RANGSIT UNIVERSITYThe Institute of Diplomacy and International StudiesMaster of Arts in Diplomacy and International Studies Course Tittle: Seminar on Global IssuesWhat dangers do Cambodian migrant workers face when illegal crossing into Thailand and how should this problem be solved?Professor: Dr. BenJamin D KingStudent: Sovanna Marilyn (ID 5907672)Many developing countries around the world have faced with migration issues.
Human migration is a phenomenon that has existed for a long time. Since 1970, United States is a destination country for international migrants. Migration is the activity of people crossing an international order in order to find a job and resettle.
International migrants by definition refer as “anybody who lives temporarily or permanently in a country where they are not born, and has obtained some important social attachments to the country”. The migration issues are the concern issues growing in every country around the world. Migration is divided into two type; which is regular migration and irregular migration. Moreover, smuggling of the migrant is the main issue that international need to be more attention and investigation on it. The United Nations statistic has disclosed that the number of worldwide migrants in global still continued to increase quickly in the course of the last fifteen years, in 2015 there are growing number of 244 million migrant workers in the world, increasing from 222 million in 2010 and 173 million in 2000, which some migrants are illegal workers and this number will keep on growing.
However, it is trusted that the number of illegal migrants through land, sea, and air are around 30 to 40 million people out of roughly 191 million lawful migrants around the world. According to IOM reported in 2017, more than 60% of worldwide migrants with around 80 million live in Asia and 78 million in Europe. However, Northern America is the third largest amount of worldwide migrants with around 58 million, also 25 million migrants in Africa, 10 million in Latin America and the Caribbean and 8 million in Oceania. It was found that in 2015, 72% of all international migrants were aged 20 to 64 years, compared to 58% of the aggregate populace. More youth people, beneath age 20, have a tendency to be under-represented among global migrants. However, 15% of all migrants were under 20 years of age, contrasted to 34% of the aggregate populace. Further, 13% of migrants worldwide were no less than 65 years of age. On the other hand, the middle age of international migrants worldwide was 39 years in 2015, a slight increment from 38 years in 2000.
Nevertheless, in some main areas, the migrant number is getting to be plainly more youthful. Of course, migration is the main issues concern for the government, international organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations working in Cambodia. Many Cambodian migrants are smuggled to Thailand, Malaysia, Korea, and Taiwan destined for industrial facilities, and domestic work. Destination country including Malaysia, Korea, China and more country but the key destination country for Cambodian migrant workers is neighboring Thailand, because of the similar language and culture and however, it is easy to cross the border by legally or illicitly way. Moreover, Cambodian men who smuggled to Thailand for work in the construction, farming, waiter and some have been forced to work in serious fishing boats. Further, in 2014, as indicated the information from the Thai government, in excess of 680,000 Cambodians were enrolled as migrant workers.
Despite the fact that it is difficult to know the correct number of undocumented Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand for the reason that mostly unlawful nature of their movement. In the report of 2015 has shown that it is assessed that there were 2.5 to 3 million undocumented migrants from Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Myanmar living in Thailand, with an expected 80% of the migrants have been smuggled. With that number, around 200,000 Cambodians probably undocumented migrants. Most of the Cambodian migrant working in the city and elsewhere in the provinces of Thailand. Some analysts have discovered that the duration of the Cambodians living in Thailand is long and most of them live for more than three years. Recently, the report from General Department of Immigration (GDI) has assumed that in 2017, there are 1 million 50 thousand Cambodian nationals entered Thailand, while 500 thousand Cambodian peoples are illegal workers.
The greater part of the migrants is women and youngsters. However, many factors that lead peoples migrate, due to, poverty, uneducated, country economic, and local unemployment. Some people are migration by themselves and some are using the illegal way of crossing the border, which called “smuggling”. However, Smuggling is a violation of immigration law, but it is not a violent offense. Smuggling of Migrant (SOM) is where a person pays a smuggler to arrange their illegal passage into another country without paying any visa or making? any immigrants document for the country’s transnational form via the deliberate evasion of immigration laws. Further, smuggling of migrants is a dangerous business that can cause many people to deadly. Virtually every country in the global is affected by the smuggling of migrants, regardless of whether as an origin, transit or destination country for the smuggler who trying to seeking for their profit. There are many sorts of individuals associated with smugglers systems running from facilitator or coordinator, recruiters, transporter or guide, spotter, driver, delivery person, assistants and provider (counting corrupt authorities, cab drivers or agents) providers.
