In recent years, tourism plays an essential role in development of many countries that own natural or stunning views. It is true that the requirement increasing in tourist brings valuable contribution to the society. However, its negative edges are undeniable. In this essay, three mainly effected sides: environment, socio-cultural and economy will be discussed.
To begin with, tourism has several significant effects on our environment. The first one is about detrimental impacts. Because of intensely growing demand of means of public transportation in tourist destinations, which leads to the high level of exhaust fumes such as carbon dioxide as well as air pollution and also rises noise pollution around these tourist areas. As a result, the local health will be disadvantageous. Another harmful side that cannot be ignored is the excessive exploitation of natural resources. When a number of infrastructures such as roads and airports, and recreation facilities including hotels, resorts, shopping malls and restaurants are constructed in natural areas, this not only destroys the habitat of various species but also increases raw materials. These activities result in a scarcity resource of our Earth and also depletion our living environment.
Notwithstanding, tourism is also a potential element to create beneficial influences by contributing to environmental protection and conservation. Local governments should conduct campaigns or TV programs to raise the tourist’s awareness of protecting the beauty of environment. For instance, travellers should be encouraged to walk as much as possible and the locals should get to know more about habitat protection through educational programs of environmental conservation. Especially, the use of recycling products should be considered. Consequently, these actions can reduce the adverse impacts of tourism. To sum up, although there are some negative edges of tourism to environment, this should be improved by activities of local authorities, tourist and the locals.The second impact of tourism is socio-cultural aspect.
It is clear that the major priority is the intercultural exchange. When foreign visitors pay a visit to new lands, they are regularly willing to find out different kinds of cultures and traditions such as beliefs, way of life, customs and specialities. This helps not only the local people but also overseas travellers gain the other friendships and mutual-understanding.
Therefore, there will not happen the discrimination and conflicts among people from different regions. Additionally, tourism also supports indigenous people to learn new languages. In fact, international visitors often use their own native language to make a purchase, which allows individual businesses to learn, practise frequently and be gradually expert in a particular language. It will be easier for them to make conversations with those strangers. Thus, this might considerably promote the globalization process.
Nevertheless, if local residents are not aware of preserving characteristics, a wide range of different traditional values and cultures might be forgotten. Because they have to live with and learn more about the culture and customs of their tourist regularly, it is partly disadvantage for them. To conclude, tourism has an obvious negative bad point of cultural maintenance, but positive impacts of tourism on socio-cultural are much more significant. The final influence of tourism is economic perspective.
On the one hand, it is clear that tourism is a crucial factor in the economic development. The most important positive point is that it can create a variety of employment opportunities for not only the local but also people from other countries. Many hotels and resorts are built in prominent places, so they need a huge amount of labour and a number of positions such as tour guides, waiters, waitresses and hotel management. Especially, hot spots often encourage the locals to make cuisine for commercial purposes.
Therefore, tourism has a considerable contribution to the decrease in unemployment rate. The next one is that tourism can generate a wide profit. As beauty spots often attract a substantial number of travellers’ attention, large incomes are yielded from accommodations, services and various infrastructures such as transport systems, hospitals, entertainment centres and exhibition malls. This allows inhabitants to enhance their living standard. Furthermore, more taxes would be collected by the corporations and companies from tourism industry, so these financial resources can be allocated for the local governments to invest in other fields: education and health care, even they can be used to protect and regenerate natural landscape. On the other hand, there are some undeniable outcomes that tourism brings to economy. First of all, development of tourism is seasonal, this means the jobs of residents heavily depend on seasons in a year. As the number of tourists changes frequently and cannot be predicted, the locals have to face with joblessness when their areas do not have tourist.
Additionally, these jobs are often poorly paid. As a matter of fact, waiters, waitress and kitchen staffs are often done by the locals while hotel or resort management is undertaken by outsiders. Secondly, there are some difficulties for the local community when they live in their attractive destinations.
The primal problem is the extension in the cost of products, services and housing there. Due to the increase in profit, the prices of everything in tourism places are usually more expensive than other ones and residents whose income does not rise proportionately are often less wealthy than travellers, which discourages them to use items that they produce and even they cannot afford to stay there. Moreover, most money generated by tourism often benefits to big companies and corporations, not local. In short, tourism has both advantageous and disadvantageous impacts on economy and some countries relying greatly on tourism need to consider and judge carefully about these sides to find out the suitable solutions as this can be an enormous problem if tourists stop coming.
By way of conclusion, no one can deny the vital role of tourism. In spite of the significant benefits on economy, environmental and socio aspects, there are still several drawbacks that need to minimize by actions of governments.