Scholar Name Madiha Manzoor Program of study M.Phil Supervisor Prof. Dr.
Mudassir Asrar Co-SupervisorDr.Saad Ullah Leghari DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY UNIVERSITY OF BALOCHISTAN (2017-2019) INTRODUCTION Mushrooms are considered as high vitamins eating regimen for people wealthy in protein, amino acids, fibers and nutrients thats available at low fee. Some mushrooms are medicinally crucial and are used to cure exclusive sicknesses together with cancer (Borchers et al., 2008, Kulshreshtha, 2014).
A large number of wild mushrooms are found growing Balochistan during spring season these appear in the spring season or in summer immediately after rain fall. The species grow over night and cover the entire area, due to this the term is used as mushroom growth. Sometimes the species are short lived and disappear in a day or so.
The identification is mostly done through their color, size, stipe, ornamentation, gills and spores. The identification also can be executed via chemical exams or via molecular techniques. Some mushrooms are poisonous at the same time as a few non toxic are safe to eat.
Therefore, care ought to be taken to identify and report these species because eating poisonous specie could be deadly for people and animals. Marmion, V.J. Wiedemann, T.E.J. (May 2002).
Kharan is a city in Kharan district, Balochistan, Pakistan. It is located at 28350N 65250E with an altitude of 692 meters (2273 feet) Distance Kharan to Quetta 236 km According to HYPERLINK http//www.fallingrain.com/world/PK/02/Kharan.html t _blanklocation of Kharan Falling rain genomics. Province is split into 6 zone Kalat, Makran, Nasirabad, Quetta, Sibi and Zhob . According Encyclopedia Britannica This divisional level was abolished in 2000, but restored after the 2008 election. Each division is under an appointed Commissioner.
The 6 divisions are similarly subdivided into 34 districts District Kharan head quarter Kharan Area 8,958(km) (Districts Government of Balochistan)..Balochistan is cited for its specific lifestyle and extraordinarily dry barren region weather.
Baloch humans exercise Islam and are predominantly Sunni, similar to the rest of Pakistan Naseer Dashti (2012). According to Government of Balochistan Revenue department(17th May 2018) is create a new division in Balochistan. Rakhshan is a new division of Balochistan ,4 districts are included in this division district Nushki, Chagai, Kharan Washuk. Kharan is a headquarter of Rakhshan division. Mushroom have been a extensively used as meals and meals dietary supplements for millennia. It is an essential meals object regarding human fitness, nutrients and sickness prevention (Chang, 1981). There is a not unusual saying that medicines and foods have a common place origin (Kaul, 2001). So some distance no paintings on mushrooms of Balochistan has been performed, species have been in no way collected, identified nor pronounced.
Therefore, there was a want to gather, perceive mushrooms up to species level. Awareness about toxic species must also be created inside the hundreds identity will be executed by way of the help of available literature and help can be taken from experts of Karachi college (Stuntz et al., 1978, Hall. et al., 2003). The nutritional and anti-dietary fee of mushrooms of Balochistan will also be checked. The genus Pleurotus family Pleurotaceae is the valuable fit for human consumption mushrooms. This species is wealthy sources of minerals and proteins and fibers.
Sharma and Madan (1993) found30-40 excessive protein content material. Mushrooms has excellent taste and plenty of fitness advantages. Its cultivation has turn out to be a successful enterprise everywhere in the international. The Pleurotus sp manufacturing in the world is more than 1.6million tons and Pakistani export of mushrooms to the Europe is only ninety heaps in keeping with yr thats too meagre (Shah et al., 2004).The farming of mushrooms is straightforward and reasonably-priced (Amin et al.
, 2007). Mushroom cultivation was in no way done by using the farmers of Balochistan regardless of its great financial advantages. Therefore, this can be the primary attempt to cultivate and introduce its cultivation in Balochistan. A large range of untamed mushrooms can be amassed and identified. The dietary price and anti-nutritional price which include proteins, carbohydrates, fats, phenols and many others. Might be measured. These nutrients make mushrooms a healthful diet and protein supplement.
(Zhang, 2016). LITERATURE REVIEW The demand of suitable for eating mushrooms is developing each day because of their cost as food or medicines for prevention and remedy of sicknesses, consisting of most cancers, digestive issues, cardiovascular sicknesses and diabetes. Keeping in view the health benefits of mushrooms, there may be a need to find out their more advantages and efficacy. The cultivation of mushrooms has becoming a money making commercial enter prise, its farming is easy, sustainable, low cost, small area and requires a quick growing duration. It requires waste straw of rice or wheat or different agricultural waste, very excessive yield is obtained in a brief span of time. Mushrooms have very dietary cost (Randive, 2012). Orsine (2012) studied the anatomical characters of the Agaricus sps this is cultivated in Brazil, for its secure usage as medication and meals. They also pronounced dietary cost and their mineral components.