Beside this, migrant smugglers work in very adaptable systems and rapidly adjust to evolving conditions, for example, switch the way avoid from the border controls.Moreover, Smuggled peoples may become victims of crime during of the smuggling activity. As indicated by UNODC survey that, a huge number of Cambodians migrants are smuggled into Thailand alone, encountered with abuse, human trafficking, and exploitation. Relating to this, people who cross the border in an illegal way, define as “undocumented migrant”. According to The International Organization of Migration describe undocumented Migrants as “Migrant workers or members of their families, who are not permits to enter, to stay or to participate in work service in a destination country”. Over the past decade, Smuggling of Migrant is a concerning issue for Cambodia. As indicated by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) assumed that every year a huge number of Cambodians are smuggled into Thailand’s through Poi Pet border checkpoint, facing with any situations of abuse, utilization, and human trafficking. So, Smuggling of Migrant is threatened to the security of the country.
Despite the fact that the Kingdom of Cambodia is rich in natural resources, many years of war and internal conflict have makes its country became the world’s poorest nations. Many people in the rural areas still stay in a poverty and young generation no chance to go to school because of the lack resource, school, and road. According to ADB in 2014 has stated that almost 4,8 million people are poor and 90% of them stay in rural areas. In addition, the majority of them rely upon farming for their business. By the way, in 2014 Cambodia population lives below the poverty line which is 14%.
The data has shown that most of the irregular migrants from Cambodia are from rural areas and because the lack of education, poverty, training, and employment that it increases Cambodian migrate for work abroad. With the population of 16 million, every year Cambodian enter the labor force to confront joblessness. To find a job in Thailand peoples need to through legal channels such as apply for the visa, propose document, legal passport, and follow the legal process that according to the MOU between Cambodia and Thailand. In addition, the fees for regular migration to process and work in Thailand is around 20,000 baht (US$700). Most of migrants peoples are poor so they can’t afford to it, the best way for them is to cross the border by illegally and with the help from smuggling groups. For this case, Cambodian smuggled migrants paid to smugglers 2,500 baht (US$80) to 4,000 baht (US$138) for irregular migration, less than 20,000 baht (US$700) for regular migration to across the border with the illegal entry without any visa, passport and any document, according to the report of Bangkok Post. This fees from smuggled migrants cover the food, accommodation, and everything along the travel. However, with the fee structures found that Cambodian migrant male pays about US$95 but female pay only US$74.
Smugglers who transport Cambodian migrants into Thailand are Cambodian nationals. Nevertheless, only a small amount, under 10%, peoples migrated through legal channels. Under the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) which was signed in 2003 between Cambodian and Thailand to control over illegal immigrants, the number of migrant workers utilizes legal channels has raised by 173% during this five-year, from 4,116 in 2006 to 11,224 in 2010, also 16,837 in 2011 and 37% were women. Also in 2013, UNODC assessed that 55,000 Cambodian migrants were smuggled into Thailand each year. Currently, there are more than one million Cambodian men and women working in Thailand. Furthermore, according to the International Labor Organization (ILO), during 2006 to 2016 just around 116,000 Cambodian migrants were selected to work lawfully in Thailand, while most of the Cambodian migrants were going through unlawful channels to acquire work. So, huge numbers of these migrants move toward becoming casualties of abuse and trafficking.
Another point is that, Cambodian men are likely to use this service to entry to Thailand more than Cambodian women, who more probable migrate in a family gathering. On the other hand, Thailand is an essential country where migrant laborers from Cambodia. In 2014, the reported from Soldiers of the Royal Thai Army Burapa Task Force and immigration officers has shown that 106 illegal Cambodian migrant workers had arrested in Thailand. Cambodia Development Resource Institute (1999) confirmed that Cambodian migrant workers divided into two groups: firstly, migrants who work inside Thailand such as Bangkok and other large towns (long-term migrants). Secondly, migrants who work along the Thailand-Cambodian border such as farming (short-term migrants). Moreover, The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has reported that the poverty rate fell from 2007 and 2012, from about 50% to underneath 20%, over 70% of Cambodians still live on under USD$3 a day, which implies that a significant number of them will be facing back with poverty. They earn USD$3 a day in Cambodia but they can earn USD$8 per day in Thailand said from Cambodian smuggled. As indicated by ILO, with 300,000 young Cambodians entering the labor market every year and not getting a high salary, because of that it increases Cambodian workers decide to go abroad looking any job opportunities and the higher salary.
