The study is about the relationship between English reading proficiency and performance on mathematics and science assessments and if it is affected if whether the student came from and English background or a non-english background. The researchers utilized the PISA 2009 measures, samples, language groups, differential item functioning analyses, score scale creation and analyses of covariance as their methods of gathering data from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. According to the study, ELB students either performed better than NELB students or performed at the same level. However, with an adjustment in the statistics for reading proficiency the score difference between the groups remained in the US only where the differences with the two groups became significant with higher scores for NELB in Canada for Mathematics.
As for science, the differences between ELB and NELB remained significant only in Australia. Ultimately, the researchers concluded that there is a strong correlation between reading proficiency and performance on mathematics and science assessments with reading proficiency being accountable for large proportions of variance with 43% on mathematics and 79% on science scores.