Mushrooms have excessive antioxidants and medicinal residences, Teklit (2015) pronounced the whole nutritional value of Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus these all had excessive carbohydrates, fiber and proteins. These medicinal properties might be due to the presence of a few crucial substance in nutritional mushrooms. Mushrooms are rich in protein, minerals and vitamins and they incorporate an abundance of essential amino acids (Sadler, 2003).
Dietary mushrooms provide a extensive style of medicinal homes and theyre powerful towards sure life threatening diseases. Major medicinal homes attributed to mushrooms encompass anticancer, antibiotic, antiviral sports, immunity and blood lipid reducing consequences. Pleurotus sp. Are also rich in medicinal values.
Pleurotus florida has antioxidant and antitumor sports (Nayana and Janardhanan, 2000 Manpreet et al., 2004). Haq (2008) additionally found different species of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis have excessive marketplace fee. The mushrooms have high macro and micro mineral content material .Both these mushrooms have appropriate quantity of protein, lipids and carbohydrates.
Zhang (2016). Many mushrooms contain unsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, nutrients in addition to minerals. Many of those compounds are biologically lively, they showed activities in opposition to many sicknesses, excessive antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti diabetic, hepatic protective sports also are pronounced (Zhang, 2016).
These mushrooms are rich These mushrooms are rich sources of proteins, carbohydrates ,Vitamins, minerals and fibers. Sharma and madan (1993). Main purpose of study The main purpose edible mushroom of Balochistan and to research the nutritional contents of mushrooms. This work is not finished earlier and mushrooms have dietary and medicinal values. Collection identification and study of Nutritional value. Objectives of this study 1.
Collection of Mushrooms from district Kharan, Balochistan 2. Identification of Mushroom 3. Habitat and ecology of mushrooms Nutritional value of Mushrooms (Moisture content, Total Ash, Protein, Vitamin, Lipid, and Minerals, Fat).
Place of work Facilities are available in Department of Botany, Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Balochistan, CASVAB and PCSIR laboratories. Limitations of Study Summers are hot and dry, especially in the arid zones ofKharandistricts. The flora is diverse due to extreme variation in area and climatic conditions. District Kharan is a plain desert large area with limited vegetation. Water is available only at few spots where has mushrooms are found growing.
Therefore, collection of Mushrooms from district Kharan, Balochistan is a difficult job. Materials and Methods The moisture content was calculated as following equation Moisture () (initial weight – final weight) 100/weight of sample (HYPERLINK https//www.ncbi.
nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3755200/ l B19Raghuramulu et al., 2003).
Determination of total ash Examination of nutritional Values of Mushrooms Determination of total Protein (Lowry et al. 1951). For the detection of protein content from clean mushroom will be examine by multiplying nitrogen concentration of mushrooms. Oven dehydrated 2 gram sample and add the 5 gram copper sulphate and potassium sulphate will be use for protein determination. After that the sample will be put in the glassware by adding 30ml H2SO4 and will be placed in water bath for 5 to 6 hrs And then will be 250 ml of every taster placed in the soxlet device. Then 10ml N2OHand 10 ml Boric acid will be use in the beaker . and frenzied with flame at that movement the colour will be changed pink to green. Protein content (N14.
0079Va-Vb)6.2550100 W1000 N normality of HCl Va volume of HCl (utilize for titration) Vb Volume of HCl ( utilize for titration blank sample) W weight of sample( dry sample of mushroom) Determination of total lipid Total lipid became determined by means of slight changed approach of Folch et al. (1957). 5 gram of ground mushroom will be dissolved in 50 ml of chloroform methanol (2 1 v/v) then mixed thoroughly and will be allowed to stand for 3 days.
The mixture will be filtered and centrifuged at one thousand rpm through a table centrifuge gadget. The top layer of methanol will be removed through Pasteur pipette and chloroform will be evaporated by slow heating. This will give total crude lipid. Mineral analysis Total ash become taken for the evaluation of mineral contents. 2 ml of conc.
HNO3 changed into added to the ash and heated for 2 minutes. One drop of hydrogen peroxide became brought into the result. Then transferred right into a volumetric flask and general extent become made 50 ml via including de ionized distilled water. This will be into then used to analyze the contents of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), magnesium (mg), zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) by way of flame and graphite technique with atomic absorption spectrophotometer ( P. Varo at el. ,1980) Level of Fats in Mushroom 2 gram of samples can be dried in an oven, diethyl ether and soxhlet apparatus will be used.
The extraction will continued for about 8-12 hrs, then evaporate. After cooling in desiccators, extract weight could be measured And the proportion of fat can be calculated by following the technique given by (HYPERLINK https//www.ncbi.
nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3755200/ l B19Raghuramulu et al., 2003). Estimation of Vitamin Content By using Spectrophotometric methods and methods described in AOAC (2000). the amount of vitamin A, B1, B3, and C in the Mushroom will be determined.
Statistical Analysis One way ANOVA statistical test will be applied . REFERENCES Amin, S.M.R., C.
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