According to Chan Sophal ; So Sovannarith (1999) have found that there are three reasons that Cambodian worker migration to Thailand. Firstly, they had little chance to generate income either in their hometown or in neighboring areas. Numerous peoples said that they would want to work in Cambodian, however, that there were nearly no job opportunities except in rice cultivation for a couple of months each year. Moreover, earnings in Thailand are higher than in Cambodia. Daily earrings varied from 80 to 200 baht, twice as much as earnings for similar work in Cambodia. Further, the poor villagers were motivated by the monetary profits of other migrants from the village in the years prior to the crisis.
Nevertheless, moving to work in Thailand was considered the best way to have a capacity to reimburse serious debts. Secondly, types of work in Thailand found that: First, the short-term migrants worked on basis of everyday wage for Thai farmers along the Thailand-Cambodian border. Works included transplanting and harvesting rice, picking corn, harvesting sugar cane, weeding, and so on. Migrants did this seasonal work for shorter periods with respect to the long-range migrants and were possible to be caught by the Thai police.
There were fewer dangers includes, and no smuggling charges to be paid, but wages were lower. Thirdly, the long-range migrants worked included construction workers, ferry porters, fishing industry off the Thai coast, and manufacturing or food-processing firms. Besides, there are many other factors that encourage Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand such as poverty, income in labor force, debt problems and so on. Poverty is a major factor driving them to migrate. As Cambodian is developing country, so, many peoples still live below the poverty, especially peoples who live in rural areas.
However, the labor force in Cambodian also gets a low salary, due to this reason they decided to migration to Thailand. For example, Ms. Nouy, 28 years old, illegal migrants, who worked in Thailand almost four years has said that the reason why she decided to work in Thailand, because she could get the high salary to support her family, also the cost living is more convenient and the food is cheaper than in Cambodia.
However, she mentioned that she never wants to leave her country but working in Cambodia she faced a lot of discrimination yet in Thailand, this is not a big problem, as long as we strive working hard we can earn more income. Based on income in labor force, Mr. No, 25, a fisherman from Kandal Province, said that when he was working in Thailand he can get USD$260 per month and, his boss looked after his well which free accommodation, food, and health insurance, but his salary in Cambodia he got only USD$100-150 per month. Relating to debt problems, for instance, because of poverty and lack of food, they have to borrow money from their neighbors.
As we know, the income in Cambodia is quite low so they decided to migration to Thailand and find high income, so they can pay off the debt. The researchers survey that another reason why they want to migrate is that they follow each other such as families, friends, and their partners. By interviewee, Ms.
Na, who live in Kompong Cham province said that the reason why she migrated to Thailand because her aunt has worked in Thailand and worked in the same place she was working. Another interviewee said they came along with their friend, because of their friends said that working in Thailand can earn a lot of money. Additionally, the soft power of Thailand has spread in Cambodia, such as Thai drama, song, and entertainment. Some migrants not only want to work, but they wish to see Thailand, “Does Thailand’s image look like anything in the drama?”. In case of Mr.
Vanna, undocumented migrants who worked in Thailand as fishing. He went to Thailand by illegal crossing and the reason he came to Thailand due to he wants to know how Thailand was. Beyond this, other migrant workers were cheated by smugglers, which convenience them that to work in Thailand really earns a lot of income. These also the reasons why they are forced to choose illegal immigration to Thailand. For instance, one interviewee has experience cheated by smugglers. She said the smugglers came to her house and asked her if she wanted to work in Thailand, they can help her by crossing the border at the cheap price. The smuggler added that if she chooses to go through the legal channels, she has to wait for a long month and expensive. However, she did not know how to process the legal channel, so, she decided to choose this way to go to Thailand and find a job.
The way they stay in Thailand as undocumented migrants are not easy for them. According to Chan Sophal and So Sovannarith, 1999 considered that labor movement was not only expensive but often also illegal and dangerous. Some of the migrant interviewees reported being cheated by the smugglers.
