Ethiopia is believed to have the largest livestock population in Africa. However, the contribution from these huge livestock resource to the national income was disproportionately, might be due to several factors. The main factors that hinder the productivity of livestock sector in in the country are diseases, poor nutrition, poor breeding policies and poor management system (CSA, 2015).
Among the many prevalent livestock diseases, parasites are representing the major problems to livestock development in the Ethiopia. In general, hydatidosis is among the major problems of parasite diseases in livestock in Ethiopia (Brosinski et al., 2012). It is one of the major parasitic diseases of domestic animals and zoonotic disease of human beings; also that caused considerable economic losses worldwide.
Ecchinococcosis is a zoonotic disease and is caused by larval metacestode stages of cestodes belonging to the genus Echinococcus and the family of Taeniidae. Hydatidosis/cystic Ecchinococcosis, also known as Hydatid disease, is an infection caused by the larval stage of the flatworm Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). It has a cosmopolitan distribution and is one of the most widespread parasitic zoonoses. Hydatidosis is of importance since humans serve as incidental intermediate (Eckert and Deplazes, 2004). Hydatidosis is multi host parasite and is prevalent all over the world and annually the economic loss in livestock due to this parasite is significant.
In Africa, hydatid disease is reported more common in cattle those are communally owned or are raised of free range and which associated more intimately with domestic dogs. Hydatidosis in domestic ruminants inflict enormous economic loss, because of due to the condemnation of the affected organs of the slaughtered animals and lowering of the meat, milk and wool production of live animals (FAO, 2004). Factors governing the prevalence of hydatidosis are given locally being associated with prevailing specific related with the social, cultural, environmental and epidemiological situations. Human behaviour plays a significant role in the epidemiology and dynamic of transmission differ between the dogs and its normal intermediate and human hosts (Macpherson et al., 1985). The outcome of the infection in livestock is hydatid cyst development in the lung, liver, spleen, kidney (Jenkins et al., 2005). In Ethiopia, hydatidosis has been documented since 1970’s.
Hydatidosis is the major cause of organ condemnation in most Ethiopian abattoirs and slaughter houses and causing huge economic losses in the country (Lobago, 1994). Several studies were conducted in different abattoirs indicated that cystic hydatidosis is prevalent and considerable economic loss are associated with it. Certain deeply rooted traditional activities could be commonly described as factors substantiating the spread and high prevalence rates of the diseases in some areas of the country. These might be due to the extensive backyard animal slaughtering practice, the corresponding absence of rigorous meat inspection procedures and long standing habit of the most Ethiopian people feed their dogs with condemned offal which in effect, facilitate the maintenance of the perfect life cycle of E. granulosus and consequently high rate of infection of susceptible hosts (Jober et al., 1996). In Tigray region, particularly in Southern Zone, livestock rising is an important activity from which food and non-food commodities are produced.
Livestock play a key role in the daily life of the people; particularly, the agriculturalist own over 95% of the country. Nevertheless, the productivity remains very low due to lack of disease control and poor husbandry practice. Despite, there is limited information on the prevalence of bovine hydatidosis in Maychew municipality abattoir. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of bovine hydatidosis at Maychew municipal abattoir.