaviors are important in this theory but the focus is on specific situatio ns. The following components, taken from Holdford (2003) which describe situatio na l theory:EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 19 Nature of the job- jobs can be routine or no routine, structured or unstructured. Afar greater level of commitme nt is needed in professiona l work settings where individ ua ls work independently to solve complex problems. Follower characteristics- Some followers are highly motivated, requiring little direction, while others are unmotivated and require close oversight and direction. Relationship between leader and followe rs- Trust is essential to a leader’s success. A good leader inspires confidence in and loyalty toward the leader. Organizatio na l constraints- Many organiza tio ns place many constraints on leaders. Leaders are often hindered in their ability to hire, fire, discipline and reward staff. The leader’s abilities- Some leaders are more capable and experienced in dealing with leadership situatio ns than others. Adaptability is key. The key component in situational leadership theory is the ability of the leader to adapt to diverse situations, rather than changing them (Holdford, 2003). Also, Kenney, Blascovich ; Shaver (1994), offer the relationship between leaders and their subordinates explains a situational contingency that is a critical determinant of a leaders’ effectiveness. In today’s ever changing health care environment, those individuals strong in their ability to adapt to diverse situatio ns can be a critical component to success. 1.2.4 Transformatio na l Le ade rship The ory: Transformational leadership theory also fits into the succession planning and management equation. This theory explains one of the fundamental ways in which leaders influence followers is by creating meaningful work (Purvanova, Bono ; Dzieweczynski, 2006). Transformational leaders are charismatic and inspirational and provide individualized consideration to followers, attending to followers’ individual needs for growth andEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 20 development (Bass, 1985). Transformational leadership should result in more engaged, more devoted and less self-concerned employees, as well as in workers who perform beyond the level of expectations (Purvanova, Bono & Dzieweczynski, 2006). In short, transformational leadership is about achieving results beyond expectations. In succession planning and management, this theory could be a key component for success. By having leaders who possess these traits involved in the planning process, we could see greater engagement in the process and success of the program over time. 1.2.5 Chaos The ory and Le ade rship: Chaos Theory deals with unpredictability and uncertainty. Chaos, or disruption, is a necessary condition for change in social systems (Remer, 2006). This theory plays in to the difficulties that health care organizations face with succession planning and management. As the ever changing health care world continues to evolve, it has become increasingly chaotic amid worries about how to respond to caring for aging baby boomers, filling key top level management positions amongst the rising retirements and adjusting to falling insurance and Medicare reimbursements. The new health care legislation has added to the confusion and uncertainty in health care and has many organizations scrambling to understand the law and its effects on their practice. Chaos theory offers a view into why the health care system is the way it is and how successful succession planning can rise from this supposed ?chaos?. Chaos theory can be described as a ?period of transition in which change occurs in unpredictable, irregular and uncertain ways? (Duffy, 2000). According to Merry (1995), the essence of chaos is change. Chaos is not a stable condition or fixed state but it is more like changing the relationship between things rather than the things themselves (Merry, 1995). Remer (2006), states that social systems are in perpetual chaos and that the only degree to which there is any issue is that of how the interactions manifest themselves. According to Bright & Pryor (2005): the two key concepts of chaos theory are nonlinearity and recursive.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 21 Non-linear systems are characterized by the elements of adding up to more (or less) than the sum of the parts. Chaotic systems display other characteristics, such as a lack of Predictability at the micro-level, while at the same time appearing to have a degree of stability at the macro level. Their non-linear nature means that minor events can have a disproportiona te outcome on the system. Remer (2006), describes chaos theory as being about patterns and how they develop and change. The patterns may be related to phenomena at various levels of application or abstraction from various disciplines-physics, chemistry, biology, ecology, sociology, psychology, anthropology or whatever dynamical systems exist (Remer, 2006, p.56). Merry (1995), identifies five major concepts of chaos theory: trigger points, order in chaos, order from chaos, chaotic transition and self-organizing process. These concepts are outlined as follows: 1. Trigger points are an urgent sense that a change in conditions has occurred and something must happen if suffic ie nt adaptation is to occur. 2. Order in chaos is the concept that order is found in chaos through the individuals’ behaviora l responses. 3. Order from chaos is the concept that order can emerge and a new Level of functioning can be achieved. 4. Chaotic transition is the time of transition in which the individual experiences uncertainty, unpredictab ility and ambiguity. 5. Self-organizing process is when the system proceeds from a state of equilibrium through chaotic disequilibrium which eventual emerges into a new way of knowing (Merry, 1995). There are many additional components of chaos theory. These nine concepts are summarized below:EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 22 1. Phase spaces are the conceptualization of the possible views of a system. One sees only a portion of reality at one time. Different theoretical perspectives define different phase spaces or different maps and simplific atio ns of the system reality. 2. Strange attractors and their basis of attraction are the focal points for many and the most challenging patterns generated by dynamical, chaotic systems. They are sets of attracting and repelling points that make up and generate patterns. Their basins of attractions are the areas containing the patterns within their boundaries. 3. Fractals are measures or representations of complexity and the term conveys two important concepts: that what one sees depends largely on one’s perspective and that accuracy of measurement often depends on the definition of the process. Systems’ structures and patterns are fractal. 4. Self-affinity denotes the tendency for recursive processes to evidence recurring patterns of various types. Patterns tend to repeat themselves, not exactly, but close enough to be recognizable even on different levels and scales. 5. Bifurcation is splitting in two. Bifurcation increases patterns complexity. Cascade occurs when bifurcatio ns happen at such a rate that no patterns seem discernable. 6. Recursivity is self-reflexiveness, the feeding of information from one’s patterns back into the process of producing them. 7. Unpredictability is the inability to describe with certainty the next state or the previous state of a system given knowledge of its present state. Everything about a system cannot be known with absolute certainty and that any attempt to assess a situatio n will affect it. 8. Self-organization is the inherent tendency for systems in chaotic state to form new coherent patterns and to re-organize, based only on the interactions of their components.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 23 9. Resonance is the synchronicity of constituent components of a system, leading to reciprocal influence. The production of such patterns as chaos, reorganization and stagnatio n. Remer (2006). Chaos theory has been studied in many scientific disciplines but it is starting to show its applicability to social research. Social systems are continuo usly in a state of chaos. Change is something that is occurring all the time and with that change or as a result of it, there is chaos. According to Remer (2006), all dynamica l systems, human or otherwise, are recursive and adjust by means of feedback loops. ?These systems develop and adapt their patterns of behavior, thoughts and interactio ns in complex, chaotic manners? (Remer, 2006, p.56). Summary In developing and maintaining successful succession planning and management programs in organization, needs to be an understanding of all the discussed theories, their implications for the future of organizations and their management structures. If programs are developed without an understanding of underlying theory, there is a strong likelihood of failure. This is due to not completely understanding the nature of the individuals involved, their motivations and external pressures that can affect how succession planning and management programs are developed and executed. Trait Theory is based on the concept of identifying desirable traits for leaders. This is key in the succession planning process. As talent is developed, there must be identifiable traits that these employees possess. Behavioral Theory seeks to identify what behaviors leaders should possess. This is also an integral part of succession planning as there are some behaviors that are more desirable and necessary in leaders than others. Being able to have these specific behaviors articulated as part of leadership development is essential to successful leadership development. Situational Theory focuses on how leaders can and should adapt to changing dynamics of leadership situations. If a succession planning programEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 24 can put emerging leaders into varied and challenging situations in the work place, there is the opportunity for the employee and their superior to assess their readiness for further responsibility. Transformational Leadership Theory focuses on the assumption that leaders influence followers by providing meaningful work. This is important to succession planning and management on different levels. It encompasses the employee being developed, along with the ability of their superior to engage them in the process. Leaders need to be able to motivate and engage their employees in order to be productive. Those being developed for leadership should possess the ability to create meaningful work for themselves and others. Chaos Theory states that chaos or disruption is a necessary condition for change in social systems. This fits into succession planning in health care with the ever changing needs of the workplace. Health care is in a nearly constant state of change and those who lead during these times need to be able to understand that chaos is a constant and predictable part of health care. In addition, it is important to look to the current succession planning and management programs to learn best practices and discovers further opportunities to improve. How I plan to conduct an in depth analysis into existing succession planning and management programs will be outlined in the next chapter (Suhler, A. H. (2011). 1.3 Employe e re te ntion: Employee retention is the percentage of employees remaining in the organization. High levels of retention are desired in most job groups (Jack & Adele, 2003). Employee retention refers to the various policies and practices which let the employees stick to an organization for a longer period of time. Every organization invests time and money to groom a new employee, make him a corporate ready material and bring him at par with the existing employees. The organization is completely at loss when the employees leave their job once they are fully trained. Employee retention takes into account the various measures taken so that an individual stays in an organization for the maximum period of time (MSG Experts, 2016).EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 25 Employee retention is defined as ?reducing the employee turnover rate to an acceptable level whilst others think retention is about compensation and benefits, moreover, some think of it as a component of culture, that is, how people are treated within the organization.? According to a survey across the United States which involved around 1000 organizations, over 89% of those organizations declared that employee retention had become a strategic business issue.(Lia ng, 2013). Organizations are facing the challenge of employee retention due to increased competition in the market. It is crucial for organizations to hire competent employees to gain a competitive advantage in the market. However, retaining competent employee is more important than hiring. Organizations are always searching for talented employees and spent time and money on their employees for future return aspects. Factors like lack of skilled workforce, economic growth and employee turnover demand to devise policies to increase employee retention. It is hard to measure the exact cost associated with turnover for organizations. When an employee departs from an organization, he/she brings out with him all the information about the company, clients, projects and past history, very often to competitors (Haider et al., 2015). Retention is as an obligation to continue to do business or exchange with a particular organization on an ongoing basis. Retention is ?customer liking, identification, commitment, trust, readiness to recommend, and repurchase intentions, with the first four being emotional-cognitive retention constructs, and the last two being behavioral intentions. Retention is driven by several key factors, which ought to be managed congruently: organizational culture, strategy, pay and benefits philosophy and career development systems. If companies cannot retain their employees, the economic results could be devastating for an organization. A substantial amount of value could potentially end up employed by a competitor, or become the competitio n (Nyanjom, 2013).EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 26 1.3.1 M otivation The ory: To retain employees in a company or organizations we need to consider motivation theories because human have needs to be actualized and come true in their lives otherwise we cannot grantee their retention. Therefore, the most important thing which is motivation should be considered in organization for employee to keep them in organization or company. V.G.Kondalkar. (2007), has discussed that Abraham Maslow’s original work of needs theories was undertaken with the rehabilitation of people in mind. Today, the need hierarchy theory of Maslow is often quoted and used in management to motivate workers. Maslow’s theory generally state five needs of human beings Viz, Physiological, safety, belonging, (Social) esteem and self-actualization. One thing that must be remembered is that the original hierarchy needs theory has six needs Maslow called them ?Meta? needs, comprising a range of different needs such as ?cognitive’ and ?aesthetic’ which exists between esteem and self – actualization needs. Original theory of Maslow did recognize that people’s needs varied at different times, and in hierarchical order. Before a person enters to fulfill higher order needs he must achieve minimum two basic needs (Physiological and Safety). He further stated that needs do not disappear but its potency is reduced and the next higher order need takes precedence, once that is fulfilled the next needs becomes dominating and so on. Needs which are commonly used in the theory and its meaning is given below. 1. Physiological Needs – Decoration, Vibration, Temperature, Space, Noise, Gas, and Canteen facilities. 2. Security Needs – Job description, regularity, role clarity, structure, communication, safety report meetings, agreements, and contracts. 3. Social Needs – Joint Tasks, appreciation, sharing offices, recognition and team membership. 4. Self – esteem – Being consulted, rank, success, achievement, encouragement, recognitio n, pre-requisites.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 27 5. Self – actualizatio n – Personal or professional growth, autonomy, worthwhile job. V.G.Kondalkar. (2007), has also discussed that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory can be applied to the individual’s life span. In the early years of life a person is concerned about fulfillment of basic needs. But when a person takes up a job and experience independence, which is marked by crave for autonomy, he feels that he should be consulted and works to achieve recognition. Employees first want physical and job security later a suitable working environment, appreciation, job stability recognition, growth and autonomy. Thus making a full cycle of need beginning with physiologica l needs to self – actualiza tio n needs. 1.4 Employe e Job Satisfaction: According to Cambridge Dictionary (2017) Employee job satisfaction is the feeling of pleasure and achievement that you experience in your job when you know that your work is worth doing, or the degree to which your work gives you this feeling: Many people are more interested in job satisfaction than in earning large amounts of money. And Drews (1993), has also defined job satisfaction as employees’ emotional state regarding the job, considering what they expected and what they actually got out of it. In fact, an employee with low expectations can be more satisfied with a certain job than someone who has high expectations. If one’s expectations are met or exceeded by the job, then one is happy and satisfied with the job and according to Hoppock (1935), job satisfaction is any blend of mental, physiological, and natural circumstances that bring about a man honestly to say I am satisfied by my job. Rahman, Akhter and Khan (2017), says that job satisfaction is characterized as it is the distinction between the measure of prizes workers get and the sum they trust they ought to get. A standout among the frequently referred definitions on job satisfaction is that job satisfaction needs to do with the way how individuals feel about their job and its different perspectives. It needs to do with the degree to which individuals like or abhorrence their job. That is the reason job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction can show up in any given work circumstance.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 28 Aziri (2011), has explained that job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept which can mean different things to different people. Job satisfaction is usually linked with motivation, but the nature of this relationship is not clear. Satisfaction is not the same as motivation. Job satisfaction is more of an attitude, an internal state. It could, for example, be associated with a personal feeling of achievement, either quantitative or qualitative. Job satisfaction can be considered as one of the main factors when it comes to efficiency and effectiveness of business organizations. In fact the new managerial paradigm which insists that employees should be treated and considered primarily as human beans that have their own wants, needs, personal desires is a very good indicator for the importance of job satisfaction in contemporary companies. When analyzing job satisfaction the logic that a satisfied employee is a happy employee and a happy employee is a successful employee. Today’s world is circulating around workforce; workforce is the best source for organizational development competing with competitors at the national and international levels. Having no succession planning, organizations will lose their strength; will face lacking of talented managers and leaders at a time where the right person in the right job at the right time will not be accessible to fill the gap. 1.4.1 M otivation The orie s: a. Motivation and Hygiene Two Factor Theory b. Theory X and Theory Y c. ERG Theory d. Vroom’s Theory of Motivatio n. (Performance Satisfactio n). From the view point of Management motivation theories are necessary for employee’s job satisfaction in companies or organizations. Maslow’s theory of need hierarchy has been brought in section of ?Job Retention) in above and the other motivation theories will beEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 29 brought in this part as theories of motivation which are important for employee job satisfaction in company or organizatio n. 1.4.2 M otivation and Hygie ne Two Factor The ory: V.G.Kondalkar. (2007), has discussed that Fredrick Herzberg and his associates developed Motivation Theory based on two main factors in late 1950’s. This theory is also known as Two Factor Theory. Herzberg carried out research in nine different organizations where 200 respondents comprising accountants and engineers were subjects. A structured interview was carried out. The purpose of the study was to identify various factors for goal achievement and also the factors that could be included so that motivation levels do not fall. Findings of the study: Herzberg concluded, ?There are two types of needs, independent of each other?. (a) Motivational Factors: There is a set of job conditions, which operates primarily to build strong motivation and job satisfaction. These factors are called motivational factors. They are intrinsic in nature and help increase one’s output. These factors have positive effect on morale, productivity, and job satisfaction and overall effic iency of the organizatio n. These factors are as under: Achieveme nt Advancement Possibility of Growth Recognitio n Work Itself Responsibility (b) Maintenance Factors: There are some job conditions which operate primarily to dissatisfy employees when these conditions are absent. These factors are also called hygieneEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 30 factors. When these factors are present they do not motivate in a strong way, when absent they dis-satisfy, that is why these factors are called dissatisfies. These factors are. • Company Policy and administra tio n. • Technical supervisio n. • Interpersonal relationship with superiors. • Interpersonal relationship with peers. • Interpersonal relationship with subordinates. • Salary. • Job security. • Personal Life. • Working condition. • Status. Above factors is not an intrinsic part of a job. They prevent losses due to work restrictions. These factors are necessary to maintain a reasonable degree of satisfaction of employees. As stated earlier they are de-motivators if they are not present. For example minimum level of working conditions must be maintained by the organization to ensure that minimum level of satisfaction exists. If working conditions are poor, the employees will be dissatisfied and it would have adverse effect on goal achievement. Potency of various factors does not increase the motivational level. It is influenced by personality and characteristics of individual employee. Herzberg has identified that employees are either maintenance seekers or motivatio n seekers. Analysis: V.G.Kondalkar. (2007), has brought the bellow analysis for the above Herzberg’s Theory: a) It has been found that most of the people are capable of satisfying their lower level needs considerably as they are not motivated by maintena nce factors/hygie ne factors.