The smugglers occasionally led the migrants to somewhere close to the border and then abandoned them. After that, migrants were arrested and battered before being incarcerated for up to several weeks. Later on, they returned home without any money and in severe debt. Beside this, it was also reported that some of the migrants had been sold by the Cambodian or Thai smugglers to their Thai partners. Furthermore, they got only 30 baht per day from working, enough for subsistence. At least one of the migrants interviewed had experienced this kind of cheating. Another migrant had worked for four months on a fishing boat off the Thai coast but return home with empty-handed. The workers were provided with foods but had to work for around 18 hours every day.
After working for about four months, most migrant workers on the ship, which never came to the shore, and know that they were improbable to return home. In the villages studied, it was believed that some of these workers would be used and then dumped at sea. According to this interviewee, migrants working on fishing boats were asked to sign the one-year contract, with their yearly pay will get at the end of the contract.
Undocumented migrants also get lack of access to services such as public health, insurance of healthy, proper resident, and training. The way they across the international border by illegal way is so dangerous because they need to cross at night by walking with the small group to keep away from patrol. In certainty, every month many people go willingly with the illegal way through across the river, casino, forest, and they have a high risk to meet with dangerous. According to the survey has shown that there are many ways that undocumented migrants crossing the international border to Thailand. Firstly, the process of illegally crossing into Thailand is along the corridor, it is not an international border but also a gateway for Cambodia and Thai people to trade and buy goods. So smuggling network mostly uses corridors as crossing roads and often cross the border at night. Usually, they go by a group of about 10 to 20 people.
For instance, the case of Mrs. Somphor, the undocumented migrant who works in Thailand about four years said that she came to Thailand by paid to smuggled about USD$170. She added that it is very difficult to cross the international border by the illegal way, they keep her in a small house for about 50 peoples to escape from the Thai soldiers. And they gave her to ride in a small car with about ten people and take about one day and halt to arrive the destination.
Secondly, they use border pass to crossing the international border. Border pass is a card that we can uses to entry from the Thailand border to two provinces which next to the border only. Moreover, this card can use the only 7day, after 7day you need to come and get a new stamp. If you don’t come to get a new stamp, you will be fined 500 baht. The card cannot be reached into the Bangkok city unless you have a passport to enter the city. For example, some undocumented migrants used this way to crossing the international border and reaching to the city. Thirdly, they use tourism passport to enter Thailand. In this case with the interviewee, Mr, No, the undocumented migrant who worked in Thailand for one year said that he used his tourism passport and found a job in Thailand.
After the passport expired he did not come back to renew his passport and finally he was caught by the Thai police and sent back to Cambodia. Nonetheless, many Cambodian victims facing with human trafficking issue and the high risk of exploitation that occurred by the smuggler network. Undocumented migrants smuggled into Thailand and encountered with dangerous while across the border such as died, injured, also abuse by the smuggling. Off course, some migrants died during crossing the border to Thailand. Between 2010 to 2015, around 143 Cambodians were killed by Thai polices and a few hundred were seriously wounded and more than 200 migrants were arrested along the border. However, in 2017, 44 Cambodian migrant workers were arrested in Sa Kaeo Province during illegal crossing into Thailand. Mr.
Pak Thong, 24, from Siem Reap province, said that he paid USD$70 to the smugglers to helped him to find a work in Thailand. Additionally, Cambodian Consular official in Sa Kaeo province, Mr. Vibol said that “they were arrested because they don’t have legal documents for entry into Thailand”. He also added that every day more than 100 undocumented migrant workers were exiled from Thailand. Further, illegally crossing the border also cause many people died along the way to the destination because they had to escape from the Thai soldiers so many accidents happen like car accidents. According to the Khmer times news, in 2018, two Cambodian migrants were killed in car accident in Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Their car had been overturned and many passengers were injured.
Addition, the report said that they all are undocumented migrants and were on the way to work in Pathum Thani province. Not only this, many Cambodian migrant workers had been abuse and exploitation by the smugglers. To reach the destination, they had to cross the jungle and take about two or three days. Some women had been raped by the smuggler in the forest while crossing the border, according to the interviewee with the official. Additionally, in case one group of Cambodian migrant workers about 12 peoples who illegal entry to Thailand was cheated by smugglers. The group was hiding in the potato farm to escape from Thai soldiers. After that, the smugglers came out to buy water then ,unfortunately was caught by the Thai police but all the migrants still hiding in that farm, because they are afraid that they will be caught by the Thai police too.
