Origin A Danish ManufacturerIndustry Automation( industrial collaborative robot arms)Year of Foundation 2005Creators The engineers: Esben Ostergaard, Kasper Stoy Kristian KassowConcept Making the robot technology accessible to SME as the robotic market is dominated by heavy , expensive and unwieldy robotsProducts Variety UR3, UR5, UR10, E-Series(in 2018)Revenue USD 170 million Parent Teradyne since 20153.1.3. ProductsWe have three main products of UR; the first generation UR3, the second generation is UR5 and finally UR10.
The three products as explained in the table 2.2 belowTable 2.2: UR productsCobot Figure Common points Weight Lifting ability Working RadiusUR3 • Low weight• Highly Flexible• Collaborative• 6 jointed robot arms • Joints can rotate through +/- 360) and up to 180degrees per seconds• The Accuracy of the cobot’s repetitions is +/- 0.
1 mm (+/- 0.0039 in)• Safety setting adjusted for each specific task• Two operating modes: Normal and reduced one. 11Kg 3kg 500mm(19.7in)UR5 18Kg 5Kg 850mm(33.5in)UR10 28Kg 10kg 1300mm(51.2in)1.1.
FeaturesEASY PROGRAMMING Programming skills it is not really needed with this patented technology as 3D visualization has made it even easier for works to operate. All it requires is to move the robot arm in a simple way to envisaged waypoints or through the arrows on the easy-to-use touch screen tablet.FAST SET-UPTypically the robot deployment takes weeks, but with this cobot it was reduced to only hours to be specific the average is half a day and less than an hour to unpack the cobot and program the first simple task.FLEXIBLE DEPLOYMENT”Lightweight, space-saving, easy to re-deploy to multiple applications without changing the production layout”. It is possible to automate most of the manual work as it is easy to move the robot from process to a new one.
The cobot is able to re-use programs for recurrent tasks.COLLABORATIVE AND SAFEThe use of UR in work place will eliminate dangerous, dull jobs in order to reduce physical strains and accidents. UR can operate with no safety guarding thanks to its unique features (about 80% of 1000 of UR worldwide).
In case the UR runs into an obstacles or experience too much resistance the robot makes a protective stop. To get the cobot to move again we need to make sure that we get rid of all obstacles and then we press the protective stop icon presented in the figure 2.4 below: Figure 2.4: Protective stop1.2. Terminology3.
3.1. ComponentsUniversal robot kit is composed of three parts: robot arm, teach pendant and a control box as shown in the figure 2.5 below: Figure 2.
5: UR different Partsa. Universal Robot Arm: Universal robot has 6 jointed robot arm composed of wrist1, Wrist2, Wrist3, Elbow Shoulder, and a Base as shown in the following figure 2.6.
Figure 2.6: UR arm’s different jointsb. Control BoxIt is composed of three different parts: mother board, USB stick, safety control board as presented in the figure 2.7 below Figure 2.7: Control Box? Safety Control Board Handle all the output and input from the control box and Connectivity to temporary equipment such as sensors safety devices, machine interfaces .
..etc. • Yellow connectors are for Safety devices such as external emergency issues. • Grey connectors are for digital signals. • Green connectors are for Analog signals.
? Mother board mother board is a micro pc with a fast computer power, Ethernet and USB connectivity. ? USB stickIt contains all Softwares including Linux operating system. c. Teach pendant:A teach pendant is where we can power up the robot and program it to execute specific tasks and control signals from different devices such as sensors. 3.3.
2. Free drive modeIf we want to move the robot by hand and guide it we need to: Keep the button pressed (free drive button as shown in the figure 2.8 below, then move the robot to our specific waypoint and save it. Figure 2.8: Free drive button3.
3.3. Robot Set UpTo set up the robot, we are required to go through four important steps.1) Select end –of-arm Tool A tool is any attachment placed on the tool flange of the robot example for pick and place task we have a gripper here in the following figures 2.9 and 2.10: Figure 2.9: Gripper tool for pick and place task Figure 2.10: Tool and Tool Flange of UR2) Inputting information about the end-of-arm tool on the teach pendantIn order for UR to accurately operate the tool, it needs some information about the tool? Tool centre point which is the part of the tool that is in contact with the work piece.
? Centre of gravity is the point on the tool where the weight is distributed evenly on each side (of the point).As shown in the figure 2.11 below Figure 2.
11: Centre of gravity and tool centre pointAlso,? the tool payload which is the weight attached to the tool presented in the following figure 2.12 Figure 2.12: Tool payload3) Connecting external devices Connecting external devices like sensors in order to help the robot to achieve its task.
If we go back to the previous example where the robot need to pick and place a piece, here there is a need to get an information about the presence of the piece to be moved and adding a sensor will be really helpful in this case.4) Programming RobotSimple robot program consists of motions and signal handling, Example of pick and place an item As shown in the figure 2.13 that follows Figure 2.13: Pick and Place exampleThe following figure 2.14 indicates the program structure which is composed of motions and signal handling.
Figure 2.14: Program structure exampleSafety Setting:• Safety devicesBesides its safety features we can enhance the safety setting through using other safety devices such as safety scanner as it is shown in the following figure 2.15