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 31 b) Any improvement in Hygiene factors does not motivate workers but their reduction below a certain level will dissatisfy them. For example increase in status or salary need not motivate an employee because he feels it, as a matter of happening but if he was not to get an increase in salary or if his status is not increased he would be dissatisfied. Hence the hygiene factors are called dissatisfies. Therefore they do not contribute towards motivatio n. c) The model suggested by Herzberg is not applicable in all conditions. There is a mixing up of both factors in a job, which cannot be separated, as intrinsic and extrinsic. Because the level of personal need and relative strength of each of the needs is different from person to person. d) Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are two opposite points on a single continuum. It has been seen that individuals are affected more by job environment or job contents when we want to achieve this, what we are actually doing is keeping hygiene factors constant and increasing the motivational factors in a job like improving the work itself or having growth orientation or we delegate the job to an individual and vest in him the full authority and responsibility. e) Herzberg’s theory of motivation is not conclusive as the scope was narrow. Only 200 respondents were interviewed and that to persons belonging to white collar jobs engineers ; accountants hence effect of various hygiene factors may be positive on workers. f) The study is ?Method bound?. It has not shown any positive results in actual work environme nt. g) Herzberg’s study of motivation is important, as it has identified two main factors as Motivational factors and Maintenance or Hygiene factors. They should not be dividedEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 32 in strict water tight compartments. Certain overlap is bound to happen. Since these are applied in relation to various human beings. 1.4.3 M cGre gor’s The ory X and The ory Y: V.G.Kondalkar. (2007), discussed that Douglas McGregor introduced Theory X and theory Y which are diagonally opposite to each other. McGregor is aware that human beings are rational in their thought process and they are social by nature. They display very high degree of behavior relating to achieving self-actualization. There is interaction of variety of need fulfillment phenomenon and complex nature displayed by an individual in different situatio ns. 1.4.4 The ory X: Theory X is a traditional theory of human being McGregor assumed that with respect to Managerial action: Management is responsible for organizing various element of an enterprise like money, material equipment and people. With respect to people, it is a process of directing people, their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, modifying their behaviors so that they fit in the organizations. In Theory X McGregor assumed that people would be passive therefore management must persuade, reward and punish the worker to achieve the desired behavior of workers (V.G.Kondalkar. 2007). Human nature –McGregor further stated that Human being have indolent nature, he works minimum. McGregor summaries workers as lacks ambition, dislike responsibility, prefers to be led. An individual is self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs, by nature he resists change. Lastly he gullib le and not very bright (V.G.Kondalkar. 2007). In theory X, McGregor states that those who subscribe to the views expressed above, the manager will have to structure, control and closely supervise employees. External control has to be exercised towards immature and irresponsible behavior of the employees, so that their energies can be regulated towards productive work. Theory X is applicable to traditionalEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 33 organizational and characterized by centralized decision making hierarchical pyramid and external control (V.G.Kondalkar. 2007). After Theory X was proposed, McGregor observed that some changes in human nature have taken place. It was not due to the changes in human behavior and reactions to various situations but due to change in industrial organizations, management policies and practices that have tremendous effect on human nature. At this point he proposed. Theory Y as under: 1.4.5 The ory Y: a) Expenditure of physical and mental efforts on the part of employees is as natural as play or rest. The average human being does not inherently dislike work. b) Workers seek direction and exercises self-control. He dislikes punishme nt. c) Commitment to organizational objective is associated with rewards like pay promotion etc., ego satisfactio n and satisfactio n of self-actualizatio n needs. d) Average human being learns under proper conditions. He accepts seeks responsibilities. At times, it will be seen that certain individuals display phenomenon like avoidance of responsibility, lack of ambition and lay undue stress on security. McGregor suggested that these are due to inherent human characteristics. e) Capacity to exercise high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity is widely distributed among workers that must be identified and fully utilized. f) Intellectual potential of workers is partially utilized. In the above situation McGregor recommends that the organization should reorient based on the human behavioral change. More cooperation, maximum output with minimum control and self-direction is predominant among workers. It is also seen that there is no conflict between individual and organizational goals. The emphasis is on very smooth running of organiza tio n with greater participatio n of individ ua ls (V.G.Kondalkar. 2007).EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 34 Analysis: V.G.Kondalkar. (2007), discussed that Paul HERSEY has analyzed Theory X and Theory Y. He states that managers who accept theory X assumptions about human nature usually direct, control, and closely supervise people, whereas theory Y managers are supportive and facilitating. We want to caution against drawing such consolation because it could level to the trap of thinking that Theory X is ?bad? and Theory Y is ?good?. It is unusual to find exclusively Theory X people or Theory Y people in any organization. There would always be a mix of both types of employees in varying proportions. Managers therefore will have to tailor their motivatio na l applicatio n in appropriate manner suiting behaviora l patterns. 1.4.6 ERG The ory of M otivation: V.G.Kondalkar. (2007), discussed that Clayton Alderfer of Yale University carried out further studies on Maslow’s theory of need hierarchy. He identified three basic needs of human being against five needs of Maslow. These are as under: a) E-Existence need – There are related to provision of basic material requirement of human being and are related to Maslow’s Physiolo gica l and safety needs. b) R-Relatedness – This need is related to desire of an individual to maintain sound interpersonal relationship. It is related to Maslow’s, Social need and External component of Esteem need i.e., status, recognitio n and attention. c) G-Growth – Growth is an intrinsic desire for personal development. It is related to intrinsic component of Esteem Need like advancement, self-respect, autonomy, achieveme nt and self-actua liza tio n need. Evaluatio n: a) Alderfer advocated three need patterns of an individual as against five steps proposed by Maslow. b) Alderfer recommends that all the needs, need not be in rigid stepwise progression. Any need may be stronger and individ ua l is forced to fulfill that need.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 35 c) More than one need may be operative at any one time. It gratification of higher need is stifled; the desire to satisfy lower level need may increase. ERG Theory contains a frustration — regression dimensions (when there is a frustration in higher level need, lower level needs may get more activated.) Alderfer recommends satisfaction – progression patten of need. i.e. when one level need is satisfied then higher level need arises (satisfactio n-progressio n) (V.G.Kondalkar. 2007). 1.4.7 Expe ctancy The ory-Vroom: V.G.Kondalkar. (2007), discussed that Vroom has propagated Expectancy Theory based on employee expectancy. He believes that employee is motivated to exert high level of efforts when he believes that efforts will lead to good performance and therefore organizational rewards that will satisfy achievement of personal goals. The focus of the theory has three elements. a) Efforts – Performance relationship. It is related to the probability perceived by individual that exerting a given amount of efforts will lead to performance (Expectancy). b) Performance – Reward Relationship. The degree to which the individual believes that performing a particular level will lead to attainment of desired outcome (Instrume nta lity). c) Reward-personal goal relationship. The degree to which an organizational reword will satisfy individual needs and its attractiveness for the individual (Valence) (V.G.Kondalkar. 2007).EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 36 1.5 Company Profile of Shuhada Organizatio n 1.5.1 Organizatio nal Background: Shuhada Organization was born from the ashes of a destroyed Afghanistan by the Soviet invasion. It was a sign of determination, resolve and commitment to a human society which faced an existential threat from the invasion and war. The organization was founded in August of 1989 by a young, committed woman Dr. Sima Samar who personally experienced and went through negative effect of war and destruction. A physician by training and human rights and women rights activist, Dr. Samar fled Kabul after her husband was forcibly disappeared by the Communist Regime and she was in immediate danger. She took refuge in Jaghori district of Ghazni and started her work by helping people through providing them medical treatments. Soon she found it difficult as she became target of persecution and intimidation by military groups in the area, so she had to flee again to Quetta Pakistan in November 1984, where she never stopped her service to refugees like herself. Her training background as a medical doctor, her commitment as human rights activist, her experience as a refugee and victim of human rights violations and continued war provided her the motive, the strength and tools to start on humanitarian front of resistance by focusing only to help and provide services to civilian people. So, Shuhada Organization was founded and grew out of this context until today. Shuhada Organization as an Afghan NGO was established to work for welfare and progress of Afghan citizens with a primary focus on support and empowerment of women and children. The organization was founded to address the absence of health care, including the reproductive health care for Afghan refugee women and children with educational programs for them and soon after the establishment of hospital and schools for Afghan refugees in Quetta, Pakistan. It expanded its work inside Afghanistan with establishing Hospitals, clinics and schools for boys and girls. Its activities have expanded in the areas of training of medical staffEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 37 particularly female nurses and midwives, as it was the only means to better human resource for the reduction of mother and child mortality. Shuhada projects were and are always in accordance with the high standard, commitment and responsive to the basic need and requireme nt of the Afghan refugees outside and the people inside of the country. After the fall of the Taliban regime, Shuhada Organization also expanded its focus and work on human rights, women rights and community empowerment, women inclusion and participation in the elections and democratic processes in the country. The work and projects have been conducted through literacy courses and training on gender, human rights and democracy. As a result, women are more active and better informed. They participate in the public affairs including elections, public works, economic activities and social and cultural affairs. Shuhada Organization is governed by a board of directors and committed executive leadership. The current executive director is Mr. Jawad Wafa. He is an experienced and hardworking man with a very strong background on NGO and humanitarian work. The organiza tio n pursues the following vision and missio n: 1.5.2 Vision The Shuhada Organization vision is to strive to see an aware, prosperous and healthy society in Afghanistan through providing high quality services in line with the principles of democracy, rule of law, social justice, peace and non-discrimina tio n. 1.5.3 M ission Provision of good quality services in the health, education, human rights, women rights and empowerment of local community and democracy sectors. To this end, Shuhada Organization has a common slogan which says ?working for a better tomorrow?. Working for a better tomorrow is not only the slogan, it makes the philosophy of Shuhada Organization too.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 38 The Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education was founded in August 2010 by Dr. Sima Samar prominent Human Rights activist. It is a nonprofit higher education institute which is registered with the Ministry of Higher Education and the Ministry of Economy, which functions directly under Shuhada Organization as a higher education project. Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education has been named after Queen Gawharshad Begum of Timorid Empire who had a leading role in the development of Arts, Science, Literature, Philosophy and Architecture in Afghanista n in the 15th century. The mission behind the activities of the Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education is to prepare competent and committed leaders for future of Afghanistan who will learn to respect and promote universal values of Human Rights and principles of an open society through an educational program that has fully incorporated these values. It should be highlighted that given the particular situation of women in Afghanistan, Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education gives special priority to providing space and opportunity to female applicants. Tolerance, civic responsibility, and critical thinking have special place in its learning environme nt. 1.5.4 Program/Pro je ct Activitie s 1. SO mainly focuses on the following 6 key program areas: ? Sustainab le development ? Human Rights (Women Rights, Child Rights, Gender) ? Capacity Build ing ? Democracy and Governance ? Child protection (Orphanages) ? Service Delivery(Hea lth and Education) Shuhada Organization delivers services to the poor, disadvantaged and marginalized population and those who historically suffered from systemic discrimination and deprivationEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 39 of their basic rights. The constituency it serves is mostly located in remote area and living in impoverished and underdeveloped districts of Afghanistan. Shuhada Organization operates mostly in the areas, which had been deprived of public services including healthcare, education, justice, road and water supply infrastructure. They also live on farming and livestock and earn less than 2 $ per day. Women and children are vulnerable and historically deprived of their basic human rights. Shuhada Organization work for its constituency is as follow: – We serve the most vulnerab le and poorest of people in differe nt part of the country. – We provide health care service including vaccinations and reproductive health care including contraception to most remote part of the country regardless their ethnicity or religio n – We provide education and construction of school buildings in remote part of the country where the government has no presence and access. After the establishment of those institutions, we hand them over to the government in order to promote the right to education. – We offer literacy courses, which include human rights, women’s rights and reproductive rights information for the women, in remote districts of the central part of the country. – We run orphanages, provide shelter, food and education for the children (boys and girls) who lost their parents during the war. We Support them until they finish their studies up to Bachelor degree. We are proud to say that 32 of our children are at the university. One of them is studying in India; one of our girl students is at the Afghanistan American University. Three of girl students are in Turkey for police academy trainings.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 40 – We support the widows who lost their male member of the family during the war or natural death by provision of skill training and sheep distribution, so they will be economically self-sufficient. By this, they will not be forced to marry another male member of the husband family. – We support the civil society groups in different provinces and build their capacities to help the democratiza tio n process in Afghanista n. – We support women to have access to justice, and provide legal awareness to them and support them to work on the eliminatio n of violence against women. – We provide Gender training for different local councils, civil society and women’s in differe nt districts. – We provide higher education opportunities for the young generation mainly to poor and women at Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education with special focus on women empowerment. We believe that women are not involved on the killing and destruction during the conflict. They can be the agent for positive change in the society. We also know that democracy, development, poverty reduction and sustainab le peace will not be achieved without women’s full participatio n. – We support vulnerable groups through provision of scholarships for orphans, disabled and girls. In Afghanistan, boys are always preferred to girls. The families are willing to spend money for the education of their sons and not for their daughters. So we try to offer partial and full scholarships to girl students who pursue higher education at Gawharshad Institute. We try to train the young generation to be responsible citizens for the country and for the world. 