They were on the farm for a month and then, no enough food to eat and ill, so they decided to come out and were arrested by the Thai authorities and send them back to Cambodia. Besides this, some migrants sold into prostitution. Case example of a girl, 17 years old, because of her poor family, she decided to work in Thailand to make money.
After she arrived in Thailand, she was cheated by smugglers who help her to cross the international border. She has been forced into prostitution for 11 months in the Chiang Rai province. During the first two weeks of her work, she was raped and mistreated. Finally, she managed to escape through the window and went to hide at her friend’s house. ???? She later decided to sue the organization to send her back home. Besides this, some migrants sold into fishing. According to Police officer of the Poipet international border checkpoint? said, he had met a migrant worker who was fishing. The worker was mistreated and they were left to work in the middle of the sea next to Indonesia by not coming back.
And one day, their boat was broken, and their boss took the boat to the shore to fix it, so they had the chance to escape. When they return, their hair is long until the waist. Beyond this, Mr.
Chou Chan Kongkea, a migrant who worked in Thailand as a fisherman for more than 10 years, said he only gets his wages once a year. He added that he worked from 6 am to 9 pm and sometimes he worked for 24hour, he works every day and has no day off. In these 10 years, he never saw any of authority came and check his working conditions. As the case that has mentioned above, illegal crossing the border into Thailand is not easy and facing the high risk as well as other accidents. Some women are pregnant and illegally crossing the border if an accident occurs so it will affect the families of the victims by losing their relatives. So the human trafficking is expansion in Cambodia and many Cambodian migrants facing Human trafficking issue. It has a negative impact on individuals and society. According to U.
S. Department of State, Cambodia is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking such as smuggling of the migrant. The report said that, in 2014, about 200,000 Cambodian migrant workers were arrested by Thai authorities and sent back to Cambodia. To reduce the growth of migrant workers, the Cambodian government implement the four strategies: firstly, need to propose policy recommendation and cooperation in order to combat smuggling of peoples. Secondly, promoting prevention and control. Thirdly, strengthening of criminal justice.
And the last one, strengthening and enhancing the national law, and strategic to protect the rights of Cambodian migrant workers and victims, as well as, to collaboration between the Cambodian governments and Border Controller to identify investigate and arraign smuggling and trafficking systems and also working together to eliminate this problem. Avoid from the Smuggling of Migrant and illegal crossing the border, Cambodian need for strong participation between all partners to handle smuggling of the migrant with the government of Thailand and Cambodian, including collaboration with Department of Anti-Human Trafficking, NGOs, authorities, police, and Stakeholders. Moreover, Cambodian also strengthen law enforcement along the border where is the specific point to anti-smuggling of the migrant issue. However, the Cambodian government must publicize the consequences of illegal migration. For example, accidents and injuries were illegally crossed and if bad luck was caught by the police and send back to Cambodia. In some cases, if the police found they were using fake passports, they would be put in the jailed for up to three months. For policies to address this issue, the Cambodian government should advise authorities to pay attention and to restricting the movement of undocumented people through the international border and corridor. Recently, The Ministry of Labor has undertaken a mission to provide legality for Cambodian workers staying and working in Thailand.
This mission is to help Cambodian migrant workers to receive a letter in accordance with the procedures set by the Thai side. This mission took place at Pathum Thani province and other provinces in Thailand. As of April 2018, there are thousands of Cambodian undocumented migrants come to asking for a work permit to be legal workers. In addition, United Nations also adopted the treaty bodies on the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW), which Monitoring the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and members of their families. This convention entry into the force in 2003. Cambodia has also signed the Convention on the Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (CMW) to prevent and protect the rights of migrants and victim from abuse and trafficking.
In 2013, Cambodia’s Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior, Sar Kheng, has emphasized that “Regarding the issue of human trafficking, Cambodia cannot eradicate this problem alone, it needs to cooperate with international organizations to counteract the criminal groups involved in smuggling migrants”. Relating to the law on the suppression of human trafficking and sexual exploitation in Article 15 stated that “those who sells or exchanges another person with targeted sexual interests, produce of pornography, married against the will of the victim, any form of abuse will be sentenced in prison from 7 or 15 years. What’s important to address this issue is that the Cambodian government must increase employment in all sectors and affordable salaries so that people can get enough jobs and do not migrate. No discrimination on the labor force, especially on women.
