Individual Project 1: United States Air ForceElizabeth Taylor TiffanyLiberty UniversityDescription of the OrganizationIn 1907, the U.S. Army established a small aeronautical core inside the Army. This organization carried the aeronautic aspect of the military through both World War I and World War II. In 1947 the National Security Act declared the United States Air Force as a separate branch of the military. The official birthday of the Air Force became 18 September 1947 under General Carl A.
Spaatz as the first Chief of Staff (U.S. Air Force History). Now the air force has over 5,000 aircraft, 300,000 active duty personnel with over 170,000 reserve personnel (U.
S. Air Force History). SWOT AnalysisThe SWOT analysis is a “strategic planning method used to evaluate Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats” of a business venture” (Salvatore, 2015). The following chart was configured from talking with five active duty air crew personnel currently deployed to un undisclosed location:Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats- Medical benefits- The networking with people- Respectable job- Job security- Paid maternity leave- Valuable work experience -Comradery/ friendship-Leadership experience – Operate millions of dollar’s worth of equipment – Does not pay enough- Away from family- Constant deployments- Unreliable hours- Unreliable schedule- Constant stress- Have to move a lot – Education benefits for member- Travel- Free training – Education benefits for spouse/children- Stability of civilian jobs – Constant deployments/time away from family makes members resentful- PTSD from deploymentsBalanced ScorecardAuthors Iselin, Mia and Sands defined a balanced scorecard (BSC) as a “strategic management system which defines both goal setting and performance in four separate categories: financial, customer, internal business processes, and learning and growth” (Iselin, Mia ; Sands, 2008). The following chart describes a balanced score:Critical Success Factors Goals/Objective/ Measurement Target Financial Continue to get increased funding from the government Enough money to continue adding members, add new aircraft and new technologyCustomer The civilian population Continue to support not only the United States Civilians but civilians of other countriesInternal Business Processes leadership from the officers starting with the Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs who disseminate the work that needs to be done continue to give more responsibility to the lower ranking members to execute the mission of Air, Space and Cyberspace.Learning and Growth continue to broaden training opportunities/ continued education Have all members of the Air Force obtain a degree and receive maximum training for their specific jobAnalysis of Critical Success FactorsFinancial The goal of most organization is to have enough money to get the job as well as taking care of their people.
Unlike most organizations, the United States Air Force gets its funding from tax payers and therefore the budget is monitored closely. The military is constantly trying to lobby for increased budgets in order to continue growing the military. The process of the military receiving their money is through the defense budget.
The defense budget is for “other nation’s defense, defending freedom, maintenance of hegemony, and the ability to protect our nation form any threat” (Cato Institute). CustomerThe customer for the United States Air Force are not only American civilians but other nations civilians as well. There are over 300 million Americans living in the United States. The military’s main purpose is to protect all civilians against enemies foreign and domestic. There are also other customers to be considered in the Air Force. Currently the Air Force has a Combat Search and Rescue squadron deployed to an undisclosed location. The customer of that specific group is any person both military or civilian who may need saving. The “customer” could be an F-16 pilot who was shot down or a civilian doctor who was captured by ISIS.
The Rescue Unit also participates in Helicopter Air Refueling (HAR) which gives gas to helicopters mid-air via a HC-130J aircraft. In this situation, the customer would be the helicopter who needs the gas. Another example of an Air Force customer would be if an Army unit has been overrun by enemy forces, they would call in the Air Force for air support to help protect those men on the ground. But in a general sense, the Air Force’s main customers are United States citizens. Internal Business ProcessesIn an article written by Henry Quesada, he defined that internal business processes were successful when they clearly defined mission vision and mission statements (1997). Therefore, if the employees know what the objectives are and how they are expected to implement them, the company can be more successful.
The Air Force controls all of the internal business processes through rules and regulations. The Chief of Staff makes a policy and it is disseminated out to the Commands and down to the squadron level. Commanders and leaders are given the rules and the regulations and are supposed to implement them with some room for change if the commander deems necessary. Every time a new commander comes into a squadron, they are expected to post in the squadron their goals and their vision for the future of the squadron. The Air Force also has a promotion system to control internal business processes by choosing who leads a group.