1.5.5 Pe ace building and conflict re solution: In the continuation of the project ?peace building and conflict resolution? that was completed last year, a new project was received from the USIP in November 2015. TheEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 41 project entails the same title and same donor however; the concept differs completely. Through the previous project, Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education could prepare a textbook on Peace and included it in its curriculum as an obligatory subject for students of all major. While, the new project is designed to train two groups of students on research method so that they can prepare a research proposal on peace related subject and presented it at last. Throughout their work, a supervisor will oversee their progress and give guidance on their work. As a concluding step, the two groups will be taken to a study tour abroad, probably India. USIP reported from the collaboration in their website: ?Partnership With Afghan Universities: With unprecedented numbers of Afghans now attending universities, USIP joined with Kabul’s Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education, a private university, to create a peace building and conflict resolution curriculum for eventual use nationwide. The Ministry of Higher Education approved the curriculum for general use in May 2015. Herat University and Nangarhar University, public institutions in western and eastern Afghanistan, respectively, are working with USIP and Gawharshad toward adopting peace studies in their programs? Organizatio na l Structure Currently Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education have two boards: board of directors (containing of five members) and board of managers (containing of 10 members) and have314 staff (245 male and 69 female, full times). In order to remain competitive in the job market, the institution have adopted a norm that could hire more and better staff by establishing a salary range from 140 USD to 2500USD/month depending on inflatio n. Shuhada Organization and GHIE has 22 volunteers, which work in different departments and field of SO and GHIE. The detail is given in below table. Shuhada Organization has one head office in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan and six Provincial and sub offices in Bamyan, Daikundi, Ghor and Ghazni, and sub offices in PanjowEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 42 and Waras district of Bamyan. Shuhada Organization have provincial representatives in Kunar, Samangan and Takhar provinces. The offices and provincial representatives are connected to each other by the overall Shuhada management system and all report to Shuhada Main office. The main office is structured in four departments: Programs, Administration and Finance, Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E), and Health & Education. The provincial and sub offices report on their work and projects through these departments to the leadership of the Organization. Shuhada Organization also divided its program departments on thematic areas including human rights, capacity building, gender, democracy and governance, shelter and education and health. Shuhada Organization is registered and accredited with the Afghan Ministry of Economy and Ministry of Public Health. Shuhada Organization has to report on a regular base to the relevant ministrie s. Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education has a campus in Kabul with following departments and faculties: ? Law and Politica l Science ? Economic and Management ? Civil Enginee ring ? Computer Science 1.5.6 Inte rnal Evaluation: Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education have been regularly evaluated internally by Shuhada Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) department, The M&E department has its own system for monitoring of the projects and organizations. Although some of the projects have its own monitoring and evaluatio n officer.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 43 1.5.7 Exte rnal Evaluation by the Donors: Most of our donors visit our projects at least once every year to see and evaluate the project themselve s, and talk to the staff and to the benefic iaries directly. Shuhada Organization is evaluated externally by Counterpart international (CPI) an international organization and one of Shuhada Organization’s Donors in following six functio na l areas almost every year. – Leadership and Strategic Management – Program Management and Quality Control – Accounting and Financia l Management – Financia l Sustainability – Human and Material Resources – External Relations It is more than three years that CPI in monitoring and evaluating Shuhada Organization works in row Afghanistan Institute for Civil Society (AICS) is independent certification body for civil society organizations that are recognized by Government, the private sector, donor agencies and civil society. Shuhada Organizatio n has also been evaluated by AICS. Shuhada Organization was also evaluated by Afghan Ministry of Economy and was awarded with a certificate of appreciation on excellence performance for strict consideration of NGO’s Law, regular reporting system, implementation of projects in close coordination with relevant sectors in the field, facilitating and providing correct information for the M&E team of the Ministry and for the fully satisfaction of project beneficiaries. See attached the copy of the Certificate. 1.5.8 Organizatio nal Long Te rm Impact: It is more than 27 years that Shuhada Organization is delivering services in different sectors to vulnerable people in Afghanistan and covered more than 7.5 million individualsEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 44 during its 27 years of service. Followings are the long-term impact of Shuhada Organization work during 27 years in differe nt sectors; 1.5.9 He alth: (Be ne ficiarie s: 4,968,831) Shuhada Organization pioneered non-governmental healthcare services in Afghanistan and changed the conventional wisdom that health care could be only delivered by the government. Because of its operational unique circumstances and visionary leadership, Shuhada Organization started as an Afghan NGO by provision of health services that was unimaginable by many at the time. It also filled a huge gap and provided services to thousands of people who never had chances to have hospitals and clinics before. In such a circumstance, Shuhada Organization established and operated five hospitals and 32 clinics from 1989 to end of 2017 in Ghazni, Bamyan, Maidan-Wardak and Ghoor provinces, which were the only health facilities in those districts during the civil war and very difficult time for the people. These structures saved the lives of thousands of people by provision of curative and preventive care. Hundreds of thousands of children and women were vaccinated and saved from disabilities and diseases such as polio and tetanus. Shuhada Organization also improvised a local initiative for the purpose of sustainability and addressing shortage of local healthcare staff and paramedic. By providing health education and training of female nurses, midwives and traditional birth attendance, the child and mother mortality rate dropped down in areas where Shuhada Organization was operating. In fact those medical staffs, which were trained by the organization, are still the main provider of health care in most remote areas of the country. They also accredited and certified through government exams and continue to work as health providers in many part of the country. Shuhada Organization also maintained all of those programs operational and run them throughout Taliban regime as the only means to the poor, and discriminated ethnic and gender groups in the country. After the establishment of the new government, ShuhadaEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 45 Organization slowly handed over the hospitals and clinics to the government. According to new Afghanistan’s constitution, the government has to provide free education and health services to the people in Afghanistan. Nonetheless, Shuhada Organization is still operating one hospital and five clinics since 2008 onward in the areas where the government does not have access or interest to run those hospital and clinics. Statistics shows that up until the end of 2017, Shuhada Organization provided services of OPD, IPD, ANC, PNC, ECG, major operation, minor Operation, X-Ray, laboratory, vaccination, delivery, family planning, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), blood bank, nurse training facilities and ultrasound to 4,968,831people since the establishment of Shuhada Organization’s health care centers and 73,095 patients provided health services by Shuhada Organization’s Hospital and clinics in 2017 only. 1.5.10 Education: (Be ne ficiarie s: 216,073) Shuhada Organization has been a revolutionary force in pioneering girls’ education and general public education in the areas it could operate during Soviet invasion, civil war and even during Taliban regime. Shuhada Organization has built extended and renovated 126 schools and provided education for a number of (160,928) girls and boys student (52. 2 percent girls, 47. 8 percent boys); since its establishment till 2017. 7,430 boys and girls graduated from Shuhada Organization schools. A total of 6,550 boys and girls of these schools were enrolled in a higher education institutes. A total number of 1,470 students got their bachelor degree; six students were sent abroad for the completion of their higher education. 4,280 students completed their education and found jobs (based on Shuhada Organization research in 2011). 9,027 teachers received training in teaching skills and teaching methodologies, in order to improve the quality of education tried to establish small scientific lab and library for the schools. Moreover 49,300 women and girls received education in the basic literacy training courses; and 376 young girls attended the English andEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 46 computer courses in different part of the country and almost all of them got jobs with governmental and non-governmental organizations. Six Girls were gone to Italy for their higher education from the schools in Quetta and Afghanista n. The Girls school which was run by Shuhada Organization was the only high schools for the girls during the Taliban regime. The effect of Shuhada Organization girl schools is obvious now by the shared number of girls studying at Kabul University and populating its dormitory. They are the girls coming from the schools, which were run by Shuhada Organization, composing a higher portion of the dorm residence than any other district in the country. Shuhada Organization has provided education and higher education services to a number of 18,049 (female: 8,929 – Male: 9,120) individual in 2017 which the total benefited beneficiaries of the education services since establishment of Shuhada Organization is 2016,073 individ ua l. 1.5.11 Human Rights, wome n’s rights and re productive he alth trainings: (Be ne ficiarie s: 1,589,754) Shuhada Organization has found that awareness raising among women and men in Afghanistan is the key to development and addressing discrimination and violence. In that regards, it run different quality programs on human rights, women’s rights, and reproductive health trainings. As a result, many people benefited from human rights trainings, including women rights and child rights trainings and were educated about their basic human rights. Changes in attending schools, referring to courts and state agencies for services and registratio n of birth and marriage increased as a result of these trainings. In these courses, Shuhada Organization also provided information the on reproductive rights and family planning tools to women as a method to control the number of their children and their daily lives. As a result, (1,589,754) people benefited from human rights trainings since Shuhada Organization’s establishment till 2017. Shuhada Organization conducted three significantEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 47 projects in 2017, where 126,291 (Female: 57,121- Male: 69,170) were the direct beneficiaries of the project. Overall 1,589,754individuals were benefited from human/women rights over 29 years. 1.5.12 Orphanage s: (Be ne ficiarie s: 351) Shuhada Organization (SO) has established three orphanages under the title of Samar Orphanages, two in Jaghori district of Ghazni province and one in center of Bamyan province, where a number of 351 child were supported with appropriate accommodation, food, education and health services since its establishment, out of which 197 (Female: 76 – Male: 118) orphans are currently being supported by SO at Samar Orphanages from whom a number of three girls and three boys graduated from high school in 2017 and these three orphanages run by 4 teachers, 4 administra tors and 12 supporting staff. Children in these orphanages attend public school throughout the year. In addition, permanent teachers are recruited to support the children with their school work and encourage and direct them towards independent study fields such as anthropology, theatre, literature, painting, cooking, knitting, sports, and regular English and computer courses. Children also conduct programs for poetry reading and debate sessions through the local radio station. However, SO helps to ensure that all orphans graduate from 12th grade and participate in university entrance examination. See below what SO achieved in these 15 years of the child protection activitie s: 1. 8 persons (4 girls and 4 boys) who graduated from high school in 2016, six of them admitted in Afghanistan’s public Universities in Kabul and provinces. One of the girls married and one of them getting preparation for next year entrance University exam. 2. A number of 35 (29 boys and 6 girls) were studying at universities in different fields inside and outside of the country in 2016.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 48 3. Two boys got their bachelor’s degree and one boy got his semi higher education degree in 2016. 4. One girl is studying in Afghan American University. 5. Since establishme nt of the orphanages a number of 13 girls got married. 6. Since 2015 a number of five girls and one mother joined police academy course in Turkey and finished and now are working with Afghan National Police Army. 7. Five boys and one girl have graduated from higher and Semi-higher education in 2014 and 2015. 8. In 2017 a number of 36 (Girls: 5 – Boys: 31) were studying in Afghanistan and abroad, from which one boy got his bachelor degree in social science form India, one boy got his bachelor degree in art from Kabul University, one boy got his bachelor degree in social science from Bamyan University, one boy got his bachelor degree in computer science from Kabul University, one boy got his bachelor degree in BBA from Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education and 5 boys got their Semi-higher education in computer science from Institute of Computer and Technolo gy of Kabul. 9. 6 persons (3 girls and 3 boys) graduated from high school in 2017. Overall 63 individuals (Girls: 19 – Boys: 44) Samar Orphanages’ graduated from high school since 2009. 1.5.13 She lte r: (Be ne ficiarie s: 40) SO was the first to establish women shelters for women victim of domestic violence and other form of violence. Shuhada Organization shelters role in protecting 40 young girls who were deported from Iran was a lifesaving program that provided safe house to women. These women received vocational trainings and successfully reintegrated to the society and families. For example, five women in the shelter were trained as female nurses and they are working asEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 49 health workers, and the rest received other skill trainings, few of them got married and have a happy family life. 1.5.14 Capacity Building: (Be ne ficiarie s: 30,061 individua ls) Shuhada Organization conducted Workshops for (30,061) trainees on Human Resource Management, gender, leadership, M&E, financial management, report writing proposal writing, 762 nurses, 7280 traditional birth attendance. 60 participants (30 male and 30 female) brought together on policy memorandum, 7 girls students have been honored by Linda prize, 60 individuals (52 female and 8 male) have been trained on gender issues, 4 male and 8 female trainers have also been benefited from the action, 2,115 (1,366 male and 749 female) students have benefited from peace and security conferences and 10 male and 10 female received workshops on sexual harassment, 140 (74 girls, 56 boys, 7 female and 3 male instructors) benefited from conflict, violence, intermediation, judgment, ways free from violence and peace trainings and 84 students ( 69 female and 15 male) benefited from English and computer courses of Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education non-degree programs benefited since its establishment till 2014. From a capacity building project in 2015 a number of 2,798 (Female: 1,866 – Male: 932) were also benefited and in 2017 a number of 393 (female: 193 – Male: 200) benefited from capacity building projects. Overall 30,061 individ ua ls were benefited from capacity build ing over 29 years. 1.5.15 Vocational Training: (Be ne ficiarie s: 6,214) Further to above mentioned initiative, Shuhada Organization provided skill trainings to women in order to empower them economica lly. In this regards, the organizatio n: – Established two technical schools and conducted long and short term courses on carpet weaving for 1,482 women; – Provided trainings to 4,422 women on rug/gilim and scarves weaving, – Provided trainings to 40 women on blanket waving,EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 50 – Trained 40 women in chips making, – Trained 20 women in jewelry making and 140 male on welding and solar system. – Trained 70 women on tailoring. 1.5.16 Live lihood: (Be ne ficiarie s: 736 Familie s) Economic rights and women economic empowerments are very important for women progress and participation in the society and in the focus of Shuhada Organization. In order to achieve that objective, Shuhada Organization distributed (1,672 ewes and 2,200 chickens) for (528) poor and vulnerable families since its establishment till 2014; Shuhada Organization in the continuation of its previous ewes distribution, distributed 360 ewes with their lambs for 90 vulnerable families in Panjaw and Waras districts of Bamyan province and 100 ewes with their lambs distributed for 25 vulnerable families in Khider district of Daikundi province in 2015 and has provided economic support to 40 families (182 Female – 196 Male) the total of which is 378 individual in 2017. Overall, 736 families were benefited from livelihood program since SO establishme nt so far. 1.5.17 Construction: SO has constructed, renovated and operated 5 hospitals (25-62 beds), 14 clinics, 126 schools, 3 orphanages, 3 women centers, 1 technical/school, 2 residential blocks for hospital staff, 80 houses (including 2 rooms, 1 kitchen, 1 bathroom and toilet) for families living in caves located in Bamyan province. Furthermore, took part in construction of about 73 Km road. In 2017 SO facilitated the construction and renovation of 3 schools in Ghazni, Bamyan and Daikund i provinces. 1.5.18 Agriculture : (Be ne ficiarie s: 2,582 individuals) SO distributed wheat among 300 families (300*7.3 = 2190 individuals), vegetable seeds to 100 women and 800 fruit plants for 40 families (40*7.3 = 292 individuals) in Bamyan and GhoorEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 51 1.5.19 Environme ntal Prote ction: (Be ne ficiarie s: 17,045) Environmental protection program has been part of the Shuhada programs. The program entailed both awareness rising and education as well as planting of trees and protection of environment. In this end, Shuhada trained 17,045 male and female students, teachers and community elders through workshops on environmental protection awareness in Bamyan and Ghoor Provinces. 750 fruit and non-fruit trees were planted in 25 schools in Bamyan and Ghoor. 1.5.20 Eme rge ncy Re lie f : (Be ne ficiarie s: 839,945 individua ls (1994-2006) Shuhada Organization has distributed foods, quilts and tents for a number of 835,820 individuals since its establishment till 2013. Shuhada Organization distributed hygiene kits/ toiletries and clothes for a number of 345 women and girls prisoners in Kabul, Parwan, Kapisa, Balkh, Bamyan, and Daikund i and Maidan Wardak provinces since 2013 till 2015. 1.5.21 Provision of Cle an Wate r: (Be ne ficiarie s: 16,600) Access to clean water is a basic human rights, many afghan have been deprived of and still don’t have access to clean water. In addressing this, Shuhada dug 117 wells and installed hand water pumps for needy people in various provinces of Afghanistan and two water supply systems in Kamati area in center of Bamyan province, naturally clean water support their health condition and improve the economy of the family by saving money from the doctors fee and buying medicines. In 2015 water supply system constructed for Sar-e-Sarab School in Waras district of Bamyan where a number of 500 students, teachers and staff benefited from it. 1.5.22 Re se arch be ne ficiarie s: 252 (Fe male : 190; M ale : 62) Shuhada Organization implemented a research on girls’ access to education, in Bamyan and Panjshir provinces to interview and fill questionnaires from 80 parents, 84 students, 40 teachers, 12 key informants and four focus groups (2 for women and 2 for men) including 9 participants each focus group (4*9)= 36 persons.