LITERATURE REVIEWBased on my research objectives the literature part of this research project comprises on the following major themes:2.1 INTRODUCTIONThe chapter looks in detail on the other studies on the factor which effect work life balance and working women. With this increasing industrialization and education, employment opportunities for women have also increased. Due to increasing economic conditions, it has become a necessity that both husband and wife need to work to have a normal life. In this fast growing and competitive world, as every possible opportunity for employment is increased, the organizations need to create a congenial atmosphere where employees can balance their professional and personal life (Dr.
V.P. Matheswaran, V. Hemalatha Vol. 5, No.
1, 2015). Along with the women’s slowly emerging role as professionals, there have been structural and cultural changes at the industrial and organizational levels in Pakistan. For example, banking, the industry central to this study, has witnessed dramatic changes since the early 1990s. Furthermore, women’s mean working hours (35-39 hours a week) increased from approximately 20 percent in 2000 to 30 percent in 2008 (Matthaei, 2001).
Bankers work beyond the 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. office hours (Bashir and Ramay, 2010). Because women are more engaged in the household and family socialization activities (Hashmi, 2010), the need for work hours reduction is higher in women than men working in banks (Malik and Khalid, 2008).worklife balance is very important issue in entire care of employment as double career families become more general and huge work requirements and struggling hours,also see a demographical changes that lots of women are working in mulipl sectors that is increase workforce diversity and a higher duty of that working women to balance their personal and professional lives.
Work life balance is varying serious in many sectors there is need of reducing that passage of time.in my research I will find out what is the behavior of women in banking sector Pakistan regarding work life balance.Many thories and concepts developed by different researchers to define the term work life balance, clark (2000) defines surrounding theory that suggests work and life are two different domains which has separate borders that can be objective, sensible, subjective, elective and secular. Edwards (2000) suggests about compensation theory which shows that working women not just wants to increase their satisfaction with a single domain work life balance is crucial for family’s prosperity, associations, execution and also for a working society. There are distinctive convictions on how work life balance ought to characterize about (Grzwacz and Carlson,2007). Distinctive convictions were additionally utilized through various scientists , although various scientist imply term work life parity. For instance, Greenhaus et al.
(2003) allude with the title Work life adjust, Clarke (2004) allude with the term work life fit and grady et al (2008) allude with the term work family equalization , work life balance is frequently connected by customary relations (Barnett 2001). Work life balance has wide sense catches all parts of representatives close to home and work life close to home and work life , work ife balance to be around people, families, work environments, groups, and society all in all.2.2 Concept of work life balance Clarke et al (2000) suggest that work life balance gives fulfilment of work and life with the great working at the work place and at home, along in part struggle. Clark et al (2004) suggests that work life balance is maintain the common beliefs of harmony in liveliness. Greenhaus et al (2003) characterize work life balance is the measure of period and the level of fulfilment with life and work part.
Frone (2003) suggests four-fold scientific classification of work family equalization.Grzywacz and Carlson (2007, p 458) trust about work life balance is an achievement from part relevant desire which were arranged and shared as her part accomplices in life family and work spaces. Cascio (2000: 166) de?nes work-life balance programs as “any employer sponsored bene?ts or working conditions that help employees balance work and non-work demands”.
satisfaction with the work-life balance is defined as ‘an overall level of contentment resulting from an assessment of one’s degree of success at meeting work and family role demands’ (Valcour, 2007: 1512).2.3 Work satisfaction:The term work satisfaction discussed various researchers that is interchangeably used job satisfaction or employee satisfaction. Numerous analysis shows vary solid positive relationship in between task done/ work fulfilment and human prosperity (greenhous et al 2003). the term job satisfaction may be distinguish in impressive job satisfaction also can say overall complete job .like as job condition in which (salaries, working job hours , attractive pay packages and annuity plans. A greening to farmer (1998)that suggests two elements of work which directly affecting on work satisfaction , personal element like qualification, family demands , work requirement , training , career development and 2nd one is expertise assortment , task identification , security of job.
American workers appear to be expending more hours in paid labor than in recent years. Schor (1992) indicated that, on average, American workers in 1987 worked the equivalent of an extra six 40-hour weeks when compared with workers in 1969. employed men spent, on average, 48.8 hours per week and employed women spent 41.
