The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends strongly on the dromedary camels (Camelus dromedaries) and that kind of animals can live under hard circumstances and produces meat and milk, but it was reported from almost all ranching camel countries that a hazardous bacterial disease called mastitis. Mastitis can cause the lack of milk production. Also, it can affect humans seriously.
Mastitis can be described as the inflammatory reaction in parenchymal tissue of the mammary gland, and according to the studies it was divided into two types the clinical and the subclinical type (Radostits et al. 2007). In terms of livestock production, mastitis is considered a public health disease that is usually associated with suppressed milk production, altered milk quality, increased veterinary and labor costs, and increased culling rate (Sargeant et al.
1998; Guliye et al. 2002; Saleh & Faye, 2011; Muhammad et al. 2012; Samara et al. 2013).As a matter of fact is that the dromedary camels have been tamed in the South coast of the Arabian Peninsula in the region of present-day Yemen and Oman around 3000 B.C and then were inserted into North Africa and the Horn of Africa with the spice trade (Abdurahman OA, 2005).
Like other mammalians the she-camel has an udder, which is composed of four quarters, each separately constituted and supported by strong ligaments. Each quarter is composed of secretory tissues in which the milk is produced and milk is being transferred through the milk tubes or channels and reaches the milk cistern which is located above each teat, and as it is known the wandering desert people depend mainly on the camels’ milk to give them the ability of surviving without drinking water for more than a month especially in the regions that they graze their animals in or during the migratory routes (Al-Amin FM, 1979).The total population of dromedary is estimated to be around 1.6 million camels within the Arabian Peninsula, about 53% found in Saudi Arabia (source: FAO statistics, 2011). However, there is an important gap between the official number of camel heads according to FAO statistics (280,000 in 2009) and the national estimation published by the Ministry of Agriculture in Saudi Arabia (830,000 heads). Based on this last estimation, the camel population is 51% of the total tropical livestock unit (TLU) in the country. The camel population is increasing since the year 1961, passing from 80,000 to 280,000 in 2009; i.e.
approximately a growth of 5.2%/year. The importance of camel in Saudi Arabia is clearly underlined by these data (Gaili et al., 2000; Abdallah and Faye, 2012).The indigenous camels in Saudi Arabia are characterized into four unique breeds; they are Maghatier, Shu’l, Majahiem, and Soffer, in which Majahiem is viewed as more suitable for drain creation (Benkerroum N et al, 2003; Igual J M et al, 2001).
Different breeds with all around created udder are additionally recorded however with limited topographical circulation; they are Honor, Shale, So for, and Waddah (Mahathir) (International Dairy Federation, 1987).In the current study, the results show that we have a pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacterium, for example (Klebsiellapneumonia, SerratiaMarcescens, Micrococcus, Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Diphtheroid&Anthracoidspp, etc). Bacterial infections are the main drivers of mastitis in household creatures, but we still have less information about the etiology.
mastitis is still the most serious disease that infects cows around the world. (Nagpal ML et al, 1998; Organisms. J Microbiol). Camels are still multipurpose creatures that mostly kept to figurative, which is the main aim of breading them is the transit still (Abdurahman OA, 2005).
The objective of this study is to detect and identify microbes in five breeds of camels’ udder microbiota using both biochemical and modern technique 16s rRNA gene analysis. Samples were analyzed aerobically and anaerobically to isolate the bacterial strains. The main purpose of this study is to help improve the future studies and discover new therapies of the mastitis of the dromedary camel.