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 52 1.5.23 Gawharshad Institute of Highe r Education: 2667 (Fe male : 895; M ale : 1772) GAWHARSHAD INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION has been successful in enrolling a considerable number of female students since its establishment. The overall gender composition of the student body is 35.37 percent female, and 64.63 percent male. A total number of 2497 students (880 female and 1617 male) study in a co-education system at GAWHARSHAD INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION. By the end of December 2015, a total number of 665 students (227 female and 438 male) graduated from differe nt faculties. A dedicated department of Women Empowerment helps the female students at GAWHARSHAD INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION with extra-curricular activities and capacity building trainings such as gender and women studies, Elimination on violence against women, English langua ge and computer classes. Shuhada Organization and GAWHARSHAD INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION collaborates with other organization/universities and different governmental departments in differe nt areas. 1) Collaborating with Civil Society Organizations: Shuhada Organization has a joint project with some CSOs, Capacity building training in different thematic areas. 2) Collaborating with Line Government Departments: Shuhada Organization fully collaborate with local government based on their provincial development plan/priority list. 3) GAWHARSHAD INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION has positive outlook towards both internal and international collaboration. Besides having friendly relation with local universities, the institute has established ties with esteemed universities around the world. ? University of Technology Sydney, Australia, since 2013 ? Alaama Tabatabayee University, Iran, since 2015 ? Frieburg University of Education, Germany, since 2015EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 53 Shuhada Organization would continue to work for better tomorrow. In this regard, Shuhada Organizatio n adheres to its strategy and action plan which put the following areas: Education: Education is the key for Afghanistan’s future and children. Over 3 million children (60 percent girls) are deprived of schools. Many more still drop out particularly girls of schools because of distance or absenteeism of female teachers and educational facilities such as building. So, Shuhada Organizatio n is obliged to continue its work in this regard. Beside this area SO will also focus on following programs/areas as well. – Capacity Build ing: – Human Rights: Sustainab le Developme nt – Sustainab le Developme nt – Gender – Orphanages – Democracy – Health – Internal Organizatio na l Developme nt For more information the strategic plan of Shuhada Organization (2016 – 2018) and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education (2011 – 2016) is attached along with this questionna ire for your kind informa tio n. 1.5.24 Financial Ove rvie w: The overall funding situation was almost the same as before, but the nature of work has changed. Shuhada Organization is trying to be an influential force on promoting good governance, clean and responsive government and better education, health, environment and society. So it would rely on budgets and financial contribution from private and public donors.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 54 Major funding sources include Help Committee Schaffhausen (HCS), AUSAID, Australian Embassy, EU, Counterpart International, Ambassador Small Grant Program (ASGP), Mothers for Peace (MFP), NaiQala Association, Christian Aid (CA), Canadian Women for Women in Afghanistan (CW4W), Arghosha Committee, Norwegian Embassy, The Finnish foundation for human Rights (KIOS), New Zealand Agency for International Development (NZAID), Ereal Be trust, Tides Foundation/Flora Family, Taiwan Buddhist Tzu chi Foundation, Henrich Boll Stiftung (HBS), US Embassy, Omid Organization, Asia Foundation, Japan Embassy, Will foundatio n, Tawanmand i and Rebuild ing of Afghanista n. Gawharshad institute Charges the students a lowest fee compare to the other Private Higher Education Institutions in the country. The budget will be different according to the number of the students they enroll every year. 1.5.25 Awards: Dr. Samar has been recognized by numerous international human rights and women rights organizatio n for her leadership, and has received the following honors and awards: – Community Leadership Award, by Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation 1994, Manila, Philipp ine – Global Leader for Tomorrow by the World Economic Forum, 1995 Switzerla nd. – 100 Heroines, 1998 New York, USA – Paul Grungier Human Rights, by Paul Grungier Foundation, 2001, Switzerla nd – Voice of Courage, by Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children 2001, New York, USA – John Humphre y Freedom Award, by Rights and Democracy, 2001 Canada. – Women of the Month, 2001, Toronto, CanadaEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 55 – Women of the Year, (on behalf of the Afghan Women) by Ms. Magazine December 2001, Washingto n USA – Best Social Worker, by Mailo Trust Foundation 2001, Quetta, Pakistan – International Human Rights Award, by International Human Rights Law Group 2002, Washingto n DC, USA – Freedom Award, by Women’s Association for Freedom and Democracy 2002, Barcelona, Spain – Lawyers Committee for Human Rights Award, by Lawyers Committee for Human Rights 2002, New York, USA – Silver Banner Award, 2002, Tuscany Italy – Women for Peace, by Together for Peace Foundation 2002, Rome Italy – Silver Rose, 2003, Brussels, Belgium – Predita Houston, 2003, Washingto n DC, USA – Women of the Year, December 2003, Washingto n DC, USA – John F Kennedy’s Profile in Courage, May 2004, by John F Kennedy Foundation, Boston, USA – Jonathan Mann Award for Health and Human Rights June, 2004, Washington DC, USA – Paul Schiller Stiftung Award 2004, Switzerla nd – Doctor of Laws (L.L D Hon) by University of Alberta 2004, Alberta, Canada – (D.H.L Hon) by Brown University 2005, Rhode Island, USA – Best Civilian Doctor of Humane Letters Officer Award, July 2006, Embassy of France Kabul, Afghanista n – Global Women’s Rights Award, May 2007, Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, USA – Ypres Peace Prize, November 2008, BelgiumEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 56 – Asia Democracy and Human Rights Award, by Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, December 2008, Taiwan – Don and Arvonne Fraser Human Rights Award by Advocates for Human June2009 Minneapolis, USA – Order of Canada, July 2009, Ottawa, Canada – Politike n’s Freedom Prize, September 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark – Doctor of Laws (Hon.), University of Carleton, July 2010, Carleton, Canada – Dutch Geuzen Medal, March 2011, The Netherlands – Tipperary Peace Prize, June 2011, Ireland – Stephen J. Solarz Award for Commitment to Peace, Justice and Security, by Internatio na l Crisis Group (ICG), December 2011, New York – Mother Teresa International Memorial Award for Social Justice, November 2012.Mumbai, India, – The Right Livelihood Award (Alternative Noble), December 2012, Swedish Parliame nt, Stockholm, Sweden – Doctor of Humane Letters (D.H.L Hon) by Salem State University in 2013, Boston, MA – The Allard Prize for International Integrity (Honorable Mention) University of British Columbia, Canada, 2013 – Dr. Samar has also been short-listed for the Nobel Peace Prize three times 1.6 Proble m State me nt: The problem investigated is related to study the positive effects of succession planning on employee retention and job satisfaction at Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education because employee turnover in these two organizations are considered above the normal, though they claim of having succession plan and its implementation inEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 57 their organizations. Since 2010, I am working as an employee in Shuhada Organization; succession planning was just written on pieces of papers but didn’t see its actual application in the organization. In this worst situation of unemployment in Afghanistan the organizations should not have employee turnover as much as considering now. In the future, it looks big challenge for both organizations while unemployment situation gets better; the graph of employee turnover will grow bigger and bigger in these two organizations. Based on worldwide researches’ results which have been brought in chapter two of this study, implementation of succession planning has had positive effects on job satisfaction and employee retention. This study is going to reveal whether succession planning implementation had positive effects on employee retention and job satisfactio n or not. 1.7 Null-hypothe sis: 1. The succession plan has positive effect on employee retention at Shuhada Organizatio n and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Educatio n. 2. The succession plan has positive effect on job satisfaction at Shuhada Organizatio n and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Educatio n. 1.8 The ore tical Frame work: Theoretical frame work of the study contains definitions of hypothesis, null-hypothesis, alternate hypothesis, variable, independent variable and dependent variable, explanation of model summary, p-value and t-value. The above titles have defined or explained to have a clear road map for this study. 1. Hypothesis: Ranjit (2011), states that a hunch, assumption, suspicion, assertion or an idea about a phenomenon, relationship or situation , the reality or truth of which you do not know is called hypothesis. A researcher calls these assumptions, assertions, statements or hunches hypotheses and they become the basis of an enquiry.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 58 2. Null hypothesis: Ranjit (2011), claims that a stipulation that there is no difference between two situations, groups, outcomes, or the prevalence of a condition or phenomeno n, is called a null hypothesis and usually written as H0. 3. Alternate hypothesis: the opposite of the research hypothesis is called alternate hypothesis. 4. Variable: Ranjit (2011) defines that an image, perception or concept that is capable of measurement – hence capable of taking on different values – is called variable. In other words, a concept that can be measure is called a variable. 5. Independent variable: Ranjit (2011) defines that the cause supposed to be responsible for bringing about change (s) in a phenomenon or situation is called independent variables. 6. Dependent variable: Ranjit (2011) defines that the outcome or change (s) brought about by introductio n of an independent variable is called dependent variable. The study is conducted at Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education. Sample size is selected from both organizations’ staff to be able to answer English questionnaire. Collected data is analyzed by SPSS and to run the regression analysis to find research results and comparing with Model Summary, ANOVA and Coefficients of the Success ion Plan Employee Retention Job Satis faction Independent Variable Dependent Variable Dependent VariableEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 59 independent variable (Succession Plan) on dependents variables of (employee retention and Job satisfactio n). In this study ?Succession Plan? is independent variable, ?Employee Retention? and ?Job Satisfaction? are dependent variables. In the regression analysis of the study, positive effect of succession plan which is the independent variable is going to be tested separately once with employee retention and once with job satisfaction which are the dependent variables. If the t-value of the regression analysis is 1.96 or more than that, t-value is significant. It means the independent variable (succession plan) has positive effect on both dependent variables (employee retention and job satisfactio n). The null hypothesis is rejected if the p-value is less than a predetermined level, ?. Is called the significance level, and is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis given that it is true. It is usually set at or below 5%. While P-Value of the research finding below 5%, it means succession plan has positive effect on employee retention and job satisfactio n. T-value is used for the significant of a variable. If t-value is 1.96 or more than 1.96 so variable is significa nt otherwise variable is insignifica nt. 1.9 Re search Obje ctive s: 1. To investigate the positive effect of succession planning on employee retention at Shuhada Organiza tio n and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Educatio n. 2. To investigate the positive effect of succession planning on employee retention at Shuhada Organiza tio n and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Educatio n. 1.10 Significance of the Study: Significance of the study is to find out effect of succession planning on Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education’s employee retention and job satisfaction. While succession planning’s effect has been found out, both Organizations’ human resource policies will be updated based on the research findings and recommendationsEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 60 and this can support government to change its human resource policy towards better performance of employee in governmental sectors too. It can help both mentioned organizations towards professionalism and also help them in their strategic planning and organizational development. In order to be successful in organizational affairs, the have to consider these rules in organizations: ?the right people for the right job at the right time?. So the mentioned rules can only be worked through appropriate implementation of ?succession plans? in the organizatio ns. One of the standards which is very important for organizations’ leadership and management is ?succession Planning?. Succession planning is new for Afghan organizations and institutions, most of them may not know this tool and its correct usage. They may have a negative perception of the tool. In the past, diamond, gold, silver, were used as the sources of human power and credibility and for a period of time cultivating land or farm were sources of human power and credibility in the world; Human powers and credibility were measured by their volume of land they owned. But now source of human power and credibility has changed in the world to human resource. Nowadays human power and his/her credibility are measured by knowledgeable, professional and skilled human resources. Any country which has educated, professiona l and skilled human resources are the most powerful in the world.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 61 Chapte r 2 Lite rature Re vie w Ahmad et al. (2015), expressed that a significant finding of this study is that perceived value succession planning is affected by leadership characteristic from subordinate perception. Keeping in view, the finding of this study provides some practical insight into the need for public sector to re-visit the succession planning and leadership style as these have significant bearing on follower’s perception. Therefore, every organization has to develop the capacity to withstand sudden changes in senior top management by developing a robust talent pipeline by matching skill available internally with higher level. It is consistent who suggests that leadership development interventions need to begin far earlier the career, so that success is built from below, rather than from above. Hor et al. (2010), discussed that this study has applied the analytic network process (ANP) approach to design a leadership development program, as well as for selecting the successor for a leadership position. A leadership development program is the key to effective succession planning, which defines capabilities and enables organizations to close the gap between strategic intent and current performance by guiding learning and pushing development for identified potentials. The advantage of this model is that the ANP approach constructs a multi-criteria decision model for weighing the importance of experiences and leadership competencies due to its ability to overcome the complex situation of the interdependencies between the former and the latter, and any inner dependence within themselves. The analysis using ANP is relatively cumbersome as the present work requires 83 pairwise comparison matrices. To arrive at the relationship among enablers requires a long and exhaustive discussion with management team members from the case company. The top management of the case company then approved to apply this systematic approach for designing their leadership development program and proved the workability of this model atEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 62 the case company. The proposed ANP model mainly focuses on linear hierarchy, but the network relationship herein is regardless of the feedback process from sub-criteria (leadership competencies) back to criteria (experiences) in the proposed model. If the alternative set (candidates for a leadership position) is added in the review loop, the model will include a feedback system between criteria and sub-criteria, criteria and alternatives, and sub-criteria and alternatives. This work will formulate a complete decision making process for leadership position holder selection. It is expected that the model will be much more complex and sizable than that used in this study. Therefore, one may utilize a two-phase decision making process to effectively manage real world problems. It is expected as well that top manageme nt can make better decisions for leadership position holder selection. Pandey and Sharma (2014), explained that succession planning is one such process which cannot be ignored keeping in mind the competitive industries. Strengthening this process directly impacts the organization as it is the nourishment of talent. This activity cannot be carried out as an ad-hoc exercise but needs to be a systematic approach. It can be further fine-tuned varying from organization to organization and different industries but the major structure remains same. We need to ensure that key positions in an organization are always filled with capable talent and this pipeline keeps on churning out seamlessly. The landscape has totally changed if we compare to what it was a decade ago and hence the approach has to evolve, rather than being reactive and shedding flab later, pro-active approach needs to be followed where we are capable enough to chalk out plan of individual in an organization keeping in mind the macro picture. Succession planning not to be considered just an exercise, but focused upon so much that succession planning can be converted into succession development hence developing the talent pipeline and hence achieving organiza tio na l goals.