7 hours per week in job- related activities (Galinsky et al., 1993). using time diary data, found that the actual number of hours worked has not increased over the past 30 years, but because the pace of work has increased, many employees think they are working longer, and work hours may affect some occupational groups more than others. Nonetheless, scholars agree that, overall, workers feel as if they are working longer hours and that this may be related to problematic family outcomes. Judge, Boudreau, and Bretz (1994) found a strong re12tionshin between the number of paid work hours and work- family conflict, especially for those with preschool children. Shamir (1983) reported that working more than 9 hours a day resulted in much greater conflict between work and nonwork facets of life.
In addition, the number of hours spent on the job has been shown to relate to the degree to which spouses choose to participate in family work (Almeida, Maggs, & Galambos, 1993), especially men’s involvement in child care (Aldous et al., 1998). Longer work hours by husbands also has been shown to be associated with greater marital conflict (Kluwer, Heesink, ; Van de Vliert, 1996). Paton et al (2003) suggests that job fulfilment determine the emotional stability of every individual for measuring the experience work satisfaction from that place where you work or as total.2.4 Personal life satisfaction: 2.
6 Relationship between work life balance and job satisfaction Mrs. Shameen and Miss Nelissa., (n.d), focused on work life balance.
The zone of their stud was banking sector Goa. The information was gathered through questionnaire and the size of sample was 40 and the this information was analyzed by using SPSS software and Microsoft Excel. The result shows that there is low significant relationship between work life balance with married women.Anju Sigroha.
, (November 2014), led her investigation on work life balance. The area of her research was Haryana, India. She conduct survey from 20 organizations and the size of sample was 400. The data gathered through primary and secondary sources. The collected data analyse through ANOVA test.
The result shows that there is positive significant relationship between work life balance with working women. Dr.V.P.Matheswarn and V.Hemallatha., (1,February 2015), identity the impact of work life balance on women employees. The area of their study was public and private schools of Madras.
The data was gathered through both sources primary and secondary. The sample size of this study was 120 employees from both sectors. There is no significant difference between both sectors.Dr. R. Emmanical and Alluri Balaji., (2014), focused on work life balance. The zone of their study was banks.
The information was collected through both ways primary and secondary. By using scorecard method the result shows that there is relationship between work life balance and working women.Mrs. Vijayshri., (2012), led her investigation on work life balance. She conducted a survey of 263 females from 6 segments of service sectors. She found there is healthy relationship of work life balance with working women.Anshu Thakur and Vishal geete.
, (march 2014), their observation on work life balance. The area of their study was education sector. The data was collected through questionnaire and the size of sample was 40. By using SPSS the result shows that there is no significant relationship.
R.Balaji.,(10,octember 2014), carries out his examination on work life balance. The area of this study was Bharath University, Chennai, India. The research was based on primary investigation.
The study shows that work life balance is conflict for married women.Dr. MS Narayana and J. NEELIMA.
, (5, September 2017), conducted their research study on work life balance. The area of their study was college and university of Andhra, pardesh, India. The data was collected through interview, this information was analyzed through SPSS and the result shows that there is no significant relationship between variables.Sana hafiz., (22,January 2017), identified the impact of work life balance. The area of her study was University of Kota India. The data was collected through both ways primary and secondary. The size of sample was 80 from both private and public sectors and there is enough significant relationship.
D.S.R Adikaram., (November 2016), led his investigation on work life balance on employee job satisfaction. The zone of this study was private sector commercial banks of Sri Lanka. The data was collected through both primary and secondary sources.
The sample size of data was 150 questionnaires. The gathered data was analysis through SPSS, the result shows that there is positive significant relationship between work life balance and job satisfaction.Jailaxmi and Dr. Aditya Gautam,. (march 2017), carried out their research on work life balance with certain demographic variables. The area of their study was banks (India). The research was based on primary and secondary data.
The sample size of this data was 150 employees from 10 branches. The gathered data analyzed through chi square test. The study finds that there is positive significant relationship between age and marital status on the other hand there is no significant relationship between gender and work life balance.