Take a look at the Thailand policy recommendation on this issue, Thailand created their own new national policy which is the Royal Decree on Managing the Work of Foreign B.E. 2560 became effective on June 23, 2017.
This law is to controlled and strengthen on immigration peoples. Recently, the Ministry of Labor shown the data of how many illegal migrant workers stay in Thailand have taken the first step to register with officials in order to get all their proper paperwork. According to a declaration from the ministry’s Committee for Legalizing Cambodian Workers Residing and Working in Thailand, the Thai Labour Ministry registered 195,627 workers through their manager, while another 8,105 workers registered on their own. He said that “in 2017, the number of 203,732 illegal Cambodian workers is lower than expected, but in 2016 there were more than 300,000 illegal Cambodian workers working in Thailand”. This is a recent law of Thailand on registration of foreign labor. Regarding this law, the migrant workers who work without permit document will fine between US$60 to US$2,935 and detained for five years in jail.
The decree also announces to the employers who hire undocumented migrant workers to work at their own restaurant will fine between US$11,740 to US$23,480 for each. Also, for the workers will fine US$2,935 if their job isn’t the same as they have been registered at Department of Employment. This law is to prevent undocumented migrants entry into Thailand and make the undocumented migrants who stay in Thailand to become legal workers. In July 2017, after one month of the declaration of this law, 60,000 of Cambodian migrant workers have taken flight for fear of being arrested by Thai authorities.
However, still, some of the undocumented migrants are not going to registers because they don’t know about the information and some of their manager or employers are exploitation to them. For example, to be undocumented migrants the employers just paid less salary to them worked as in the shop or some service but to be a legal migrant they need to get 300 baht per day or more than that, insurance for the health service. Beyond this, Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-Cha will practice his power under Article 44 to delay the law on migrant workers within 120 days, to give the migrants have more opportunity to come and register for their work permit. Furthermore, Thailand and Cambodia government should strengthen the cooperation at the border, especially the corruption between Thai and Cambodian authorities. In 2012, UNODC and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) signed an agreement in which they promised closer cooperation to implemented human trafficking and migrant smuggling and to increase the strengthen in border management. The memorandum of understanding was signed by IOM Director General William Lacy Swing and UNODC Executive Director Yury Fedotov on the margins of the tenth ministerial conference of the Central Asia Border Security Initiative, which held in Vienna. Moreover, Director General Swing has stressed that “The signing of this cooperation agreement affirms IOM’s commitment to step up its cooperation with UNODC to promote combat trafficking in persons, migrant smuggling and to ensure borders are managed in a combine, modern and humane way”. Regarding the interview with IOM official in Poipet city, he said that to prevent undocumented migrants, the principal organization is to teach and advise workers about the implications and danger of illegal cross-border.
Advertise through a brochure that introduces illegal migration, radio, and media. Beyond this, UNODC and Cambodia have worked together to enhance cross-border law implementation participation with neighboring countries and also set up an intelligence unit to examine migrant smuggling. Furthermore, UNODC has also announced for all countries to the resolution about the migrant smuggling, which embedded in more extensive trafficking, migration, and development policies in accordance with the UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crime. To sum up, smuggling of migrants and illegal crossing into Thailand still exists, so prevention is the most important strategy in fighting this issues. Prevention activities can interfere with the process of trafficking and illegal cross-border illegal activities, and it is an activity that reduces the number of trafficking victims and other accidents. Of course, the Cambodian government has also tried to increase employment and salary to allow people to work in the country without migration. However, some people still want to migrate because this is their hobby, believing from the smugglers, and friends.
But recently, after the new national law of Thailand released, many workers were more afraid, especially the smugglers and Thai employer who always need illicit migrants to work. From my point of view, corruption is the main concern that relating to this issues. If there is no conspiracy between the Thai and Cambodian authorities, the smuggling network has not been successful. The smugglers need to pay for both authorities to transport the workers into Thailand.
To resolve this issues, both governments must eradicate corruption. Moreover, the government should close the corridors or tighten their rules in order not to have illegal crossing border. Regarding this issue, Smuggling of Migrants is an ongoing international problem that affected human rights, society, and environment for all countries in the region. Smuggling of migrants and illegal movement will proceed as individuals need to find a better life if the government does not pay attention to this issues.