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 63 Julius and Sebastian (2008), discussed that business succession planning is critical to ensuring the continuation of any family owned business, particularly if the owner plans to retire in 10 years or less. An effectively developed succession plan provides for a smooth transition in management and ownership with a minimum of transfer taxes. Additionally, a business succession plan can provide financial security and freedom to the retired business owner and his spouse. Given the number and complexity of transition and succession options available, effective business succession planning requires time, the assistance of outside advisors, the input of family members especially the owner (and the owner’s spouse) concerning his or her goals, and the willingness to address interpersonal conflicts that can arise during the planning process. Once completed, the business succession plan will pro- vide peace of mind for the business owner and key employees, personal satisfaction for family members and new opportunities for the business itself. Chlebikova et al. (2015), agreed that the success of the company on the competitive markets crucially depends also on competent managers. To have such managers means to give them an opportunity for development and succession in positions. Development of managers is closely linked to the strategy of the company as well as is closely related with the complex social conditions and the business environment, so the process of learning should never end. Modern companies have recognized this fact and they see the potential in humans as a key capital of the company. They associated their performance and competitiveness with the formation of labor potential, which is characterized by a high level of talent, knowledge, skills and motivatio n. Francis (2000), focused on that succession planning is a combination of workforce and strategic planning within the budget forecasting process. The process involves careful analyzing of employee skills and competencies, as well as those intangible assets that make a good leader, identifying potential managers, providing valuable experiences and feedback,EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 64 identifying specific goals, and subsequently nurturing and developing their skills and abilities in order to maximize their potential. The overall intent is to develop management successors. The greatest contributory factor in the failure of succession planning is the lack of follow-through. Performance appraisals and mentoring won’t accomplish much if there is no commitment on the part of senior managers. Succession planning is a long term investment that must be viewed as a multi-yea r strategy tied to the strategic planning process. Gothard and Austin (2013), discussed that his review of the literature, drawing heavily from the for-profit sector, suggests that there is no single best approach to succession planning and implementation. Recent research does, Downloaded by University of California, Berkeley at 13:12 25 April 2016 280 however, call for a broad shift from a traditional replacement-planning model to a more comprehensive succession management approach. The first conceptual model proposed above for promoting succession management in the human services distinguishes between emergency-based and departure-based succession planning that is linked to strategic planning and leadership development. The second conceptual model illustrates the key concepts needed to build an internal pool of leadership talent. Together, these models provide a framework for understanding the key practice principles underlying effective leadership succession policy and planning in nonprofit human service organizations. Executive transition requires organizations, groups, and individuals to remain focused on the mission and strategic plan of an organization while managing change and the emotions associated with a change in leadership. A succession plan can help guide participants through the challenges that arise during the process. Though effective succession planning requires a commitment from all levels of an organization, executives and their boards need to initiate and lead the process. Executives are called to navigate a highly public event while leading a process that is deeply personal. Executives must manage their own personal exit process, as well as the transitions occurring in theEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 65 organization, by balancing preparation with the process of letting go, and managing change while providing continuity. Succession planning calls for boards to engage in sensitive conversations while respecting the executive’s role. Ultimately, the board needs to facilitate a smooth transition and a healthy post-succession organization by planning based on an understanding of the organization’s direction, as well as the emerging talent in the organiza tio n. Paper (2017), discussed that as libraries transform and advance, they went through changes in leadership that affect service efficiency, organizational consistency, and alignment of priorities and strategies. Many Filipino librarians in the top-level management were approaching retirement. Some librarians left their organizations for greener pastures and better opportunities in other libraries. A few of them considered a change of career. These problems became complicated as there was a shortage of new licensed librarians, huge gap between top-level and mid-level management, and neglect of succession planning in the human resource development. Succession planning, as a tool for organizational development, was a useful technique for academic libraries. This paper examines the profile of current library managers in academic libraries in the Philippines, identified their hiring practices, and investigates their current practices in succession planning. It also aimed to identify the factors influencing successful succession planning. An online survey was administered to determine the extent of succession planning to identify a range of factors influencing the implementation of succession planning principles among Philippine academic libraries. The results of this study prescribed best practices of successful planning to prepare the next leaders into their future roles. Deshwal (2015), discussed that there is no one model for succession planning and there are no hard-and-fast rules. Every organization is different and what has been described above has been drawn mainly from the experience of large organizations. However, smallerEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 66 organizations may be able to take what they want from this factsheet and adapt provision to suit their own needs. But what is indisputable is that all organizations need leaders with a range of experience. Management training programs cannot provide that hands-on experience which is crucial in making future leaders (see our factsheet on Management development). Although it is a complex and time-consuming process which, carried out properly, does not come cheap, succession planning is the only way of managing the delivery of that experience and aligning it with business needs. But actively managing succession is the key to achieving strategic viability. It unlocks the potential for business direction, continuity, retention of high-value talent and institutional knowledge, and it builds a formidable culture that will outpace the competition. Enterprise-wide performance depends on the effectiveness, depth and breadth of an organization’s succession management efforts. Succession management is at the core of strategic, long-term organizational viability. Aligning talent with business strategy in this way enhances the prospects of delivering on short- and long-term objectives. Having a solid, systemic approach to succession management is essential for organizational growth and sustainability. Modern succession management is not only about finding replacements but it’s also an ongoing process of identifying and developing a desired talent base for all the levels of management. Succession management is a strategic linchpin for talent management. It touches on several of the key areas of integrated talent management and, most importantly, impacts the organization’s future. Done well – and enriched by technology – succession manageme nt can ensure that the organiza tio n will have a successful future. Malhotra (2011), discussed that the preceding chapters of this research report indicated the vital importance of succession planning in an organization. The value and benefits of succession planning were demonstrated, especially during the change of an organization’s leadership when there is a high risk of confusion and uncertainty. They list the advantages of succession planning and of how it assures and gives confidence to people within anEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 67 organization and to its external stakeholders that the program would continue without any immediate major change to the program. It was shown how organizations in the private sector changed their key leaders without causing any turmoil or impacting the organization’s performance. The report described reasons the public sector differs from the private sector in planning and execution for succession of its key leaders and how it addresses those differences. The central theme of this report is planning, preparation, and execution of activities to achieve a successful succession. The research in support of this study identified the views of senior leaders of federal agencies at APG, their limitations under the merit system program and how they are addressing their limitatio ns. Robertson (n.d.), discussed that succession planning is a necessary but unexplored resource for most public organizations. Human Resource professionals throughout the country are aware of the need to develop a succession plan, but lack the resources and legislative support to do so. To be implemented successfully, succession planning requires research, strategic planning, and the support of top management. Some states and many private businesses have developed feasible alternatives for creating a succession plan to suit the needs of their organizations. Succession planning in the public sector involves a combination of strategies designed to prepare and find qualified replacements for government jobs. The retirement en masse of the Baby Boomer generation is coming and without succession planning efforts today we will not be prepared to face it tomorrow. Darvish and Temelie (2014), considered that, there is a significant positive relation between succession planning and strategic planning in the studied university, and as these two types of planning interact with each other, it is recommended that the university adopt a succession plan to reduce the gap in its activities when its personnel are retired or dismissed, and improve strategic planning indirectly. Considering the findings of this research, it has been proved that the university has approximately young personnel. Therefore, it hasEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 68 potential for succession planning for the future key positions. This will be achieved by a continuous and systematic process consisting of the assessment of organizational talents, identification of competent personnel, identification of the existing skills of personnel, determination of the skills required for the future, determination of skill gap, adopting different training programs inside and outside the organization, and more effectively, on-the-job trainings, job rotation plans, and plans for the development and keeping the personnel. For the implementation of succession planning, it is suggested that a formalized and concentrated process for succession planning should be developed, and senior directors, who are committed to participate actively in this plan, encourage their personnel to participate in this planning. The central organizations are suggested to grant universities independence to some extent so that they can use succession plans for the selection of individuals for their key positions in accordance with their special plans. Finally, it is suggested that the appointments in universities should be carried out notwithstanding political plans and changes. The leaders of universities must have a long-term perspective for the implementation of succession plans in their universities without paying any attention to leaving their office. According to the results it is suggested that competent leaders trained in the field of management and related disciplines must be appointed to prevent incompetent managers from taking office of managerial positions. This enhances the effectiveness and improvement of strategic planning in universities and strategic planning will be carried out in a scientific and systematic manner. In conclusion, it is recommended that the results of the conducted strategies be evaluated so as to modify and direct them based on their strengths and weaknesses. Eshiteti et al. (2013), the findings of the study indicate that the three sugar manufacturing companies in Western Province of Kenya engage in formalized succession planning in order to offer the knowledge to help high potential employees fit into management positions. Therefore, succession planning programs emerged as a strong factor influencing staffEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 69 retention. The influence was mainly through provision of employee growth opportunities and job satisfaction. This was enabled through programs such as job rotation, mentoring, coaching and other formal training programs like action learning. The process provides some guidelines to assist managers understand how to reduce employee turnover, increase job satisfaction and employees professional and personal growth. Thus, organizations investment in their staff and improvement contributes to a pool of talent, which benefits the whole organiza tio n through retention. Avanesh (2011), touched on that for any industry that thrives on the dynamics of constant change, success comes to those who have the foresight and the ability to counter unexpected challenges. The whole process of training these future leaders is evidently time-consuming and requires a lot of additional resources, but in the long run it is a worthwhile investment that is essential for the survival of any organization. In the words of Rashmi Barbhaiya, the President of R;D at Ranbaxy Laboratories India, grooming leaders should be one of the ways of self- assessment. When I am ready to retire, there must be at least three outstanding candidates ready to take over. After all, it is more than just the passing of power and responsibility—it is about survival and continuity…..the true challenge for doing business in India! Rachel (2013), brought the results of these researches meet the main objective of this study. Generally speaking, employee motivation, work-life balance and organization culture, are closely related to each other.. The research also has shown that organizations need to know how to attract and retain their employees from available resources in any recession. It is undoubtedly evident that to facilitate employee retention by building up a motivation mechanism, developing a good organizational culture, understanding employees’ expectation, creating a work-life balance workplace and other similar methods are quite effective.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 70 Nyanjom (2013), wrote that the study concluded that employee’s retention was influenced by employee’s empowerment, training and career development, employee compensation, performance appraisal and employees commitment. The presence of opportunities for professional growth, well defined goals and objectives and job descriptions contribute to the retention of employees in state corporations. The study further concludes that the extent to which employees’ retention is influenced by readily available loan facilities, guaranteed job security and stress management programs is moderate and that adequate working equipment does not influence employee retention in their organization. The study further concluded that training and career development were adapted to a great extent by the state corporations and that they offered sponsored training and career development programs and those employees were satisfied with the training and career development offered to them by the organization. The study further concluded that employee training and career development benefits were in place and that they influenced employees’ retention to a great extent. The study further concluded that the extent to which employee training and career development programs offered were linked to each employee’s career needs was moderate. The study also concluded that giving employees’ educational subsidies influenced the retention to a great extent and that their level of adoption in state corporations was great. The study further concluded that to a moderate extent, employees were satisfied with the number of annual leave days given by the organization and that rewards and benefits offered were comparable with what the market offered. The study further concluded that rewards and benefits offered were not commensurate with the amount and quality of work done. The study also concluded that an effective and transparent performance appraisal process was in place at state corporations and that feedback from performance appraisals led to enhanced employee development and that performance appraisal systems encompassing mentoring and coaching of employees were also in place. The study further concluded that to a moderateEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 71 extent, the employees’ career goals were established and supported by the performance appraisals. The employees were also proud to tell others that they were part of the organizations and that job security had an influence on employee retention in the organizations. It was also concluded that employees were committed to work in the organization because they did not want to lose their benefits and that they were committed, to a moderate extent, to work for the organization until they retire. The study also concluded that the employees were recognized and rewarded for their commitment and dedicated service to the organiza tio ns. Haider et al. (2015), verified that attracting and retaining key employees is always a challenge, but it has become more difficult due to the competition for skilled employees. The employees feel that effective HR practices have a direct and positive relationship with employee retention. The companies that successfully attract and retain key employees offer high compensation pancakes and dynamic environment. The compensation and benefits given by Telecom sector to its employees is a vital policy that helps organizational nourishment. The employees hold the opinion that compensation/rewards contribute to improving an employee’s loyalty and retention toward organization. The results indicate that Telecom sector is very capable and successful in employee retention. It is also providing a culture that is helping in retaining the employees at all levels. Training and development is a process of developing expertise in employees for the purpose of better performance. Training and development is important in improving the effectiveness and in retaining the key employees. Employees are loyal to the employer if the employer is committed and helpful for their long term career development. Employees come to the organization with certain needs, desires and skills and expect that they would be given an environment where they can utilize and enhance their abilities and satisfy many of their needs. Employees feel that training and development needs of staff are not being properly taken care of. Future researchers can easilyEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 72 pinpoint the variables that affect the retention of employees. Furthermore, the national researchers can use the results of this study in order to make the base for future study in this area. Future researchers can carry it on broader aspects by considering the impact of other HR practices on employee retention. Other HR practices could be recruitment and selection, performance management and information sharing. The sample size of this study is small so they can make it large while doing their researches. They can analyze the retention of employees affected by these HR practices on other sectors of Pakistan. This research is equally distributed in the HR department to get the picture of the organization’s HR practices and employee retention. It will benefit both the organiza tio n and the keen student/researc he rs. Samuel and Chipunza (2009), discussed that the Chi-square value for training and development in the public sector was X²(4) = 11.41 with an associated p- value of 0.02 while the private sector had a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 10.59 and a p-value of 0.03. The result provided strong evidence of an association between training and development and employee retention. There was also strong evidence of an association between job security and employee retention. In the public service, job security had a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 8.15 and an associated p-value of 0.04 while the private sector had X²(4) = 9.90 and an associated p-value of 0.04. Challenging/interesting work in the public sector had a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 11.09 and an associated p- value of 0.03 while the private sector had a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 10.71with an associated p-value of 0.03. The result provided strong evidence of an association between challenging/interesting work and employee retention. Employees in the private sector were significantly influenced by setting performance targets for subordi- nates with a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 20.52 and an associated p-value of 0.00. The variable had no signifi- cant influence in the public sector with a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 7.07 with an associated p-value of 0.13. Recognition/reward for good performance significantly influenced retention in the private sector at a Chi-square value of 19.81 and anEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 73 associated p-value of 0.00 while the variable did not significantly influenced retention in the public sector at a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 7.76 and an associated p-value of 0.10 in the public sector. Salary package significantly influenced retention in the public sector at a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 22.99 and an associated p-value of 0.00. The variable had a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 4.03 and an associated p- value of 0.25 in the private sector meaning that the variable did not have any significant influence on retention. Performance bonus/commission had a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 39.93 and an associated p-value of 0.00 showing a significant influence on retention in the private sector. The variable however did not significantly influenced retention in the public sector at a Chi-square value of X² (4) = 2.11 and an associated p-value of 0.72. The results also show that terminal/pension benefits had significant influence on retention in the public sector at a Chi-square value of x2(4) = 94.00 and an associated p-value of 0.00 without a corresponding significance in the private sector at a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 0.19 and an associated p-value of 0.98 respectively. Cutting-edge