Officers start off with guaranteed rank schedules to promote to Captain with just time in service. After Captain, the military looks at the member’s report and performance and chooses who will promote and who will not. For the enlisted side of the Air Force it is slightly different. The enlisted members can join the military and promise a certain amount of commitment and enter the military a higher rank than their counter part. After the first few ranks, the enlisted member has to take tests as well as superb performance in order to move up the ranks.
Learning and GrowthIn order to have positive learning and growth inside of any business the managers need to help develop their subordinates. Dr. Amir Elnaga stated in his article “the importance of investing in training and development for the sake of improving employee performance” (2013). The Air Force uses learning and growth to further their members inside of their job set. Once the member has completed basic training, the member heads off to their respective training school.
The members also have retraining every few years and other opportunities to specialize their training inside of the job. There are a multitude of opportunities for members to get different training to perfect their abilities. Also, the member is given Tuition Assistance and the GI Bill in order to continue their learning and growth through achieving educational degrees. Also, the members are sent to different leadership cools across the world to not only improve their training at work but also help them learn how to lead their subordinates. Evaluation of Critical Success FactorsFinancial The evaluation of the financial critical success factor for the Air Force is in a positive position in the year of 2018. The successfulness of the financial positive in the military is greatly dependent upon who is the President at the time. Different presidents have different goals for building or decreasing the militaries financial budget.
Under President Obama the defense budget was 526.1 billion dollars and was increased to 574.5 billion under President Trump (Amadeo, 2018). Three years ago pilots in the Air Force were only given one uniform to fly in to last an entire year. Also, because of the budget cuts under the last presidency, there was a huge lack of money for the maintenance repair of Air Force aircrafts.
Therefore, many missions and training had to be canceled because of the lack of both manpower and equipment due to lack of money. Due to President Trump increasing the defense budget last fiscal year, the military is able to expand its ability. This critical success factor is crucial for the United States Air Force and in recent years has become more stable and beneficial for the military.
CustomersThe critical success factor of customer satisfaction is a hard facet to analyze for the military. The military has come a long way with support of Americans since the Vietnam Era. Now, being in the military is a badge of honor and constant support from civilians. The United States is constantly under many layers of protection because of the Air Force. The Air Force has certain squadrons assigned to air defense which has been increase since 9/11. Because of the type of work the Air Force does, the customer critical success factor is very high due to the safeness of the Nation.
Internal Business ProcessesThe Air Force drastically needs to work on its internal business processes. The top officers in the military make documents for the entire branch of the military and then disseminate the information down the ranks. The issue with this system is there is no unified way to get the information to everyone in the military. Another aspect of internal business processes that needs to be evaluated is the promotion system of the military. Currently, the military is lacking for Majors. Therefore, the Air Force found it fit to promote 100% of Captains to Major over the next six years.
This process promotes officers who did not adequately earn the rank of Major to be promoted. The promotion process of the military while not directly an internal business process is vital because it directly affects the internal working of the Air Force.Learning and GrowthOverall the learning and growth aspect of the military is excellent. A constant phrase the interviewers used was “a lot of training.” The Air Force prides itself on having the most adequate and prepared members of the military compared to other branches. Also, due to the fact that Air Force deals with more technical aspects of the military, it is only fit they receive a copious amount of training. New airplanes are built, new technology is being used and therefore the continued training is the Air Force’s way of making their Airmen as prepared as possible to operate their new equipment. Also, the Air Force constantly promotes and helps Airmen continue with their educational degrees.
They offer Tuition Assistance which is vital for a young Airmen to pursue their degrees. The system is easy to use and unlimited as long as the member is still on active duty. Another way the Air Force uses educational assistance is through the GI Bill. Once the member has completed six years of active duty service they start to achieve the benefits of this program. This program allows military members to go to school full time after their military time is over. ConclusionThe United States Air Force is an excellent organization designed to provide military defense through Air, Space and Cyber Space.
The SWOT model analyzed the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the Air Force. Through the interview process, the interviewees were optimistic and spoke highly of their organization even from a deployed location. Through financial, customer, internal business processes and learning and growth, the Air Force is able to look at critical success factors in making the branch of the military that much better.
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(2013). The Effect of Training on Employee Performance. European Journal of Business and Management.
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