The maxillofacial area is anatomically the most exposed part of the body, being more susceptible to injuries. 1These injuries frequently result in varying degree of disfigurement, functional deficit and psychological problems. 2 The sheer pace of modern life with its high speed travels as well as an increasingly violent and intolerant society has made facial trauma a form of social disease to which no one is immune. 3 Mandibular fractures are amongst the common facial injuries treated in a trauma center, accounting for 36 to 59 % of all facial fractures. 4 Young men are more predisposed to trauma in the second and third decades of life owing to the fact that they frequently engage in outdoor and high risk activities.
5 The most favorable sites of fractures (in descending order) in the mandible are the parasymphysis, body, angle, condylar region, symphysis and coronoid process. 6The etiologies of mandibular fractures, incidence and patterns tend to vary with geographic region, socioeconomic status, culture, environmental and technologic factors. Therefore the main cause for mandibular fractures described in literature remains inconsistent. 7 Road traffic accident (RTA) has been reported as the leading etiology in the developing nations, while incidence due to personal violence is more in developed countries.
8,9Since the last few decades, open reduction & internal fixation (ORIF) using titanium miniplates has become the treatment of choice whenever possible. This has resulted in improved oral hygiene, mouth opening, better speech and patient’s earlier return to function and work. Also, a decreased preference and decline has been recorded in the use of wire osteosynthesis and closed reduction and indirect fixation (CRIF) techniques. 10,11Over the years, the epidemiology of mandibular fractures keeps changing and new trends in etiology, pattern of presentation and management are constantly evolving. 12 This, therefore, necessitates a constant appraisal of these fractures injuries in order to keep abreast with recent developments and changing pattern of their management.The objective of current study was to evaluate the etiological factors, patterns of presentation, frequency and different treatment modalities for mandibular fractures in patients treated at Lahore Medical and Dental College/Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital (LMDC/GTTH). This study, in turn, will help the health care providers in a clearer understanding of the different etiological factors involved and pattern of mandibular fractures while managing these injuries.
The study may also provide circumstantial evidence for the recommendation of possible preventive measures and enforcement of seat belt legislation.