technology significantly influenced retention in the private sector at a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 13.13 and an associated p-value of 0.00. The variable did not significantly influence retention in the public service at a Chi-square value of X²(4) = 9.19 and an associated p-value of 0.06 in the public service. Interpersonal relationship did not influence retention in both the public and private sectors at Chi-square values of X²(4) = 9.01 and an associated p-value of 0.06 and ofEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 74 X²(4) = 2.98 and an associated p-value of 0.56 respectively. As indicated in Tables 1 and 2, while some intrinsic and extrinsic variables significantly influenced retention in both public and private sector organisations, some did not. Thus, the results of the study could not totally accept or reject the hypothesis of the study as stated. Kossivi et al. (2016), discussed that the need for organizations to retain their talents is crucial for their ability to remain in business depends on it. Although this study attempted to bring forth all the factors related to employee retention, this complex area of human resource needs further investigations. Some factors such as organization culture, training and development, autonomy are less explored than supervision and leadership for instance. The workforce of an organization can be classified into three categories: directors, managers and employees. Existing researches did not lay enough emphasis on the category of employees, the sector of the economy and the type of businesses that are particularly affected by one factor or the other, though some studies did. For further investigations to better equip organiza tio ns with knowledge necessary to improve their retention capability are needed. Inda (2016), showed that theorized causal connections of the variable: Employees usually join the organization bringing with them their work values. As they interfaced with the work and the organizational environment, they found themselves challenged (or not) and ‘turned on’ (or alienated) by their job and organizational factors. Based on their experiences, individuals then make some deliberate choices as to the extent to which they want to getEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 75 involved in their jobs and invest themselves in work. That is, based on how employees perceive their job and work environment, they could get minimally to highly involve in their jobs. There was thus, a time gap between their interfaces with the work environment and their ego-involvement in their jobs. No one completely identified with the job or invests the self in the work before assessing what the job entails and how conducive the work environment was. When people get involved in their jobs, they spent greater amounts of time and energy at the work place. That was, the more the employees engage in work behavior because of job involvement, the greater was their interactions with and explorations in the work environment. As employees explored their work environment, had success experiences, and gained mastery at work, they develop a sense of competence or confidence in their own competence. Because of this psychological success feeling, they were likely to get even more involved in their work in anticipation of experiencing greater successes and more mastery. In essence, job involvement will lead to a sense of competence, and greater sense of competence will lead to further job involvement or ego-investment in the job. Thus, the two variables job involvement and sense of competence will mutually reinforce each other. Not being alienated from the job (i.e. being job – involved to some extent at least) was a necessary precondition for deriving job satisfactio n i.e. satisfactio n from the work itself and employee retention. Rahman et al. (2017), discussed that this paper attempts to investigate the factors that affect job satisfaction of sales agents from Islamic (Hereafter; Tak?ful) and conventional insurance of Pakistan using Herzberg two-factor motivation theory. Using multi-stage stratified random sampling; we received a total of 318 usable responses (185 from family Tak?ful and 133 from life insurance). A multiple regression and hierarchal regression model including 11 hygiene–motivational factors were used to examine job satisfaction in the presence of moderating factor Shari’ah perception. The outcomes regarding Herzberg two-factor theory were entirely distinctive between those two direct sales groups with theEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 76 presence of moderating variable Shari’ah perception. Without moder- ating the effect of Shari’ah perception, family Tak?ful and conventional life insurance full-time direct sales agents demonstrated that hygiene factors and motivational factors were both more effective indicators of job satisfaction in Pakistani context. While checking the moderating effect in the presence of moderating variable Shari’ah perception, family Tak?ful sales agents are satisfied with hygiene factors where the motivators are not significantly affected by Shari’ah perception. On the other hand, conventional life insurance sales agents have no concern with Shari’ah perception. Saari and Judge (2004, December), discussed that the field of industrial/organizational psychology has a long, rich, and, at times, controversial history related to the study and understanding of employee attitudes and job Today, satisfaction. Some of this research is very specific and aimed primarily at other re- searchers, while other publications provide practical guidance on understanding, measuring, and improving employee attitudes. One likely future direction of employee attitude research will be to better understand the interplay between the person and the situation and the various internal and external factors that influence employee attitudes. In particular, a better understanding of the role of emotion, as well as broader environmental impacts, is needed and has been largely over- looked in past research. In addition, ongoing research will provide more in-depth understanding of the effects of employee attitudes and job satisfaction on organizational measures, such as customer satisfaction and financial measures. Greater insights on the relationship between employee attitudes and business performance will assist HR professionals as they strive to enhance the essential people side of the business in a highly competitive, global arena. Singh (2013), stated that on the basis of above deliberations; we can say that employee attitudes typically reflect the moral of the company. In areas of customer service and sales, happy employees are extremely important because they represent the company to the public.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 77 Every organization should develop strategies that strengthen the work environment and increase the employee’s morale and employee’s satisfaction to enhance employee performance and productivity, which ultimately results in high profits, customer satisfaction as well as customer retention. Job satisfaction represents one of the most complex areas facing today’s managers when it comes to managing their employees. Policy makers and managers have turned their attention to provide different kinds of facilities to their employees in order to satisfy their employees. A good work environment and good work conditions can increase employee job satisfaction and the employees will try to give their best which can increase the employee work performance. Aziri (2011), provided that job satisfaction represents one of the most complex areas facing today’s managers when it comes to managing their employees. Although thousands of papers and research have been conducted on job satisfaction all over the world, in the Republic of Macedonia this is one of the least studied research fields. Many studies have demonstrated an unusually large impact on the job satisfaction on the motivation of workers, while the level of motivation has an impact on productivity, and hence also on performance of business organizations. There is a considerable impact of the employee’s perceptions for the nature of his work and the level of overall job satisfaction. Financial compensation has a great impact on the overall job satisfactio n of employees. Parvin and Karbin (2011), felt that employee job satisfaction can improve service quality and increase employee satisfaction. In this circumstance, policy makers and managers have turned their attention to provide different kinds of facilities to their employees in order to satisfy their employees. This study tested factors affecting job satisfaction for pharmaceuticals companies. The results suggest that the factors had satisfactorily explained job satisfaction and that the policy makers and managers should focus on the factors that affect employee job satisfaction, if they want to enhance their businesses. Based on theEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 78 results for the standardized values, we are able to see that work conditions, fairness, promotion, and pay, are key factors affecting pharmaceuticals companies employees’ job satisfaction. Money is a good motivator, actually all employees’ work for money, employees need the money, a good salary and good compensations are key factors in satisfying the employee. We can increase the employee salary and compensation to motivate the employee, the good pay back can be one of the key factors affecting job satisfaction, also in this way one can increase the service quality and organizational performance. The factor of work conditions is also proven to have significant influence over the pharmaceuticals companies. The physical design of the place does have certain impacts on job satisfaction. Because the work conditions in the pharmaceuticals companies include the employee relationships and work environment, all these factors relate to employee job satisfaction. A good work environment and good work conditions can increase employee job satisfaction and the employees will try to give their best which can increase the employee work performance. The importance and the need is therefore describing or defining the physical environment by identifying those elements or dimensions that make up the physical environment. Therefore, in the questionnaires several elements have been defined such as cleanliness, lighting, noise, and furniture arrangements. These elements are the determinant of whether it affects employee’s satisfaction. In pharmaceuticals companies, the employees hope they all receive equal treatment with respect to pay or promotion. If pharmaceuticals companies create a fair competitive environment, like fair treatment, fair compensation, fair work hours, these will improve employee job attitudes; fairness can also motivate employees to be hard working. After this consideration, we can see that fairness can increase employee job satisfaction; satisfied employees offer good services for the organization. This can increase organizational performance, so fairness is a key factor affecting job satisfaction in pharmaceuticals companies. In pharmaceuticals companies job security as an aspect of job satisfaction wasEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 79 more important to male employees than to female employees. Employees from medium- and large-staff-sized organizations, compared with those from small staff-sized organizations, were more likely to cite job security as a very important contributor to their job satisfactio n. Odembo (2013), noted that this research study aims at investigating the factors that affect employee satisfaction at Airtel Kenya Limited. Specifically, the study seeks to investigate the influence of talent development on employee satisfaction, to establish the extent to which reward influences employee satisfaction; establish the influence of organizational structure on employee satisfaction and investigate the influence of organizational commitment on satisfaction of employees. Theoretical and empirical studies will be reviewed to assess the factors likely to affect employee retention The study will adopt descriptive research survey, A sample size of 50 employees will be taken for the research study, representing 20% of an entire population of 250. Data for the study will be collected primarily through semi- structured questionnaire. The study will adopt descriptive statistics analytical techniques to analyze the variables, using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS). Statistical instrument to be used for the research analysis will mainly be inferential statistics, specifically correlation matrix and multiple regression analysis. The researcher will employ the survey strategy for the study. This strategy is proposed because it allows the collection of a large amount of data from a sizable population in an economical manner. The study will employ descriptive statistics method for presenting and summarizing bio-data. Findings would be reported in the form of tables and figures and appropriate recommendatio ns given.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 80 Chapte r 3 Data and M e thodology This chapter explains the research method to accomplish study, including research design, population size, sample size, data collection method and source of data. This research has examined the effects of succession planning on employee retention and job satisfaction in Shuhada Organization and Gowharshad Institute of Higher Education in Kabul. The data have been collected from all key staff of Shuhada Organization and Gowharshad Institute of Higher Education in Kabul. The data collected by questionnaires (Appendix A) have been tested by SPSS software to form a relationship between variables and correlation has been tested, that illustrate the effect of succession planning on employee retention and job satisfactio n. 3.1 Re se arch De sign: In this research paper the case study, research design and deductive approach are used. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of succession planning on employee retention and job satisfaction in Shuhada Organization and Gowharshad Institute of Higher Education in Kabul. Descriptive Research is trying to describe what is happening in more detail, filling in the missing parts and expanding our understanding, to expand understanding about existing knowledge. 3.2 Population: Shuhada Organization and Gowharshad Institute of Higher Education key staffs were taken as a population of the study because the study used a case study design. A total number of 30 employees out of 90 employees of different departments of Shuhada Organization and Gowharshad Institute of Higher Education were selected that would give the in-depth coverage and analysis of the results or the findings.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 81 3.3 Sampling Size : A total number of 30 employees out of 90 employees of different departments and units of Shuhada Organiza tio n and Gowharshad Institute of Higher Education were selected. 3.4 Sampling Te chnique : Harrysingh et al. (2017), explained that statisticians use the word sample to describe a portion chosen from the population. A finite subset of statistical individuals defined in a population is called sample. The number of units in a sample is called the sample size. The judgment technique has been acquired for this research. The general directorate of Shuhada Organization and directorate of Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education and their different departments have been identified and they are going to be available for filling the questionna ires. In the first step a formal permission was obtained through personal visit with heads of organizations. In the second stage in a process the questionnaires were distributed personally to pre-selected employees already informed about the purpose of the questionna ire filling. 3.5 Source of Data: Both primary and secondary data were collected during the study. The techniques that were used include administering of written questionnaires, observations as well as reviewing existing data. The study relied on close ended questionna ire. 3.6 Primary Data Colle ction: Primary data was gathered from the key staff levels of both organizations senior and junior staff officers from Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education by questionnaire on the effects of succession planning on employee retention and job satisfactio n. 3.7 Se condary Data Colle ction: Secondary data was collected from text books, journals, and internet.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 82 3.8 Data Analysis: The study analyzed data by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Data processing involved editing, coding, tabulation which were used as key factors in the whole processes of research. This was done in order to make the research accurate and effective. First a formal permission of each department’s head has been taken then a total number of 30 employees of different departments of the Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education was conducted and visited. Though after informing employees about the purpose of filling the questionnaire and determining the time for collecting the questionnaire the total numbers of 30 filled questionnaires were received in the form of hard copy. The data was decoded and entered in to the SPSS software.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 83 Chapte r 4 Analysis and Findings 4.1 Discussion Part: In this chapter Chronbech’s alpha, regression and results of the research are brought in details. Chronbech’s alpha of the questionnaire has been found through analysis of the data which has been replied by the responded and entered in the SPSS. Through this analysis we need to find out reliability of the questionnaire to show the entire constancy of the questions of the questionnaire which is brought in ?Reliability? section with detail. Regression analysis of the research has also been conducted to find out significance of the independent variable which is ?effects of succession planning? on dependent variables which are ?employee retention and job satisfaction?. This part will be brought in the section of ?Regression Analysis? and a number of 30 employees have been selected from Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education to fill the questionnaires for this research. After completion of the questionnaires, collected data entered to SPSS and analyzed. Output analysis of the each question will be discussed in ?Trend Analysis? section. 4.2 Re liability of the Que stionnaire : To understand whether the questionnaire items are relevant with each other we should test it in SPSS and find its Cronbach’s alpha. According to Idre (2017), Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of internal consistency, that is, how closely related a set of items are as a group. It is considered to be a measure of scale reliability. A “high” value for alpha does not imply that the measure is unidimensional. If, in addition to measuring internal consistency, you wish to provide evidence that the scale in question is unidimensional, additional analyses can be performed. Exploratory factor analysis is one method of checking dimensionality. Technically speaking, Cronbach’s alpha is not a statistical test – it is a coefficient of reliability (or consistency). Cronbach’s alpha can be written as a function of the number of test items and the average inter-correlation among theEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 84 items. Below, for conceptual purposes, we show the formula for the standardized Cronbach’s alpha: ? here N is equal to the number of items, c-bar is the average inter-item covariance among the items and v-bar equals the average variance. One can see from this formula that if you increase the number of items, you increase Cronbach’s alpha. Additionally, if the average inter-item correlation is low, alpha will be low. As the average inter-item correlation increases, Cronbach’s alpha increases as well (holding the number of items constant). The interrelatedness of research questionnaire was test by SPSS to find its Cronbach’s alpha or its reliability. The following table shows reliability of the research questionnaire or Cronbach’s alpha. 0.883 shows that the entire items of the research questionnaire are highly constant and its reliability is acceptable. The reliability number: below 0.5 is rejected, between 0.5 to 0.7 is questionab le and over 0.7 is acceptable. Ite m-Total S tati sti cs Scale M ean if It em Delet ed Scale Variance if It em Delet ed Correct ed It em-T ot al Correlat ion Squared M ult ip le Correlat ion Cronbach’s Alp ha if It em Delet ed SP1 117.47 331.568 .281 . .882 SP2 118.57 336.737 .101 . .885 SP3 118.93 331.582 .231 . .883 SP4 119.00 327.103 .291 . .882 SP5 118.97 317.137 .554 . .878 SP6 118.30 326.079 .443 . .880 SP7 118.60 313.145 .672 . .875 SP8 119.10 327.886 .354 . .881 SP9 119.10 330.162 .316 . .882 SP10 118.70 323.390 .443 . .880 SP11 118.80 318.579 .489 . .879 SP12 118.67 325.816 .334 . .882 SP13 118.63 317.964 .670 . .876 SP14 118.27 326.478 .307 . .882 SP15 118.00 321.724 .542 . .878 SP16 118.87 316.809 .576 . .877 ER1 118.43 328.323 .341 . .881 ER2 118.53 326.533 .327 . .882EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 85 ER3 118.37 324.378 .473 . .879 ER4 118.97 336.102 .117 . .885 ER5 118.30 330.217 .276 . .882 ER6 117.63 324.516 .544 . .879 ER7 118.37 314.102 .641 . .876 ER8 118.90 317.748 .588 . .877 ER9 118.50 311.293 .590 . .876 ER10 118.40 318.455 .594 . .877 ER11 119.23 312.254 .639 . .876 ER12 119.07 324.202 .409 . .880 ER13 119.57 328.116 .355 . .881 ER14 118.50 319.638 .624 . .877 ER15 118.53 316.671 .678 . .876 ER16 118.33 324.989 .331 . .882 JS1 117.67 322.092 .498 . .879 JS2 117.57 366.875 -.537 . .899 JS3 117.77 332.392 .266 . .882 JS4 118.37 363.689 -.528 . .896 JS5 117.63 324.999 .500 . .879 JS6 117.90 329.472 .359 . .881 JS7 117.87 330.947 .281 . .882 JS8 118.30 332.838 .234 . .883 JS9 118.30 327.734 .331 . .881 JS10 119.07 322.754 .420 . .880 The above total statistic table indicates each question’s Cronbatch’s alpha from the lowest to highest ones. The highest one is 0.899 and the lowest one is 0875 and average of all is 0.883. 4.3 Re gre ssion Analysis: Mode l S ummary M odel R R Square Adjust ed R Square St d. Error of t he Est imat e 1 .685a .469 .450 6.95241 a. Predict ors: (Const ant ), Sucession_Planning R-squared, explains total variation relationship and always falls between 0 to 100%. 0% indicates that the model explains none of the variability of the response data around its mean. 100% indicates that the model explains all the variability of the response data around its mean. In general, the higher the R-squared, the better the model fits the data. In the above table of this research R-square is 0.469, so the relationship is weak.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 86 ANO VAb M odel Sum of Squares df M ean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 1195.960 1 1195.960 24.743 .000a Residual 1353.406 28 48.336 T ot al 2549.367 29 a. Predict ors: (Const ant ), Sucession_Planning b. Dep endent Variable: Emp loy ee_Ret ension The (?) is called the significance level, and is the probability of overall model significance. It is usually set at or below 5%. As the significance level is 0.000a so the model is strongly fit. Coe ffi ci e ntsa M odel Unst andardiz ed Coefficient s St andardiz ed Coefficient s t Sig. B St d. Error Bet a 1 (Const ant ) 13.453 6.317 2.130 .042 Sucession_Planning .701 .141 .685 4.974 .000 a. Dep endent Variable: Emp loy ee_Ret ension Unstandardized coefficients beta represents that the amount by which dependent variable changes if we change independent variable by one percent keeping other independent variables constant. Beta number in above table is 0.701 if independent variable (succession planning), is changed by 1% so the dependent variable (employee retention) will be changed by 0.701 percent. According to the significance level of the above table 0.000, the null hypothesis is accepted. T-value is used for the significant of a variable if t-value is 1.96 or more than 1.96 so variable is significant otherwise variable is insignificant. In the above table t-value is 4.974 so the variable is significant. It means succession planning has positive effect on employee retention.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 87 Mode l S ummary M odel R R Square Adjust ed R Square St d. Error of t he Est imat e 1 .040a .002 -.034 4.41778 a. Predict ors: (Const ant ), Sucession_Planning R-squared, explains total variation relationship and always falls between 0 to 100%. 0% indicates that the model explains none of the variability of the response data around its mean. 100% indicates that the model explains all the variability of the response data around its mean. In general, the higher the R-squared, the better the model fits the data. In the above table of this research R-square is 0.002, so the relationship is strongly weak. ANO VAb M odel Sum of Squares df M ean Square F Sig. 1 Regression .896 1 .896 .046 .832a Residual 546.470 28 19.517 T ot al 547.367 29 a. Predict ors: (Const ant ), Sucession_Planning b. Dep endent Variable: Job_Sat isficat ion The (?) is called the significance level, and is the probability of overall model significance. It is usually set at or below 5%. As the significance level is 0.832a so the model does not fit. Coe ffi ci e ntsa M odel Unst andardiz ed Coefficient s St andardiz ed Coefficient s t Sig. B St d. Error Bet a 1 (Const ant ) 32.391 4.014 8.069 .000 Sucession_Planning .019 .090 .040 .214 .832 a. Dep endent Variable: Job_Sat isficat ion Unstandardized coefficients beta represents that the amount by which dependent variable changes if we change independent variable by one percent keeping other independent variables constant. Beta number in above table is 0.019 if independent variable (successionEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 88 planning), is changed by 1% so the dependent variable (employee retention) will be changed by 0.019 percent. According to the significance level of the above table 0.832, the null hypothesis is rejected. T-value is used for the significant of a variable if t-value is 1.96 or more than 1.96 so variable is significant otherwise variable is insignificant. In the above table t-value is 0.214 so the variable is insignificant. It means succession planning does not have positive effect on employee retention. 4.4 Tre nd Analysis 4.4.1 De mographic Informatio n of Re se arch: According to the above table and graph, in this research 30 employees were selected from Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education to fill the questionnaires, from which a number of 7 persons were senior level management, 15 persons were middle level management and 8 persons were junior level management. Majority of the respondents were middle level manager. 1. Indi cate your curre nt l e ve l i n the organi z ati on. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid Senior Level M anagement 7 23.3 23.3 23.3 M iddle Level M anagement 15 50.0 50.0 73.3 Junior Level M anagement 8 26.7 26.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 89 2. Indi cate your hi ghe st l e ve l of e ducati on. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid M ast er Degree 6 20.0 20.0 20.0 Under Graduat e Degree 23 76.7 76.7 96.7 Dip loma 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 Based on the above table and graph, the employees who completed the questionnaires were from different level of education. 6 persons were master degree, 23 persons were under graduate degree and one person was diploma which the percentages of them were: Majority of the respondents was under graduate degree. 3. Indi cate your l e ngth of se rvi ce i n the organi z ati on. Year Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid 0-2 14 46.7 46.7 46.7 3-5 10 33.3 33.3 80.0 6-10 6 20.0 20.0 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to above table and graph, employees’ length of their services in the organizations were 14 persons from 0-2 years with 47% of the sample size, 10 persons were from 3-5 years with 33% of the sample size and 6 persons were from 6-10 years with 20% of the sample size. Majority of them were from 0-2 years.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 90 4. Indi cate your age group. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid 20-29 20 66.7 66.7 66.7 30-39 8 26.7 26.7 93.3 50 and above 2 6.7 6.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 Based on the above table and graph, age group of the research sample were 20 persons from 20-29 years, 8 persons were from 30-39 years old and 2 persons were 50 and above . Majority of them were from 20-29 years old. 5. Ge nde r Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid M ale 20 66.7 66.7 66.7 Female 10 33.3 33.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 Above table and graph show that 20 male with 67% and 10 female with 33% included to fill the research questionna ires. Majority of the respondents were male.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 91 4.4.2 Implementation of Succe ssion Planning Practice s: 1. In my organi z ati on, pe rformance apprai sal s are al ways conducte d annual l y Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid Disagree 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 23.3 Agree 16 53.3 53.3 76.7 St rongly Agree 7 23.3 23.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to the above table and graph, 16 employees out of 30 which makes 54% of the respondents were agree that performance appraisals were always conducted in the organiza tio ns. 2. Job rotati on i s we l l i mpl e me nte d across al l de partme nts i n my organi z ati on Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 40.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 70.0 Agree 9 30.0 30.0 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph illustrate that 3 persons of the respondents were strongly disagree, 9 were disagree, 9 were neither agree nor disagree and 9 were agree. Most of the respondents were not agree with well implementation of job rotation in Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 92 3. Bonuse s and i nce nti ve s are be ne fi ts gi ve n to al l e mpl oye e s i n my organi z ati on base d on the i r pe rformance Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 20.0 Disagree 10 33.3 33.3 53.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 10 33.3 33.3 86.7 Agree 3 10.0 10.0 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph illustrate that 6 persons strongly rejected, 10 persons rejected, 10 persons had neutral response, 3 agree and 1 strongly agree. Majority of the respondents rejected incentive giving by the organizatio ns to employees. 4. In my organi z ati on, e mpl oye e care e r paths are cl e arl y de fi ne d and are avai l abl e from the HR De partment Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 10 33.3 33.3 33.3 Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 56.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 73.3 Agree 8 26.7 26.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph show that 10 respondents were strongly disagree, 7 respondents were disagree, 5 respondents were neutral and 8 respondents were agree with the clarity of the employee career paths in the organizations. Majority of the respondents were strongly disagreeing with clarity of employee career paths.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 93 5. In my organi z ati on, trai ni ng and de ve l opme nt opportuni ti e s are avai l abl e to al l e mpl oye e s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 23.3 Disagree 12 40.0 40.0 63.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 76.7 Agree 6 20.0 20.0 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to the above table and graph, 7 respondents were strongly disagree, 12 respondents were disagree, 4 respondents were neutral, 6 respondents were agree and 1 respondent was strongly agree. Majority of the respondents were against availability of the training and development opportunities in the organiza tio ns. 6. In my organi z ati on, me ntori ng and coachi ng i s we l l practi ce d by most manage rs and supe rvi sors Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 1 3.3 3.3 3.3 Disagree 8 26.7 26.7 30.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 60.0 Agree 12 40.0 40.0 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 Based on illustration of the above table and graph, 1 respondent was strongly disagree, 8 respondents were disagree, 9 respondents were neutral, 12 respondents were agree with well practice of mentoring and coaching of employees by most managers and supervisors in the organizations. Majority of the respondents were agreeing with well practice of mentoring and coaching of employees by most managers and supervisors in the organiza tio ns.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 94 7. In my organi z ati on, the re are opportuni ti e s for e mpl oye e s to conti nuousl y i mprove the i r ski l l s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 13.3 Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 43.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 73.3 Agree 6 20.0 20.0 93.3 St rongly Agree 2 6.7 6.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph illustrate that, 4 respondents expressed were strongly disagree, 9 respondents were disagree, 9 respondents were neutral, 6 respondents were agree and 2 respondents were strongly agree with the continues improvement of employee’s skills in the organizations. Majority of the respondents were rejecting continues improvement of employees’ skills in the organizatio ns. 8. In my organi z ati on, the pay and gradi ng structure s al l ow e mpl oye e s to de fi ne the i r own re mune rati ons Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 23.3 Disagree 12 40.0 40.0 63.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 86.7 Agree 4 13.3 13.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph illustrate that, 7 respondents were strongly disagree, 12 respondents were disagree, 7 respondents were neutral, and 4 respondents were agree with the organizational pay and grading structure to allow employees to define their ownEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 95 remunerations. Majority of the respondents were rejecting the organizational pay and grading structure to allow employees to define their own compensatio ns. 9. In my organi z ati on, succe ssi on pl anning i s stri ctl y consi de re d for top l e ve l manage me nt Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 20.0 Disagree 13 43.3 43.3 63.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 8 26.7 26.7 90.0 Agree 3 10.0 10.0 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 Based on the above table and graphs, 6 respondents were strongly disagree, 13 respondents were disagree, 8 respondents were neutral and 3 respondents were agree with the strictly consideration of succession planning for top level management. Majority of the respondents were rejecting the strictly consideration of succession planning for top level manageme nt. 10. In my organi z ati on, e mpl oye e s are usual ly re crui te d from di ve rse de mographi c backgrounds Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 16.7 Disagree 8 26.7 26.7 43.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 73.3 Agree 8 26.7 26.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph explain that, 5 respondents were strongly disagree, 8 respondents were disagree, 9 respondents were neural, and 8 respondents were agree with employee’s recruitment from diverse demographic backgrounds in the organizations.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 96 Majority of the respondents rejected employee recruitment from diverse demographic backgrounds in the organizatio ns. 11. In my organi z ati on, re wards are al ways gi ve n to tal e nte d e mpl oye e s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 23.3 Disagree 8 26.7 26.7 50.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 8 26.7 26.7 76.7 Agree 5 16.7 16.7 93.3 St rongly Agree 2 6.7 6.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 Based on the above table and graph, 7 respondents were strongly disagree, 8 respondents were disagree, 8 respondents were neutral, 5 respondents were agree and 2 respondents were strongly agree with always given rewards to talented employees. Majority of the respondents were rejecting, always given rewards to talented employees in the organiza tio ns. 12. In my organi z ati on, any change s i n HR pol i ce s are communi cate d to al l e mpl oye e s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 16.7 Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 46.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 8 26.7 26.7 73.3 Agree 6 20.0 20.0 93.3 St rongly Agree 2 6.7 6.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph illustrate that, 5 respondents were strongly disagree, 9 respondents were disagree, 8 respondents were neutral, 6 respondents were agree and 2EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 97 respondents were strongly agree with any changes in HR polices to be communicated with all employees in the organizations. Majority of the respondents were rejecting communication of changes in HR policies to all employees. 13. Tal e nte d e mpl oye e s are al ways attracte d to joi n my organi z ati on due to i ts good re putati on i n re tai ni ng tal e nt Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 40.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 11 36.7 36.7 76.7 Agree 7 23.3 23.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph illustrate that, 3 respondents were strongly disagree, 9 respondents were disagree, 11 respondents were neutral and 7 respondents were agree with always attraction of talent employees to join the organizations due to its good reputation in retaining talents. Majority of respondents rejected that organizations do not always attract talented employees to join the organiza tio ns due to its good reputation in retaining talents. 14. In my organi z ati on, di ve rsi ty manage me nt pol i cy di sre gards any form of di scri mi nati on agai nst ge nde r, re l i gi on and se x Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 33.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 8 26.7 26.7 60.0 Agree 8 26.7 26.7 86.7 St rongly Agree 4 13.3 13.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to the above table and graph, 3 respondents were strongly disagree, 7 respondents were disagree, 8 respondents were neutral, 8 respondents were agree and 4 respondents were strongly agree with diversity management policy to disregard any form ofEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 98 discrimination against gender, religion and sex. Majority of respondents accepted that diversity management policy of the organizations; disregard any form of discrimination against gender, religio n and sex. 15. In my organi z ati on, we have an “ope n door pol i cy” wi tch e nabl e smooth communi cati on be twe e n manage me nt and e mpl oye e s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 1 3.3 3.3 3.3 Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 23.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 40.0 Agree 17 56.7 56.7 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 Based on the above table and graph, 1 respondent was strongly disagree, 6 respondents were disagree, 5 respondents were neutral, 17 respondents were agree and 1 respondent was strongly agree with ?open door policy? of the organizations which enable smooth communication between management and employees. Majority of the respondents accepted that ?open door policy? of the organizations enable smooth communication between manageme nt and employees. 16. In my organi z ati on, e mpl oye e s are i nte rnally offe re d i nte rnshi p opportuni ti e s so as to assi st the m advance the ir care e rs Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 20.0 Disagree 11 36.7 36.7 56.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 76.7 Agree 6 20.0 20.0 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 99 The above table and graph illustrate that 6 respondents were: strongly disagree, 11 were disagree, 6 were neutral, 6 were strongly agree and 1 was strongly agree with internal internship opportunities for employees in the organizations. It was rejected with 57% of the respondents. 4.4.3 Implementation of Employe e Re te ntion Strate gie s: 1. In my organi z ati on, i nducti on programs are we l l conducte d whi ch moti vate s ne w e mpl oye e s to stay Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 26.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 14 46.7 46.7 73.3 Agree 7 23.3 23.3 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 Based on the above table 3 respondents were: strongly disagree, 5 disagree, 14 neutral, 7 agree and 1 strongly agrees. Majority of the respondent were neither agree nor disagree. 2. In my organi z ati on, l e ave i s we l l manage d and e mpl oye e s are e ncourage d to take l e ave so as to avoi d ove rwork and burnout Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7 Disagree 13 43.3 43.3 50.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 70.0 Agree 6 20.0 20.0 90.0 St rongly Agree 3 10.0 10.0 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to the above table and graph, 2 respondents were: strongly disagree, 13 disagree, 6 neutral, 6 agree and 3 strongly agree. Majority of the respondents rejected wellEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 100 managing of leave in the organizations to encourage employees to take leave so as to avoid overwork and burn out. 3. The i nte rnshi p program has l arge l y e nabl e d manage me nt to re tai n ke y tal e nt i n my organi z ati on Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 1 3.3 3.3 3.3 Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 33.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 10 33.3 33.3 66.7 Agree 9 30.0 30.0 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The table and graph illustrate that, 1 respondent was strongly disagree, 9 were disagree, 10 were neutral, 9 were agree and 1 was strongly agree that internship program enable management to retain key talents in the organizations largely. Majority of the respondents were neither agree nor disagree. 4. In my organi z ati on, sponsorshi p for trai ni ng opportuni ti e s are avai l abl e to only the tal e nte d e mpl oye e s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 20.0 Disagree 11 36.7 36.7 56.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 8 26.7 26.7 83.3 Agree 5 16.7 16.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 101 The above table and graph illustrate that, 6 respondents were strongly disagree, 11 were disagree, 8 were neutral and 5 were agree. Availability of training opportunity to only talented employees was rejected with majority of the respondents. 5. In my organi z ati on, i t i s e vi de nt that manage me nt is abl e to re tai n majori ty of promote d e mpl oye e s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 1 3.3 3.3 3.3 Disagree 10 33.3 33.3 36.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 56.7 Agree 12 40.0 40.0 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph show that, 1 respondent was strongly disagree, 10 were disagree, 6 were neutral, 12 were agree and 1 was strongly agree that management is able to retain majority of promoted employees. Majority of the respondents were agreeing that manageme nt is able to retain majority of promoted employees. 6. In my organi z ati on, Li ne Manage rs al ways support e mpl oye e s and are wi l l i ng to assi st the m anyti me the y se e k gui dance Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid Disagree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 36.7 Agree 14 46.7 46.7 83.3 St rongly Agree 5 16.7 16.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 102 The above table and graph show that, 2 respondents were disagreeing, 9 were neutral, 14 were agree and 5 were strongly agree that line managers always support employees and are willing to assist them anytime they seek guidance. This notion was accepted by majority of the respondents which make a strong acceptance. 7. In my organi z ati on, manage rs moti vate e mpl oye es to stay as the y groom the m to take manage me nt posi ti ons Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 30.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 13 43.3 43.3 73.3 Agree 4 13.3 13.3 86.7 St rongly Agree 4 13.3 13.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph illustrate that, 3 respondents were strongly disagree, 6 were disagree, 13 were neutral, 4 were agree and 4 were strongly agree. Majority of the respondents were neither agree nor disagree. 8. In my organi z ati on, pay i s al ways base d on pe rformance whi ch has he l pe d to re tai n most of the e mpl oye e s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 16.7 Disagree 14 46.7 46.7 63.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 3 10.0 10.0 73.3 Agree 8 26.7 26.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 103 The above table and graph illustrate that, 5 respondents were strongly disagree, 14 were disagree, 3 were neutral and 8 were agree. Majority of the respondents rejected that pay is always on performance which has helped to retain most of the employees. 9. In my organi z ati on, the vi si on, mi ssi on and val ue s are cl e ar and are we l l di spl aye d to al l e mpl oye e s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 13.3 Disagree 11 36.7 36.7 50.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 70.0 Agree 3 10.0 10.0 80.0 St rongly Agree 6 20.0 20.0 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 Based on the above table and graph, 4 respondents were strongly disagree, 11 were disagree, 6 were neutral, 3 were agree and 6 were strongly agree that the vision, mission and values of the organizations are clear and are well displayed to all employees. Majority of the respondents rejected the clear vision, mission and values of the organizations to be well displayed to all employees. 10. “He adhunti ng” and ne tworki ng has e nabl e d manage me nt to attract and re tai n ke y tal e nt i n my organi z ati on Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 26.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 14 46.7 46.7 73.3 Agree 6 20.0 20.0 93.3 St rongly Agree 2 6.7 6.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 104 The above table and graph illustrate that, 3 respondents were strongly disagree, 5 were disagree, 14 were neutral, 6 were agree and 2 were strongly agree that networking has enabled management of the organizations to attract and retain key talents in the organiza tio ns. Majority of the respondents were neither agree nor disagree. 11. In my organi z ati on, e mpl oye e offe re d ove rse as trai ni ngs are usual l y bonde d and thi s assi sts i n re tai ni ng the m Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 13 43.3 43.3 43.3 Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 63.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 83.3 Agree 4 13.3 13.3 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to the above table and graph, 13 respondents were strongly disagree, 6 were disagree, 6were neutral, 4 were agree and 1 was strongly agree that the organizations offered overseas training and this can assist their retention in the organizations. This question was rejected by Majority of the respondents offering overseas training for the employees. 12. In my organi z ati on, pe rformance apprai sal s are al ways done to faci l i tate promoti ons and transfe rs of e mpl oye e s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 10 33.3 33.3 33.3 Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 50.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 11 36.7 36.7 86.7 Agree 4 13.3 13.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 105 Based on the above table and graph, 10 respondents were strongly disagree, 5 were disagree, 11 were neutral and 4 were agree that always doing performance appraisals facilitating promotion and transfer of employees in the organizations. Majority of respondents rejected this notion that doing performance appraisals in the organizations facilitating promotion and transfer of employees within the organiza tio ns. 13. In my organi z ati on, sal ari e s are al ways be nchmarke d wi th the marke t rate and thi s has booste d re te nti on of e mpl oye e s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 15 50.0 50.0 50.0 Disagree 8 26.7 26.7 76.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 93.3 Agree 2 6.7 6.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to the above table and graph, 15 respondents were strongly disagree, 8 were disagree, 5 were neutral, and 2 were agree with organizations’ salary benchmarking with the market rate. Majority of respondents were strongly rejected that salaries of the organizations are benchmarked with the market rate. 14. Fl e xi bl e worki ng hours and e mpl oye e we l l ne ss programs have contri bute d to e mpl oye e re te nti on i n my organi z ati on Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7 Disagree 8 26.7 26.7 33.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 13 43.3 43.3 76.7 Agree 6 20.0 20.0 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 106 Based on the above table and graph, 2 respondents were strongly disagree, 8 were disagree, 13 were neutral, 6 were agree and 1 was strongly agree. Majority of the respondents were neither agree nor disagree. 15. In-hours trai ni ng programs al ways bond e mpl oye e s and have contri bute d to re tai ni ng ke y tal e nt i n my organi z ati on Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7 Disagree 10 33.3 33.3 40.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 10 33.3 33.3 73.3 Agree 7 23.3 23.3 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to the above table and graph, 2 respondents were strongly disagree, 10 were disagree, 10 were neutral, 7 were agree and 1 was strongly agree with boning of employees through in-hours training programs to contribute in talented employee retention in the organiza tio ns. This notion was rejected by majority of respondents. 16. In my organi z ati on, e mpl oye e s are al ways gi ve n a chance to e xpre ss the i r sugge sti ons whi ch make s the m fe e l val ue d Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 13.3 Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 36.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 56.7 Agree 10 33.3 33.3 90.0 St rongly Agree 3 10.0 10.0 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph illustrate that, 4 respondents were strongly disagree, 7 were disagree, 6 were neutral, 10 were agree and 3 were strongly agree that employees are alwaysEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 107 given chance to express their suggestions which makes them feel valued. This question was accepted by majority of respondents that employees are always given chance to express their suggestio ns which makes them feel valued. 4.4.4 Job Satisfaction: 1. I fe e l ve ry posi ti ve and favorabl e about my job Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 13.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 43.3 Agree 9 30.0 30.0 73.3 St rongly Agree 8 26.7 26.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to the above table and graph, 4 respondents were disagree, 9 were neutral, 9 were agree and 8 were strongly agree that they feel very positive and favorable about their jobs. It was strongly accepted by majority of the respondents that they feel very positive and favorable about their jobs. 2. As soon as I can fi nd a be tte r job, I’l l l e ave Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 3 10.0 10.0 10.0 Disagree 2 6.7 6.7 16.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 33.3 Agree 8 26.7 26.7 60.0 St rongly Agree 12 40.0 40.0 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 108 Based on the above table and graph 3 respondents were strongly disagree, 2 were disagree, 5 were neutral, 8 were agree and 12 were strongly agree that as soon as they find better job they will leave the organizations. It was strongly accepted by majority of the respondents that as soon as they find better job will leave the organizatio ns. 3. I am ge ne ral l y sati sfied wi th the ki nd of work I do on thi s job Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 1 3.3 3.3 3.3 Disagree 2 6.7 6.7 10.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 33.3 Agree 18 60.0 60.0 93.3 St rongly Agree 2 6.7 6.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to the above table and graph, 1 respondent was strongly disagree, 2 were disagree, 7 were neutral, 18 were agree and 2 strongly agree. The question was accepted by majority of the respondents that they are satisfied with the kind of works they do on these jobs. 4. I fre que ntl y thi nk of qui tti ng thi s job Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 13.3 Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 36.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 5 16.7 16.7 53.3 Agree 13 43.3 43.3 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 109 Based on the above table and graph, 4 respondents were strongly disagree, 7 were disagree, 5 were neutral, 13 were agree and 1 was strongly agree with the question. The question was accepted by majority of the respondents that they frequently think of quitting their jobs. 5. I have se nse of worthwhi l e accompl i shme nt i n my work Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid Disagree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 10 33.3 33.3 40.0 Agree 12 40.0 40.0 80.0 St rongly Agree 6 20.0 20.0 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 The above table and graph illustrate that, 2 respondents were disagree, 10 were neutral, 12 were agree and 6 were strongly agree. The question was accepted by majority of the respondents that they have sense of worthwhile accomplishing in their work. 6. I ge t the chance to take de ci si ons on the pe rformance of my job rol e Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 13.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 11 36.7 36.7 50.0 Agree 12 40.0 40.0 90.0 St rongly Agree 3 10.0 10.0 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 110 According to the above table and graph, 4 respondents were disagree, 11 were neutral, 12 were agree and 3 were strongly agree. Majority of the respondents accepted that they get the chance to take decisions on the performance of their job role. 7. My organi z ati on unde rtake s pe rformance apprai sal e xe rci se Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid Disagree 4 13.3 13.3 13.3 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 12 40.0 40.0 53.3 Agree 9 30.0 30.0 83.3 St rongly Agree 5 16.7 16.7 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to the above table and graph, 4 respondents were disagree, 12 were neutral, 9 were agree and 5 were strongly agree. Majority of the respondents accepted that the organiza tio ns undertake performance appraisal exercise. 8. I ge t fe e dback on my pe rformance standards Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 1 3.3 3.3 3.3 Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 26.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 12 40.0 40.0 66.7 Agree 9 30.0 30.0 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 Based on the above table and graph, 1 respondent was strongly disagree, 7 were disagree, 12 were neutral, 9 were agree and 1 was strongly agree. The question was accepted by majority of the respondents that they get feedback on their performance standards.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 111 9. I ge t the opportuni ty to be i nvol ve d i n the apprai sal e xe rci se Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 2 6.7 6.7 6.7 Disagree 6 20.0 20.0 26.7 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 13 43.3 43.3 70.0 Agree 6 20.0 20.0 90.0 St rongly Agree 3 10.0 10.0 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 According to the above table and graph, 2 respondents were strongly disagree, 6 were disagree, 13 were neutral, 6 were agree and 3 were strongly agree. Majority of the respondents accepted that they get opportunity to be involved in the appraisal exercise. 10. My organi z ati on has a syste m of promoti on that i s fol l owe d for promoti ng e mpl oye e s Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulat ive Percent Valid St rongly Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 30.0 Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 60.0 Neit her Agree Nor Disagree 7 23.3 23.3 83.3 Agree 4 13.3 13.3 96.7 St rongly Agree 1 3.3 3.3 100.0 T ot al 30 100.0 100.0 Based on the above table and graph, 9 respondents were strongly disagree, 9 were disagree, 7 were neutral, 4 were agree and 1 was strongly agree. Majority of the respondents rejected that their organizations have system of promotion that is followed for promoting employees within the organizatio ns.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 112 Chapte r 5 Conclus ion and Re comme ndation 5.1 Concl usi on This study has focused on effects of succession planning on employee retention and job satisfaction in Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education. For this study a number of 30 staffs have been selected from both above mentioned organizations to respond the questionna ire s. Collected data has been analyzed via SPSS. 5.1.1 Resul ts of Re gre ssion Analysis: T-value of the regression analysis which is brought in chapter four of this study is 4.974 so is significant for employee retention because it is more than 1.96. It means implementation of succession planning has positive effect on employee retention in Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education. T-value of the regression analysis which is brought in chapter four of this study is 0.832 so it is insignificant because it is less than 1.96. It means implementation of succession planning does not have positive effect on job satisfaction in Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education. Eshiteti et al. (2013), Nyanjom (2013) and Heder et al. (2015) have also emphasized on positive effects of succession planning on employee retention and job satisfaction which have been brought as literature review of this study in chapter 2. 5.1.2 Resul ts of Graphical Analysis: The results which have been instructed from the graphical analysis of data show that most of the respondents 67% were male staffs 20 to 29 years old undergraduate middle level manageme nt with 0-2 years experienced in the organizatio ns. 15% of the employees were strongly disagree with implementation of succession planning by Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education in their organizations, 29% of the employees were disagree with implementation of successionEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 113 planning by Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education in their organizations, 25% of the employees were neutral with implementation of succession planning by Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education in their organizations, 26% of the employees were agree and 4% of the employees were strongly agree with implementation of succession planning by Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education in their organizatio ns. 15% of the employees were strongly disagree with effects of succession planning on employee retention in Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education, 27% of the employees were disagree with effects of succession planning on employee retention in Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education, 29% of the employees were neutral with effects of succession planning on employee retention in Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education, 22% of the employees were agree with effects of succession planning on employee retention in Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education and 6% of the employees were strongly agree with effects of succession planning on employee retention in Shuhada Organizatio n and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education. 5% of the employees were strongly disagree were strongly agree about their job satisfaction in both organizations, 16% of the employees were disagree were strongly agree about their job satisfaction in both organizations, 34% of the respondents were neutral were strongly agree about their job satisfaction in both organizations, 33% of the employees were agree were strongly agree about their job satisfaction in both organizations and 12% of the employees were strongly agree about their job satisfactio n in both organizatio ns. 10% of the employees were strongly disagree in case they find a better job will leave the organizations, 7% of the employees were disagree in case they find a better job will leave the organizations, 17% of the employees were neural in case they find a better job will leave theEFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 114 organizations, 26% of the employees were agree in case they find a better job will leave the organizations and 40% of the employees were strongly agree in case they find a better job will leave the organiza tio ns. 13% of the employees were strongly disagree that they frequently thinking of quitting their jobs in the organizations, 23% of the employees were disagree that they frequently thinking of quitting their jobs in the organizations, 17% of the employees were neutral that they frequently thinking of quitting their jobs in the organizations, 44% of the employees were agree that they frequently thinking of quitting their jobs in the organizations and 3% of the employees were strongly agree that they frequently thinking of quitting their jobs in the organiza tio ns. 5.2 Recommendati on Based on finding of the study, it is highly recommended that both organizations have to consider effective implementation of succession planning because the study found out that succession planning has positive effect on employee retention. Gender equality is not considered in both organizations because 67% of the employees are female and the organizations should consider hiring more female staff. 29% of the employees which made majority of the respondents were strongly disagree with implementation of succession planning by both Shuhada Organization and Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education in the organizations and this shows that the organizations intentionally or unintentionally do not want to go towards improvements and standardization. This should be considered that world is moving towards standardization and the organizations should not be left back from the caravan. 29% of employees which make majority of the respondents were neutral about effects of succession planning on employees’ retention in the organizations because successions planning were not impleme nted in both organiza tio ns.EFFECTS OF S UCCES S ION PLANNING ON EMPLO YEE RETENTIN AND JOB S ATIS FACTIO N 115 34% of employees which make majority of the respondents were also neutral about their job satisfaction in the organizations. 40% and majority of the respondents were strongly agreed; in case they find any other better job leave the organizations. 44% and majority of the employees agreed that they frequently thinking of quitting their jobs in the organizations. 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